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T SfjT 



GOLD'S ELECTRIC HEATERS 

Improved 

Construction. 
Highest Efficiency. 
Simple and Compact. 
Greatest Economy. 

Acknowledged every- 
where without an equal. 

Write for particulars. 

Gold Street Car 

Front View of Gold's Improved Three-Degree Panel HoQ + inn Pn 
Electric Heater. ntJcUlliy UU. 

Frankfort and Cliff Sts., NEW YORK. 658 Rookery, CHICAGO. 




Frogs, Switches, Crossings, 
Curves, Switch Stands, Etc. 
Automatic Electric Switches. 
Hard Steel Centres a Specialty 



SPECIAL TRACK 
WORK OF 
EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

NEW YORK SWITCH & 
CROSSING COMPANY, * 



MANUFACTURERS 
ENGINEERS AND 
CONTRACTORS, 



Office and Works? 

HOBOKEN, N. J- 

Telephone, 259 Hoboken* 




FIRE, FROST, WATER AND ACID PROOF. 
THE BEST INSULATION FOR CONTACT RAILS. 

Reconstructed Granite Co. 

•m 14 DEY STREET, NEW YORK, 



* 
* 

J 

* 
* 






* 
* 

* 

! 

* 

t, 



NOISELESS 



PINIONS 



ARE NOW PRACTICALLY A NECESSITY. 
THE PUBLIC DEMANDS THEM. 

WE MAKE THE ONLY NOISELESS PINIONS 
WHICH ARE 

DURABLE 

THEY ARE USED BY MORE THAN 

200 ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. 




THE 



New Process Raw Hide Co, 

Patentees and Sole Manufacturers, 

SYRACUSE, N- Y*, U. S. A. 

6 



f 

* 

-I- 



George B. Carey, 

1 Broadway, New York. 



5 



RAILS, CARS, 

EQUIPMENT 
AND SUPPLIES 



NEW AND SECOND HAND, 
OF EVERY DESCRIPTION 

FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND 

OPERATION OF ELECTRIC 

RAILROADS. 

Relaying Rails of all Weights; 

Spikes, Bolts and Nuts, Frogs, 

Switches and Special Work. 



><~><m$n.*~*<m$m>*<m$^^^ 



HALE & KILBURN 
"WALKOVER" SEATS 

Latest for Electric Cars 

Advantages over 
all others : 

Two inches more 
Sitting Space. 

Free Space for Lug- 
gage. 

Best Corner Grip 
Handle. 

Unequalled Spring 
Construction. 




No. 80^, in Rattan. Also made in Plush, Carpet or Wood. 

Also makers of the best Longitudinal Spring Seating, either 

Spring-Edge or Non-Spring-Edge, covered in Rattan, 

Plush or Carpet. 

Most Durable in Existence. 

Photographs, Prices and all Information on Application. 

Jhe [{ale $ J(ilburn M anufacturing Qo± 

Philadelphia. New York. Chicago. Richmond. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS. 



PAGE 

Abendroth & Root Mfg. Co. , New York 2, 3 

Alphons Custodus Chimney Construction Co., The, New York 14 

American Car Sprinkler Co., Inc., The, Worcester, Mass 45 

American Stoker Co., The, New York 84, 35 

American Street Railway Pavirjg and Improvement Co., The, Springfield, 

Mass 47 

American Vitrified Conduit Co., The, New York 14 

Anderson, The Albert & J. M., Mfg. Co., Boston, Mass 30 

Ansonia Brass Co., The, Ansonia, Conn 26 

Ball & Wood Co., The, New York Inside front cover 

Barschall Impregnating Co., New York 24 

Brady Brass Co., Jersey City, N.J 29 

Brixey, W. R., New York 39 

Brown, Harold P., New York 18 

Carey, Geo. H., New York 7 

Cling-Surf ace Mfg. Co., The, Buffalo, N. Y 52, 53 

Compressed Air Co., The, New York 46 

Consolidated Car Fender Co., The, Providence, R. I ..48, 49 

Continuous Rail Joint Co. of America, The, Newark, N. J 30 

Cox, Justice, Jr. & Co., Ltd., Philadelphia, Pa 29 

Cutter Co., The, Philadelphia, Pa 19 

Darlington Electric Fountain & Supply Co., The, Philadelphia, Pa 44 

Edison-Johnson Electrical Mfg. Co., The, New York. 15 

Field, Arthur W., Boston, Mass 16 

Fowler & Roberts Mfg. Co., New York „ 25 

Frost Veneer Seating Co., New York.... .................. — , 27 

General Electric Co., Schenectady, N. Y 20, 21 

Gold Street Car Heating Co., New York. 5 

Graphite Lubricating Co., Bound Brook, N.J 4 

Green Fuel Economizer Co., Matteawan, N. Y 41 

Ham Sand Box Co., Troy, N. Y 54 

Hale & Rilburn Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa 8 

Homer Commutator Co., The, Cleveland, O 18 

Industrial Water Co., New York 1 

Johns, H. W. Mfg. Co., The, New York , 38 

Keasbey, Robt. A., New York 28 

9 



PAGE 

Lord, George W., Philadelphia, Pa 23. 

Maeallen, W. T. C. Co., The, Boston, Mass 16 

McCaffrey, Thos., Boston, Mass. .*. 17 

Magann, G. P., Air Brake Co., The, Detroit, Mich 22 

Mead, John A. Mfg. Co., The, New York 37 

New Process Kaw Hide Co., The, Syracuse, N. Y 6 

New York Switch & Crossing Co., The, Hoboken, N. J 5 

Ohio Brass Co., The, Mansfield, O 12 

Okonite Co., The, Libert}-, N. Y 13 

Parsell & Weed, New York 27 

Pierce, Frank M., Engineering Co., New York Inside back cover 

Reconstructed Granite Co.. The, New York 5 

Pioeblings, John A., Sons Co., Trenton, N. J 40 

Rossiter, McGovern & Co., New York 42, 43 

Schaffef, J. T. Mfg. Co., The. Rochester, N. Y 36 

Sheaf & Jaastad, Boston, Mass 18 

Speer Carbon Co., St. Marys, Pa 18 

Stephenson, John, Co., The, Elizabeth, N. J 50, 51 

Stewart Heater Co., The, Buffalo, N. Y 32, 33 

Taunton Locomotive Mfg. Co., The, Taunton, Mass 41 

Weber Railway Joint Mfg. Co., New York 28 

Wendell & MacDuffie, New York 41 

Weston Electrical Instrument Co.. Waverly Park, N. J 11 

Wharton, Wm. Jr., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa 29 

White, J. G., &Co., New York 15 



STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL 

The " Street Railway Journal " is the leading organ 
and exponent of the street railway industry of the world. 
Its articles and editorials cover in the most thorough and 
practical manner every department of electric railway 
organization, equipment and maintenance. It deals broad- 
ly with all questions of operating policy and financial man- 
agement, as well as with the technical details of construc- 
tion and operation. It circulates in every country of the 
world and is_ everywhere recognized as the standard 
authority upon electric railway practice. Subscription 
rate: American Edition (weekly), $4.00 per year; Inter- 
national Edition (monthly), $6.00 per year. Sample copies 
sent on application. 

STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL 

130 Liberty Street, New York. 



WF.STON Electrical 
Instrument Company, 

114=120 William St., 
WAVERLY PARK, N. J., U. S. A. 




: 

Weston Standard Portable Direct Reading Voltmeter. ' 



Oleston Standard Portable Direct Reading 

VOLTMETERS, MILLIYOLTMETERS, 

YOLTAMMETERS, AMMETERS, MILLIAMMETERS 

GROUND DETECTORS and CIRCUIT TESTERS, 

OHMMETERS, 

PORTABLE GALVANOMETERS. 



Our Portable Instruments are recognized as The 
Standard the world over. The Semi=PortabIe 
Laboratory Standards are still better <| 

Our Station Voltmeters and Ammeters are 

unsurpassed in point of extreme accuracy and low- 
est consumption of energy. 

BERLIN, European Weston Electrical Instrument Co 

88 Ritterstrasse. ,' 

LONDON, Elliott Bros., 101 St. Martins Lane. 

II 






TN THE OVERHEAD EQUIPMENT of electric roads 
only those materials should be selected which have 

been found, after extensive use, to be of the best 
quality and most suitable to the work in hand, on account 
of the severe usage to which these are subjected in prac- 
tice. Our line of these appliances is most complete, em- 
bracing an endless variety of TROLLEY WIRE HANG- 
ERS, EARS, CLAMPS, SECTION INSULATORS, 
CROSS-OVERS, SPLICERS, etc., etc., and are adapted 
to any climate and all conditions of service. 
& & Jt 

For the construction of Feeder Lines a large selection 
of INSULATORS, INSULATOR PINS, WOOD AND 
IRON SIDE BRACKETS, FEEDER WIRE SPLI- 
CERS, etc., etc., is offered. 

Jm «£* (£E 

For Track Bonding we have a number of special bond- 
ing devices, such as STEEL AND COPPER BONDING 
CAPS, COPPER BONDING SLEEVES, etc., etc., by 
means of which the rail bonding can be done in a most 
effective manner and at a minimum cost. 
«£* «J* «J* 

Our Illustrated Catalogue describes fully all of the 
above articles, and should be in the hands of EVERY 
STREET RAILWAY MAN. 

THE OHIO ^BRAST COMPANY, 

Manufacturers of Electric Railway Supplies, 
Mansfield, Ohio, U. S. A. 




12 



Willard L. Candee, (.Mnna^rtj w - H - Hodgins, Secretary. 

H. Durant Cheever, J Jaau<tsere * Geo. T. Manson, Gen'l Supt. 




TRADE MARK . 



the STANDARD for 

RUBBER INSULATION 

«* ■ 
OKONITE FEEDER WIRES 

FRICTION DUCK 

OKONITE AND MANSON TAPES 

FOR ALL RAILROAD WORK 
THE BEST 



The OKONITE CO., Ltd 

253 BROADWAY 
NEW YORK 




Perforated Radial Brick 

CHIMNEYS 



4 For Boiler and Furnace 



Work, etc. 



Brick 



Alterations and Repairs on all kinds of Chimneys* 
Catalogue and Estimates on Request* 

ALPHONS CUSTODIS 
Chimney Construction Co. 

Bennett Building, NEW YORK. 

AflERICAN VITRIFIED 

CONDUIT COMPANY 

MAKERS OF 

Vitrified 
Underground Conduits 

%£& tp* t^* 

CONTRACTORS FOR 

Complete Installations 
of Conduit Systems. 

39-4J CORTLANDT STREET. NEW YORK. 

14 




J. G. WHITE & COMPANY 

29 Broadway, New York 

London; J. G. WHITE & CO., Ltd., 

23A College Hill, Cannon Street. 

Electric railways and 
electric power plants 



Designed arid Built. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAYS, POWER and LIGHT 
ENTERPRISES FINANCED. 



EXAMINATIONS AND REPORTS MADE FOR FINANCIAL 
INSTITUTIONS AND INVESTORS. 



Economy 
Trolley 



Decreased 
Friction on 
Account of 
Ball Bearings 
Large Wheel 
And 

Consequent 
Longer Life 



Self Lubricating 
Harp and Wheel 



Lateral 
Movement 
Of Wheel 
Saves Wheel 
And Wire on 
Rounding 
Curves, and 
Prevents 
Jumping off 




Edison- Johnson Electrical Mfg. Co. 

50 BROADWAY. NEW YORK. 

15 



ARTHUR W. HELD 

Street Railway Specialties 

53 STATE STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 

TERRITORIAL SELLING AGENT FOR 

AMEKICAN CAR COMPANY, 

PECKHAM TRUCK MFG. COMPANY, 
W. S. SILVER SPRING COMPANY, 

ROTARY SNOW PLOW COMPANY, 

PRICE FRICTION BRAKE COMPANY 

TRACK TOOLS AND 
GENERAL RAILROAD SUPPLIES. 

Headlights, both Oil and Electric ; Track Lanterns; Crow, 
Claw, Pick and Tamping Bars; Pickaxes, Mattocks and Handles; 
Shovels and Scoops; Brooms, Track Chissels, Kail Tongs, Track 
"Wrenches, Track Gauges, Track Jacks, Track Drills, Sand Boxes, 
Gears, Pinions, Elliptic Springs, Spiral Springs, Brake Shoes, 
Brake Handles, Track Scrapers, Car Fenders, Trolley "Wheels 
and Harps; Steel Iron and Bronze Castings; Foot Gongs, Signal 
Bells, Fare Registers, Steel-Tired Car "Wheels, Chilled-Iron Car 
"Wheels, Steel, Cold-Rolled and Hammered Iron Axles, Etc., Etc. 



W, T. C MACALLEN CO. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY 
MATERIAL, 

338 Congress Street, 

BOSTON, MASS., 
U. 5. A. 

16 



The "Boston 



*t ALL 
STEEL 



Bracket 



is so fastened to the pole that it will hold 

the trolley wire when it breaks 

between poles. 

It is flexible, without springs or cushions. 

It requires no span wire. 

It works with either upper or lower sup- 
port. 

It has no casting and is all structural steel. 

It is adjustable for any gauge or elevation. 

It cannot be broken from the pole. 

It needs no anchoring. 

It is fastened by a bolt through the pole. 

It prevents danger from breaking of trolley 
wire. 



For further information apply to 

THOHAS HcCAFFREY, 27 KILBY 3 SS^i, 

DEALER IN 

LUMBER, TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE POLES, 
PILING AND RAILROAD TIES. 

— STREET RAILROAD WORK A SPECIALTY. 




riAss. 



15he Street 
R.oa.dbed 



By MASON D. PRATT 
....and C. A. ALDEN 



An essential feature of a well-equipped street railway is a good 
track, and in this book are brought together and illustrated the 
various modern types of track material and methods of construc- 
tion, with their good and bad features indicated. The authors are 
prominent engineers and are well equipped to treat of the subjects 
of which they write. All the various features of street railway 
roadbed construction are carefully described, with illustrations 
where necessary, the latter including sections of rail, of roadbed, 
views of special joints, diagrams, etc. Rules and tables are also 
given for running curves, laying out crossings, turnouts, etc. 

1 35 Pages, l5y Illustrations. 'Pzice, $2.oo. 

PUBLISHED BT THE 

Street Railway Publishing Co. 

120 Liberty Street, Mew York. 



17 



IF YOUR COMMUTATORS ARE AS GOOD AS OURS, 
YOU PAY MORE FOR THEM. 

The Homer Commutator Co., 

CLEVELAND, OHIO. 

ALL TYPES OF RAILWAY MOTOR AND GENERATOR 

COMMUTATORS DUPLICATED, REFILLED, 

ASSEMBLED AND REPAIRED. 

SPECIAL COMMUTATORS MADE TO ORDER. 

Mica Rings, Commutator Bars, 
Armature Coils. Bearings, Gears, Pinions. 

If you are looking for the BEST, TRY the 

SPEER SELF-LUBRICATING MOTOR BRUSHES 

Trial Samples Sent on Request. 

5PEER CARBON COMPANY, St. Marys, Pa. 



SHEAFF & JAASTAD, 

ENGINEERS, 

85 WATER ST., BOSTON, MASS. 



TESTS BY GOVERNMENT EXPERTS PROVE 
THAT ONE No. 4/0 

Edison=Brown Plastic 
Copper Rail Bond 

HAS GREATER CONDUCTIVITY THAN 
FIVE No. 4/0 FLEXIBLE COPPER BONDS. 

QOOD AS NEW AFTER FIVE YEARS' 
SERVICE. 

HAROLD P. BROWN, 

120 Liberty Street, - - NEW YORK. 

18 



Wwwww^w^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^v ^^w 



I-T-E 



Laminated 
Edgewise 





ESPECIALLY DESIGNED FOR 

HEAVY STREET RAILWAY CIRCUITS 




This type of instrument is now in use on a number of the 
most important Switchboards in this country and abroad. 

An illustrated price list, showing front and side views of 
the Circuit Breaker, both open and closed, will be sent on 
application. 

THE CUTTER CO. 



i9th & Hamilton Streets 
PHILADELPHIA 



1 20 Liberty Street 
NEW YORK 



m.. 



R. W. BLACKWELL & CO., Ltd., 59 City Road, E. C, LONDON 



19 



GENERAL ELECTRIC 
COMPANY'S. ^ 

RAILWAY APPARATUS 



AND SUPPLIES 




For the Power House and Sub Station, 


Ammeters 


Lamps, Arc, Incandescent 




Alternating Current Genera- 


Lightning Arresters 




tors, all sizes, belted and 


Oil Switches 




direct connected 


Pedestal Switches 




Automatic Circuit Breakers 


Potential Plug and Receptacle 


' 


Cables, all kinds 


Pilot Lamp Fixtures 


; 


Cable Terminals 


Repair Parts for Generators 




Direct Current Generators, 


Rheostats 




all sizes, belted and di- 


Rotary Converters 




rect connected 


Sockets and Receptacles 




Exciter Sets 


Splicing Gum 




Expulsion Fuse Boxes 


Switchboard Panels 




Floor Insulators 


Transformers 




Friction Tape 


Voltmeters 




Fuses 


Voltmeter Switches < 




Ground Detectors 


Wall Insulators 1 




Insulators 


Wattmeter, Recording and 




Insulator Racks 


Indicating i 




Instruments of all kinds 


Wire, Insulated and Bare j 




For the Line 




Braces 


Feeder Clamps J 




Brackets 


Feeder Ears | 




Cables 


Fork Bolt j 




Ceiling Ears 


Friction Tape I 




Channel Pins 


Fuses \ 




Cross Arms 


Grooved Trolley Wire j 




Crossings 


Hauling Clamp for Wire ■ 




Ears 


Incandescent Lamps j 




Feeder, Wire and Cable 


Insulators \ 





20 



hGEN^ALJH^ECTTRiq 


! COMPANY'S,--^ | 


RAILWAY 


APPARATUS 


i AND SUPPLIES 


For the Line (Con*) < 


; Lamps, Arc, Incandescent 


Strain Ears < 


Lightning Arresters 


Strain Insulators < 


Mining Suspensions 


Suspensions < 


Pins 


Third Rail Insulators \ 


Section Insulators 


Tighteners for Wire < 


Section Switch Boxes 


Tongs for Cap and Cone < 


Soldering Copper 


Trolley Wire s 


Splicing Sleeves 


Turn Buckles 5 


For the Car \ 


Automatic Circuit Breakers 


Lightning Arresters s 


Cable Terminals 


Motor Switches 5 


Car Recording Wattmeters 


Pinions ? 


Car Wiring Cables 


Railway Motors, all sizes and £ 


Cleats, Wood, Brass 


gauges < 


Contact Plows 


Repair Parts for Motors I 


Contact Shoes 


Resistance Boxes 5 


Controllers for single, double 


Rheostats 5 


and four motor equipment, 


Sockets I 


with and without electric 


Splicing Gum \ 


brakes 


Steel Gears S 


Electric Brakes 


Switch and Fuse Boxes > 


Friction Tape 


Third Rail Shoes > 


Fuse Boxes 


Tow Car Couplers < 


Fuses 


Trolley Poles, Wheels, Forks, s 


Incandescent Lamps 


Bases. S 


Lamp Clusters 





GENERAL OFFICE: 
SCHENECTADY, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Sales Offices in all Large Qties* 



The G. P. Magann Storage 
Air Brake System 

was given the First Place of Merit over all other 
air brakes in the recent competitive tests held by 
the Railroad Commissioners of the State of 
New York. 



The ONLY STORAGE AIR BRAKE 
SYSTEM Adapted to Electric Cars 




DIAGRAM OF MAGANN STORAGE AIR BRAKE SYSTEM. 

Recommended by every Company using it. In more than 
three years of operating not one dollar of expenditure for 
maintenance of brake system proper, nor one word of complaint. 

Always acts when desired and affords instantaneous release. 
Adapted to any City or Suburban Service. 

Operated more cheaply than individual car compressor 
system and without any noise. 

Provision made for 300 to 600 stops, according to require- 
ments of service — holds under all conditions. 

Initial cost moderate, maintenance not one dollar. 

Patented in the United States and Foreign Countries. 
Send for Catalogue. 



The G. P. Magann Air Brake Co, 

Fourth and Porter Sts., DETROIT, fllCH. 



22 



I LORD'S I 

* £ 



LORD'S 
I BOILER I 

COMPOUNDS 



I COMPOUNDS | 

* * 

* are used and endorsed in every steam- * 
t using district throughout the civilized $ 
21 world. 2 

* The genuine formulas are * 

* Mf 

* made only by £ 

IQEO. W. LORD,! 

2238 to 2250 N. Ninth St. | 

| Philadelphia, Pa § 

* Or 

* ' tt 

$ Send for book on water contamina- & 

* * 

* tion and other valuable information to | 

* $ 
$ steam users. * 

* 3 

23 



•J*, %t <|» f^» fj<i fjji rfc r%< rj» f|* rfc rfc <£;> r£» <^< rfc Jfc'fc «J? <£? •%> »J? 4? 4? 4? 4? 4? ^4? 4? ^4? 4? 4? 4? 4? "i* 4? 4? 'J? "J? »¥• 

I + 

1 WOOD PRESERVING ! 



* 



* 



I (HASSELMANN SYSTEM) 

! ! 

2 £ 

! * 

5 By our system of wood preservation you obtain * 

<* 3 to 4 times the natural life of wood. % 

* It is the only method that insures thorough, * 
^ complete and even penetration, even to the core. J 
4« The preservative agents chemically combine * 

* with the woody fibre, becomes insoluble, and * 
"t* ^* 
J cannot be washed out by the action of rain or £ 

•?* 4* 

4* water. X 

* . ? 

+ Wood after treatment retains its natural color * 

£ * 

J and is free from odor, while it is made harder * 

4< and tougher and its inflammability is consider- % 

*$* * 

■* ably reduced. * 

if! 

T Better and cheaper than Creosote, Chloride of J 

* Zinc, Kyanizing, or any other treatment. * 

* t 
% Write for ± 

± I 

I " TREATISE ON WOOD PRESERVATION" | 

* * 

I Barschall Impregnating Company I 

± 31 NASSAU STREET £ 

I * 

I NEW YORK CITY * 

2 4 



I Fowler & Robert Mfg. Co .1 

X Office, J 49 Broadway, New York. $ 

Works, 1263 Atlantic Ave, Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Manufacturers and Dealers in 



GENERAL 
RAILWAY SUPPLIES 

INCLUDING 

The 44 L. &F/ T Improved Fare Register 



GEAR CASINGS, AXLE AND JOURNAL BEARINGS 

CHECK PLATES, For All Style Trucks 

BRAKE SHOES, Chilled or Hardened 

REPAIR PARTS FOR L. & F. ELECTRIC SNOW SWEEPERS 

AND CAR HEATERS 
STEEL GONGS, SIGNAL BELLS, CAR TRIMMINGS, ETC. 
SPECIAL TRACK WORK 
TEE AND GIRDER RAIL, FROGS 

SWITCHES, SWITCH STANDS, RAIL BENDERS, ETC. 
STEEL SPRINGS FOR TRUCKS 
TROLLEY WHEELS AND HARPS 

♦ SHAFTS, TROLLEY LINE EARS, SPLICING SLEEVES 

♦ ARMATURE BEARINGS For Westinghouse, Gen'l Electric, ♦ 

♦ Steel Motor Co. ♦ 
4. COMMUTATORS, DROP FORGED COMMUTATOR BARS ♦ 



I 



WESTINGHOUSE AND GENERAL ELECTRIC CANOPY 
SWITCHES, HANDLES, FUSE BOXES, BRUSH HOLD- 
♦ ERS, ARMATURE SHAFT SLEEVES 

% Thistle Brand Metallic Paints for Iron and Wood % 
X Insulating Paint - - Graphite Paint X 



ELECTRICAL SUPPLIES: 



25 



THE ANSONIA 
BRASS AND COPPER CO. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

Bare and Insulated 
Copper Wire and Cable, 

for 

TROLLEY ROADS AND 
ELECTRIC LIGHTING -PLANTS, 



DRAWN COPPER BARS FOR 
CENTRAL STATION WORK. 



BRASS AND COPPER SHEETS, TUBES, &C, 



TOBIN BRONZE RODS, 

. FOR PUMP PISTON RODS AND 
YACHT SHAFTING. 



No. 99 JOHN STREET, 

NEW YORK. 



S6 



practical 
| Electric Railway 

Hand Book 

i , ... 

■"•■■-■ 

BY 

ALBERT B. HERRICK 

Consulting Electric Railway Engineer 



NEW YORK: 

STREET RAILWAY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
120 Liberty Street 



\<A Vi\'y 



THE LIBRARY OF 

CONGRESS, 
Two Comis RtctirCQ 

AUG. 28 1901 

COPVRMHT CNTRV 

CLASS G~XX* H: 

copy a 









Copyright, 1901 

by 

Street Railway Publishing Company 






/ y 



A 



PREFACE. 



Every Street Railway Engineer requires data pertaining to his 
particular line of business, consisting of engineering facts, figures 
and dimensions. The author's present attempt is to collect together 
under one cover all such data as* 'is 'directly applicable in the con- 
struction, testing or operation. of electric railway systems, s*howing 
such appliances, structures and methods as have been adopted in 
practice by street railways in the United States. The author has 
made free use of all sources of technical information, especially 
the technical press and the works of leading writers, credit being 
given in every case. 

No effort has been spared to make the work as free from errors 
as possible. The use of mathematics and formulas has been 
limited as far as possible so as to make the book useful to the great 
majority of practical workers, and to bring it down to as condensed 
a volume as possible. Many topics had to be reduced to their 
simplest terms, omitting data which would be of scientific interest 
to the expert. 

The matter has been largely selected from data collected and 
compiled during the past twenty years by the author, which he 
has found useful in his engineering work, it being abridged and 
brought up-to-date. 

It is the object of the author to make this handbook of value 
to engineers, operators and employees of street railways ; and any 
corrections or new data and suggestions, which will assist him in 
improving and make further editions more valuable to co-laborers 
in this field, will be gratefully received. 

ALBERT B. HERRICK, 

August i, 1901. 



CONTENTS. 



SECTION I.-GENERAL TABLES. 

PAGE 

Tables of weights and measures, surveyor's measures, measure of surface, 
solid or cubic measure, liquid measure, board and timber measure, 
mensuration, areas and volumes of geometrical forms, areas and cir- 
cumferences of circles, weights of earth, ores, stones, miscellaneous 
material. Properties of air, gas and steam 1 to 21 



SECTION II.— TESTING. 

The ampere, the ohm, the volt, Ohm's law, electro-motive force, calibrating 
instruments, resistance measurements, testing instruments, power 
measurements, bond measurements, electrolysis tests, location of 
grounds and leaks, equalization of compound generators, equalization 
of motors, equipment tests, motor tests, acceleration tests, repair shop 
tests, pole testing, cement testing, tests for insulators, power station 
tests . . 22 to 85 

SECTION III.— THE TRACK. 

Location of track, leveling, estimating, specifications for road bed, specifi- 
cations for exposed track, track construction data, form, size, composi- 
tion and weights of rails, durability and spacing of ties, rail chairs and 
joints, special work, guard rails, methods of laying out spirals and 
simple curves, trestle work and timber strengths, car-house track, cost 
of different types of paving 86 to 145 

SECTION IV.— THE POWER STATION. 

Power station: location, foundations for, station wall, weights and forms 
of roofs, sustaining strength ol floors, construction of floors. Power 
stations : types and designs, insurance rules for, internal foundations. 
Boilers and boiler room; coal, its properties and steaming values; pro- 
portions and types, weight and dimensions of boilers, character of boiler 
water, methods of feeding water to boilers, draft arrangements for 
boilers. The steam engine: dimension of, for raiiway work, methods 
of determining size of units, size of engine parts, indicator and indi- 
cator cards, tables for determining hp. of engine, steam piping, method 
of figuring and general designs for, steam loop, size and weight of 
wrought iron pipe, exhaust heads, heaters, condensers. Gas engines 
and water wheels. Railway generators: types and sizes, polyphase 
methods of connection and transmission, belt and rope power trans- 
mission, switchboard and lightning arresters . - . . 146 to 266 



vi CONTENTS. 

SECTION V.— THE LINE. 

PAGE 
Methods of transmission for railway work; feeders, size and length and 
method of proportioning, tables and dimensions of feeders, splicing 
and insulating feeders, data on wood and iron poles, tables and dimen- 
sions, pole setting and fittings, side arms and span wire insulator 
methods of overhead trolley construction, tables of and size of trolley 
wire, ground return feeders, bonds and bonding, data on electrolysis . 267 to 313 

SECTION VI.— THE CAR HOUSE. 

The car house and its construction, transfer tables, floors, heating and 

lighting, care of cars „ 314 to 317 

SECTION VII.— THE REPAIR SHOP, 

General arrangement of the repair shop, method of handling car bodies, 
tools for fitting up repair shop, armature stands, bake ovens, method 
of pit construction . 318 to 322 

SECTION VIII.— THE EQUIPMENT. 

Equipment, its construction, weights, dimensions, sizes and specification for 
the car body, nomenclature for different car body parts, splicing car 
bodies, construction and type of trucks, the street car motor, data on 
different types of motors, combinations made by the controller, 
dimensions and sizes of controllers, car-wiring, instructions to the 
motorman, care of the motor, instructions for the inspector . 323 to 371 

SECTION IX.— THE OPERATION. 

Data used in the operation of roads on speeds, methods of laying out 
schedules, signal and safety systems, examinations for motormen, 
piece work methods of repair, cost of power .... 372 to 380 

APPENDIX I.— STORAGE BATTERIES AND BOOSTERS. 

The storage battery and its operation on street railway, methods of 
regulation, types, sizes and care of batteries, the booster and the 
dynamo as a booster 381 to 389 

APPENDIX II.— UNDERGROUND CONDUITS. 

Cable conduits and their construction, man-holes, location and design, 
properties of conductors in conduits. Underground conduit roads, 
method of construction and designs, third rail systems . . 390 to 398 



SECTION I.-GENERAL TABLES, 



TABLES OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



MEASURES OF LENGTH. 





03 

V 





c3 

S-i 


, -eg 

OCL, 


O 

6 


0) 

fs 

"el 

02 


c3 

03 



b£ 

03 

a) 


03 

feu 
3 


llnch 


1 

12 

36 

198 

7,920 

63,360 


.0833 
1 
3 

1616 

660 

5,280 

15,840 

3.2b08 


.027" 
.333 

1 

220 

1,760 

5.280 

1.0936 


.00505 

.0606 

.1818 

1 

40 

320 

960 

.1988 










IFoot 


.001515 
.000568 
.025 

1 

8 

24 

.004971 








lYard 






.91440 
5.0292 
201.16 


1 Rod, Pole or Perch 

1 Furlong 


.003125 

.125 

1 
3 

0006214 


.001041 
.0467 
.333 


1 Statute Mile 


I League 


1609.3 


1 French Meter 


39.37 


1 




...|... 



1 Mil equals one thousandth of an inch. 1 Palm equals three inches. 1 Hand 
equals four inches. 1 Span equals nine inches. 1 Military Pace equals 2% feet. 
1 Fathom equals 6 feet. Geographical Mile fixed by U. S. at 6,080 feet, or 2,026 
yards. 1 Degree of great circle of the earth, 69.77 statute miles. 



SURVEYOR'S MEASURE—MEASURE OF SURFACE. 





Inches 
in a 


Links 
in a 


Chains 
in a 


Furlongs 
in a 


Miles 
in a 


Inch 


1 

7.92 

792 

7,920 

63,360 


.1262 

1 

100 

1,000 
8,000 


.001262 

.01 

1 
10 
80 


.0001262 

.001 

.10 

1 

8 




Link 


.000125 

.0125 

.125 


Chain (Gunther's) 

Furlong 


Mile 




1 



10 Square Chains equal 1 Acre. 1 Acre equals a square whose side is 208.71 feet 
long or 69.57 yards long. - A strip 1 chain wide runs 8 acres per mile. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



SQUARE MEASURE 


—MEASURES < 


OF SURFACE. 






Sq. 

Inches 

in a 


Sq. 
Feet 
in a 


Sq. 
Yards 
in a 


Sq. Rods 

P. or P. 

in a 


Rods 
in a 


Acres 
in a 


Sq. 
Miles 
in a 


ISq. Inch 

1 Sq. Foot 

ISq. Yard 

1 Sq. Hod, Pole 

or Perch 

lEood 


1 

144 

1,269 

39,204 
1,568,160 
6,272,640 


.006944 

1 
9 

227.25 
10,890 
43,560 

27,878,400 


.000771 

.11111 

1 

30.25 

1,210 

4,840 

3,097,600 


.0000255 
.0036^3 
.033059 

1 

40 

160 

102,400 


.0000918 
.000626 

.025 

1 
4 

2,560 


.0002066 

.00625 
.25 

1 
640 


.0000097 

.00039 

.0015535 


ISq. Mile 


1 



1 square inch equals 1.2732 circular inches. One circular inch is the area of a 
circle one inch in diameter having 0.7854 square inches. A circular mil is the area 
of a circle one thousandth of an inch in diameter. 1,000,000 circular mils equals 
one circular inch; 1 square inch equals 1,273,239 circular mils. 



10.764 square feet I 
1.196 square yards | 
1 square yard 
1 square foot 
.155 square inches 
1 square inch 
.00155 square inches 
1 square inch 



1 square inch = o*>-* "i 110 

1 are = 1 square decameter = 1076.41 square feet. 
1 hectare = 100 ares = 107,641 square feet, 2.4711 acres. 
1 square killometer = .386109 square miles, 247.11 acres. 



1 square meter = 1 centiare, 

.836 square meter. 
.0929 square meter. 
1 square centimeter. 
6.452 square centimeters. 
1 square milimeter. 
645.2 square milimeters. 



SOLID OR CUBIC MEASURE. 

Measure of Volume. 





Cubic 
Inches in a 


Cubic 

Feet in a " 


Cubic 
Yards in a 




1 

1,728 
49,656 


.000578 

1 

57 


.0000214 




.037037 




1 







1 Cord of Wood = a pile 4x4x8 feet = 128 cubic feet. 1 Perch of Masonry 
= 16 J^ xl^xl foot = 24% cubic feet. 1 U. S. standard bushel is a cylinder with 
a diameter of 18^ inches and 8 inches deep, containing 2150.42 cubic inches, 1.2445 
cubic feet. This is known as a struck bushel. A heaped bushel contains 1J4 
struck bushels. The capacity of a cylinder in U. S. bushels = square of diameter 
in inches multiplied by height in inches and multiplied by .0003652. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HaivD BOOK. 



UQUH> MEASURE. 





OB 

s 


a? 


aJ 
u 

a 



©> 


m 
O 

o 


DO 


DO 

s 

Eh 


to 

£ 

o 


00 

§ 
.a 

o 

=1 
Pi 


1 
a 

O 


lGill 


1 

4 

8 

32 

1,008 


.25 

1 
2 

8 
252 
336 
504 
672 
1,008 


.125 

.50 

1 

4 
126 
168 
252 
386 
504 


.03125 
.125 
.25 
1 

42 
63 
84 
126 


.000992 

.003908 

.007930 

.03174 

1 

1H 

2 

2| 

4 










lPint 


.002976 
.005952 
.0238 
.75 

1 

IK 

2 
3 








1 Quart 


.003908 
.01587 
.50 
.6666 

1 
1% 

2 


.00297 
.0119 
.375 
.50 
.75 
1 

1H 


.00198 


1 Gallon 


.007936 


1 Barrel 


.25 




.333 






.50 






.6666 






1 









The U. S. gallon contains 231 cubic inches; 7.4805 gallons = one cubic foot. A 
cylinder 7 ins. in diameter and 6 ins. high contains one gallon or 230.9 cubic inches. 
The British Imperial gallon contains 277.274 cubic inches or 1.20032 U. S. gallons. 

The miners' inch varies in different parts of the country — from a delivery of 1.36 
to 1.73 cubic feet per minute — due to the varying heads of water above the centre of 
the aperture. The most prevalent method is the flow of water through a slot 2 ins. 
high, and whatever length required cut in a plank \\ ins. thick. The lower edge 
of the slot should be 2 inches above the measuring box, and the plank extend 5 ins. 
high above the slot, making a 6 in. effective head. Each sq. inch of this slot deliv- 
ers one miners' inch, and equal to about \y% cubic feet of water per minute. 



BOARD AND TIMBER MEASURE. 



In measuring boards and timbers they are estimated in equivalent lumber 1 in. 
thick. To compute the number of feet board measure in a board or stick, multiply 
its length in feet by its breadth in feet by its thickness in inches. 

To compute round timber when all its dimensions are given in feet, find the mean 
girth and diameter and multiply them together and divide this by four and multi- 
ply by the length of the timber which gives the result in cubic feet. On square 
timber, when all dimensions are given in inches, divide by 1728 to get cubic feet ; 
when two dimensions are given in inches, divide by 144 to get cubic feet; when one 
dimension is given in inches, divide by 12 to get cubic feet. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



CONTENTS IN FEET OF JOISTS, SCANTLING AND TIMBER. 

LENGTH IN FEET. 



Size. 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24 


26 


28 


30 










FEET, 


BOARD MEASURE. 








2x4 


8 


9 


11 


12 


13 


15 


16 


17 


19 


20 


2x6 


12 


14 


. 16 


18 


20 


22 


24 


26 


28 


30 


2x8 


16 


19 


21 


24 


27 


29 


32 


35 


37 


40 


2x10 


20 


23 


27 


30 


33 


37 


40 


43 


47 


50 


2x12 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


52 


56 


60 


2x14 


28 


33 


37 


42 


47 


51 


56 


61 


65 


70 


3x8 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


52 


56 


60 


3x10 


30 


35 


40 


45 


50 


55 


60 


65 


70 


75 


3x12 


36 


42 


48 


54 


60 


66 


72 


78 


84 


90 


3x14 


42 


49 


56 


63 


70 


77 


84 


91 


98 


105 


4x4 


16 


19 


21 


24 


27 


29 


32 


35 


37 


40 


4x6 


24 


28 


32 


36 


40 


44 


48 


52 


56 


60 


4x8 


32 


37 


43 


48 


53 


59 


64 


69 


75 


80 


4x10 


40 


47 


53 


60 


67 


73 


80 


87 


93 


100 


4x12 


48 


56 


64 


72 


80 


88 


96 


104 


112 


120 


4x14 


56 


65 


75 


84 


93 


103 


112 


121 


131 


140 


6x6 


36 


42 


48 


54 


60 


66 


72 


78 


84 


90 


6x8 


48 


56 


64 


72 


80 


88 


96 


104 


112 


120 


6x10 


60 


70 


80 


SO 


100 


110 


120 


130 


140 


150 


6x12 


72 


84 


96 


108 


ISO 


132 


144 


156 


168 


180 


6x14 


84 


98 


112 


126 


140 


154 


168 


182 


196 


210 


8x8 


64 


75 


85 


96 


107 


117 


128 


139 


149 


160 


8x10 


80 


93 


107 


120 


133 


147 


160 


173 


187 


200 


8x12 


96 


112 


128 


144 


160 


176 


192 


208 


224 


240 


8x14 


112 


131 


149 


108 


187 


205 


224 


243 


261 


280 


10x10 


100 


117 


133 


150 


107 


183 


200 


217 


233 


250 


10x12 


120 


140 


160 


180 


200 


220 


240 


260 


280 


300 


10x14 


140 


163 


187 


210- 


233 


257 


280 


303 


327 


350 


12 x 12 


144 


168 


192 


216 


240 


264 


2F8 


312 


336 


3C0 


13 x 14 


1G8 


196 


224 


252 


280 


308 


336 


364 


392 


420 


14 x 14 


196 


229 


201 


294 


327 


359 


392 


425 


457 


490 





MEASURES OF 


WEIGHTS. 






Grains 
in a 


Ounces 
in a 


Pounds 
in a 


Grammes 
in a 


Kilogrammes 
in a 




1 
437.5 
7000.00 
15.432 
15432.36 


.00228 

1 

16 

.03527 

35.274 


.000143 
.0625 

1 
.00205 
2.2204 


.06479 
28.349 
453.59 

1 
100J 


.000064 


Ounces, adv 

Pounds, adv 


.02835 
.45359 
.001 


Kilogrammes 


1 



1 carat is 3.168 grains or .205 grammes. 1 stone is 14 lbs. 1 quintal is 100 lbs. 1 
quarter is 28 lbs. 1 hundred- weight is 112 lbs. There are twenty hundred-weight 
to one long ton or 2240 lbs.' Net or short ton is 2000 lbs. Metric ton is 2204.6 lbs. 
In shipping, 100 cubic feet is equivalent to one registered ton. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK 



MENSURATION. 







TABLE OF REGULAR POLYGONS. 








Area = 


Radius of 


Radius of 

Inscribed 

Circle = Side 

multiplied 

by 


Interior 




°s 


Name of 


Side x Side 


Circumscribed 


Angle 


Angle at 


c2 


Polygon. 


multiplied 

by 


Circle = Side 
multiplied by 


Between 

Sides. 


Center. 


3 


Triangle 


.433013 


.5773 


.2887 


60 degs. 


120 degs 


4 


Square 


1.00U000 


.7071 


.5 


90 degs. 


90 degs. 


5 


Pentagon 


1.720477 


.8507 


.6882 


108 degs. 


72 degs. 


6 


Hexagon 


2.598076 


1.0000 


.866 


120 degs. 


60 degs. 


7 


Heptagon 


3.633912 


1.1524 


1.0383 


128f degs. 


51£ degs. 


8 


Octagon 


4.82842? 


1.3066 


1.2071 


135 degs. 


45 degs. 


9 


Nonagon 


6.181824 


1.4619 


1.3737 


140 degs. 


40 degs. 


10 


Decagon 


7.694209 


1.6180 


1.5388 


144 degs. 
147 i 3 r degs. 
150 degs. 


36 degs. 


11 


Undecagon 


9.365640 


1.7747 


1.7028 


32 T 8 j degs. 


12 


Dodecagon 


11.196152 


1.9319 


1.866 


30 degs. 



LINES AND AREAS OF PLANE SURFACES. 

Square. — Area = side x side. 

Side = area divided by eide. 
Diagonal = 1.4142 x side. 



RECTANGLE. 



SQUARE. 

, ! Rectangle.— Area = side x base. 

Base = area divided by side. 
Side = area divided by base. 
Diagonal = sq. root of (base x base) plus (side x side). 

Parallelogram. — Area = height x base. 

Height = area divided by base. 
Base = area divided by height. 



BASE 



PARALLELOGRAM. 

Triangle.— Area = }4, base x height. 

Base = 2 area divided by height. 
Height = 2 area divided by base. 




TRIANGLE. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



Angles 60 degs., 60 degs., 60 degs.— Area = .433 x base x base. 

Base = 1.52 x sq. root of area. 
Height = .866 x base. 

Angles 30 degs., 60 degs., 90 degs. — Sides have the proportion of 

1:2: i/§7: 1:2:1.732. 

Angles 30 degs., 30 degs., 120 degs. — Sides have the proportion of 

1:1: i/3T: 1:1:1.732. 
Area = J4 x long side x long side. 

Angles 45 degs., 45 degs., 90 degs. — Sides have the proportion of 

1:1: 1/2T: 1:1: 1.414. 



Angle 90 degs. — Hypothenuse = sq. root of (base x base) plus (side x side). 
Side = sq. root of (hypoth. x hypoth.) minus (base x base). 
Base = sq. root of (hypoth. x hypoth.) minus (side x side). 




C/RCLE. 



Circle. — Circumference = 3.14159 x diameter. 
Area = 3.14159 x radius x radius. 

= .7854 x diameter x diameter. 
Diameter = circumference divided by 3.14159. 
= sq. root of area x 1.12838. 

3.14159 = approximately ^2 
7 

.7854 = approximately Ji_ 
14 
(See table for areas and circumferences of circles.) 

Irregular Figure. — Area may be found by a planimeter, or the figure may be drawn 
on cross-section paper, and the number of squares and part 
squares included therein counted or estimated ; the number 
of squares x the area of each square equals the total area. 

SURFACES AND VOLUMES OF SOEIDS. 

Cube. — Surface = 6 x one edge x one edge. 
Volume = edge x edge x edge. 

Parallelopiped. — Is a solid having six faces, all of which are parallelograms, and 
the pairs of which are parallel. Fig. 1. 

Prisms. — The opposite ends are parallel, equal and similar., Fig. 2. 

Cylinders. — The opposite ends are equal, parallel circles, Fig. 3. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK 



Parallelopiped, Prism or Cylinder.— Total surface = area of two ends plus circum- 
ference of cross-section perpendicular to 
side x length of side. 

Volume = area of one end (a) x perpendicu- 
lar distance (A) between this end and the 
opposite end. 

Volume = area of cross-section perpendicular 
to the sides x length of side (1). 




PAMLLELOPJPEQ. P/iaALLELOPIPEQ. 

Fig. 1. 



sa 



%} 



a 



P8ISM. Pfl/SM. 

Fig. 2 




PMSM 



A. 



CYLINDER. 




CWNOER. 



Fig. 3. 



Sphere.— Area of surface = 3.14159 x diameter x diameter. 

= 6 x volume divided by diameter. , 
Volume = 4.1888 x radius x radius x radius. 

= .5236 x diameter x diameter x diameter. 



AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES. 



Diameter, 


Circumference, 
Inches Feet. 


Area, 
iSq. inches Feet. 


Diameter. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


1-64 
1-32 
3-64 
1-16 

3-32 

1-8 


.049087 
.098175 
.147262 
.196350 

.294524 
.392699 
.490874 
.589049 


.00019 
.00077 
.00173 
.00307 

.00690 
.01227 
.01917 
.02761 




m 


5-32 
3-16 





ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCEES.— Continued. 



Diameter, 


Circumference, 
Inches. feet. 


Area, 
Sq. inches Feet. 


Diameter, 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


7-32 
1-4 


.687223 
.785398 
.883573 
.981748 


.03758 
.04909 
.06213 
.07670 




3 


9-32 
5-16 






11-32 
3-8 


1.07992 
1.17810 
1.27627 
1.37445 


.09281 
.11045 
.12962 
.15033 




4^ 


13-32 
7-16 




15-32 
1-2 


1.47262 
1.57080 
1.66897 
1.76715 


.17257 
.19635 
.22166 

.24850 




6 


17-32 
9-16 






19-32 

5-8 

21-32 

11-16 


1.86532 
1.96350 
2.06167 
2.15984 


.27688 
.30680 
.33824 
.37122 




7^ 


23-32 
3-4 


2.25802 
2.35619 
2.45437 
2.55254 


.40574 
.44179 
.47937 
.51849 




9 


25-32 
13-16 






27-32 

7-8 


2.65072 
2.74889 
2.84707 
2.94524 
3.04342 


.55914 
.60132 
.64504 
.69029 
.73708 




IflK 


29-32 
15-16 
31-32 




1. 

1-16 

1-8 

3-16 

1-4 


. 3.14159 
3.33794 
3.53429 
3.730C4 
3.92699 


.78540 
.88664 
.99402 
1.1075 
1.2272 


1 
1 

1 


3 


5-16 
3-8 
7-16 
1-2 


4.12334 
4.31969 
4.51604 
4.71239 


1.3530 
1.4849 
1.6230 
1.7671 


1 
1 


4^ 
6 


9-16 
5-8 
11-16 
3-4 


4.90874 
5.10509 
5.30144 
5.49779 


1.9175 
2.0739 
2.2365 
2.4053 


1 
1 


7y 2 

9 


13-16 
7-8 
15-16 


5.69414 
5.89049 
6.08684 


2.5802 
2.7612 
2.9483 


1 


10^ 


2. 

1-16 

1-8 

3-16 

1-4 


6.28319 
6.47953 
6.6"588 

6.87223 
7.05858 


3.1416 
3.3410 
3.5466 
3.7583 
3.9761 


2 

2 
2 


3 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES.— Continued. 



Diameter, 


Circumference, 
Inches Feet. 


Area, 
Sq. inches Feet. 


Diameter, 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


5-16 
3-8 
7-16 
1-2 


7.26493 
7.46128 . 
7.65763 
7.85398 


4.2000 
4.4301 
4.6664 
4.9087 


2 


6 


9-16 
5-8 
11-16 
3-4 


8.05033 
8.24668 
8.44303 
8.63938 


5.1572 
5.4119 
5.6727 
5.9396 


2 
2 


7y 2 

9 


13-16 
7-8 
15-16 


8.83573 
9.03208 
9.22843 


6.2126 
6.4918 
6.7771 


2 


ioy a 


3. 

1-16 
1-8 
3-16 
1-4 


9.42478 
9.62113 
9.81748 
10.0138 
10.2102 


7.0686 
7.3662 
7.6699 
7.9798 
8.2958 


3 
3 
3 


3 


5-16 

3-8 

7-16 

1-2 


10.4065 
10.6029 
10.7992 
10.9956 


8.6179 
8.9462 
9.2806 
9.6211 


3 
3 


6 


9-16 

5-8 
11-16 
3-4 


11.1919 
11.3883 
11.5846 
11.7810 


9.9678 
10.321 
10.680 
10.045 


3 
3 


7Y2 

9 


13-16 

7-8 
15-16 


11.9773 
12.1737 
12.3700 


11.416 

11.793 
12.177 


3 


10J£ 


4. 

1-16 
1-8 
3-16 
1-4 


12.5664 
12.7627 
12.9591 
13.1554 
13.3518 


12.566 
12.962 
13.364 
13.772 
14.186 


4 
4 
4 


1« 

3 


5-16 
3-8 
7-16 
1-2 


13.5481 

13.7445 
13.9408 
14.1372 


14.607 
15.033 
15.466 
15.904 


4 
4 


4^ 
6 


9-16 

5-8 

11-16 

3-4 


14.3335 
14.5299 
14.7262 
14.9226 


16.349 
16.800 
17.257 
17.721 


4 
4 


9 


13-16 
7-8 
15-16 


15 1189 
15.3153 
15.5116 


18.190 
18.665 
19.147 


4 


10^ 


5. 

1-16 
1-8 


15.7080 
15.9043 
16.1007 


19.635 
20.129 
20.629 


5 

5 


IX 



10 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES.— Continued. 



Diameter, 


Circumference, 
Inches. Feet. 


Area, 
Sq. inches. Feet. 


Diameter. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


3-16 

1-4 


16.2970 
16.4934 


21.135 
21.648 • 


5 


3 


5-16 
3-8 
7-16 
1-2 


16.6897 
16.8861 
17.0824 
17.2788 


22.166 
22.691 
23.221 

23.758 


5 
5 


4^ 
6 


9-16 

5-8 
11-16 
3-4 


17.4751 
17.6715 

17.8678 
18.0642 


24.301 
24.850 
25.406 
25.967 


5 
5 


7Vi 
9 


13-16 
7-8 
15-16 


18.2605 
18.4569 
18.6532 


26.535 
27.109 

27.688 


5 


10^ 


6. 

1-8 
1-4 
3-8 
1-2 


18.8496 
19.2423 
19.6350 
20.0277 
20.4204 


28.274 
29.465 
30.680 
31.919 
33.183 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 


p 
^ 


5-8 
3-4 
7-8 


20.8131 
21.2058 
21.5984 


34.472 
35.785 
37.122 


6 
6 
6 


MM 


% 

1-8 
1-4 

3-8 
1-2 


21.9919 
22.3838 
' 22.7765 
23.1692 
23.5619 


38.485 
39.871 
41.282 
42.718 
44.179 


7 
7 
7 
7 
7 


1* 


5-8 
3-4 

7-8 


23.9546 
24.3473 
24.7400 


45.664 

47.173 
48.707 


7 
7 
7 


MM 


8. 

1-8 
1-4 
3-8 
1-2 


25.1327 
25.5254 
25.9181 
26.3108 
26.7035 


50.265 
51.849 
53.456 
55.088 
56.745 


8 
8 
8 
8 
8 




5-8 
34 

7-8 


27.0962 
27.4889 
27.8816 


58.426 
60.132 
61.862 


8 
8 
8 




9. 

1-8 
1-4 
3-8 

1-2 


28.2743 
28.6670 
29.0597 
29.4524 
29.8451 


63.617 
65.397 
67.201 
69.029 
70.882 


9 
9 
9 
9 
9 


IP 
ft 


5-8 
S-4 
7-8 


30.2378 
30.6305 
31.0232 


72.760 
74.662 
76.589 


e 

9 

9 





ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



ii 



AREAS AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES.— Continued. 



Diameter, 


Circumference , 
Inches. Feet. 


Area, 
Sq. inches. Feet. 


Diameter. 


Inches. 


Feet. 


Inches. 


10. 

1-8 
1-4 
3-8 
1-2 


31.4159 
31.8086 
32.2013 
32.5940 
32.9867 


78.540 
80.516 
82.516 
84.541 
86.590 


10 
10 
10 
10 
10 


3 

6 


5-8 
3-4 

7-8 


33.3794 
33.7721 
34.1648 


88.664 
90.763 
92.886 


10 
10 
10 




11. 

1-8 
1-4 
3-8 
1-2 


34.5575 
34.9502 
35.3429 
35.7356 
36.1283 


95.033 
97.205 
99.402 
101.62 
103.87 


11 
11 
11 
11 
11 




5-8 
3-4 

7-8 


36.5210 
36.9137 
37.3064 


106.14 

108-43 > 

110.75 


11 
11 
11 


V* 


12. 


37.6991 


113.10 1 


12 


10% 



EARTHS, ORES, STONES AND MISCELLANEOUS. 

Weight, 
Material. lbs. per 

cubic ft. 

Asbestos, starry 192 

Asphalte 150 

Asphaltum 87 

Belts, leather, per sq. ft., per ply thickness (13-16) 

Bitumen, red 72 

Bitumen, brown 52 

Borax 107 

Brick, best pressed 150 

Brick, common 112 

Brick, fire 140-150 

Brick, hard 125 

Brick, soft, inferior 100 

Brickwork, ordinary 112 

Brickwork, pressed brick 140 

Brickwork, coarse, inferior soft bricks 100 

Carbon 219 

Cement, hydraulic, ground loose, Rosendale '. 50-56 

Cement, hydraulic, ground loose, Louisville 50 

Cement, hydraulic, ground loose, Copley 54 

Cement, hydraulic, ground loose, Portland 95-102 

Chalk 95 

Chalk 174 

Clay 120 

Clay, with gravel 155 

Coal, anthracite, Pennsylvania 93 

Coal, anthracite, broken to any size, loose 52-56 

Coal, anthracite, broken, moderately shaken. 56-G0 

Coal, anthracite, broken, 40-43 cu. ft. per ton. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



EARTH, ORES, STONES, ETC.— Continued. 

Weight 
Matebial. lbs. per 

cubic ft. 

Coal, bituminous 84 

Coal, bituminous, broken to any size, loose 47-52 

Coal, bituminous, broken, moderately shaken 51-56 

Coal, bituminous, broken, 43-48 cu. ft. per ton. 

Coke, loose, of good coal 63 

Concrete, dry, 130-160, average 150 

Earth, common loam, dry, loose 72-80 

Earth, common loam, dry, shaken 82-92 

Earth, common loam, dry, moderately rammed 90-100 

Earth, common loam, slightly moist, loose 70-76 

Earth, common loam, quite moist, loose 66-68 

Earth, common loam, quite moist, shaken 75-90 

Earth, common loam, quite moist, moderately packed 90-100 

Earth, mud dry, close 80-110 

Earth, mud wet, fluid 104-120 

Emery 250 

Flint 162 

Glass, window or flooring , 157 

Granite 160-180 

Graphite :.... 137 

Gravel 109 

Grindstone 134 

Gutta-percha 61 . 1 

Ice at 32 degrees Fahrenheit 57.5 

Leather 60. 

Leather belts, per sq. ft., per ply thickness = . . . (13-16) 

Lime, quick, ground loose or in small lumps , 53. 

Lime, quick, ground well shaken v 64. 

Lime, quick, ground thoroughly shaken 75. 

Lime, hydraulic 171 

Limestone 168 

Magnesia carbonate 150 

Magnesium 109 

Marble, Dorset, Vermont 165 

Marble, East Chester, New York 180 

Marble, North Bay, Wisconsin 175 

Marble, Italian, common 168 

Marble, Mill Creek, Illinois, drab 172 

Masonry, of granite or limestone, well dressed 165 

Masonry, of sandstone, well dressed 144 

Masonry, of mortar rubble, well scabbled 154 

Masonry, of mortar rubble, dry, well scabbled 138 

Mica 171-193 

Millstone 155 

Mortar, hardened 87-118 

Mud (see Earth). 

Paving stone 151 

Pitch 72 

Plaster of Paris 141 

Plaster of Paris, ground loose 56 

Plaster of Paris, ground well shaken 64 

Plumbago 131 

Porcelain 140 

Quartz 165 

Quartz, finely pulverized ,,........,... 90-112 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 13 



EARTH, ORES, STONES, ETC.— Continued. 

Weight 
Matekial. lbs. per 

cubic ft. 

Rosin 69 

Rotten stone ' 124 

Rubber 58 

Salt, coarse 42-70 

Salt, fine table 49 

Sand, perfectly dried, loose, usually 90-106 

Sand, naturally moist, loose, usually 85 90 

Sand, perfectly wet 118-120 

Sandstone, building 151 

Sandstone, quarried and piled 86 

Sewer pipe 141 

Slate 168-181 

Slate, purple 174 

Snow, fresh fallen 5-12 

Snow, compacted by rain 15-50 

Sulphur 125 

Tallow 58.6 

Tar, coal 62 

Terra-cotta, solid 122 

Terra-cotta, hollow, l]4 in s- thick, including air spaces 65-80 

Terra-cotta, nollow, 12 x 18 ins. or larger on face 70 

Trap rock 187 

Trap rock, broken, in piles 107 

Turf or peat, dry, unpressed 20-30 

Wax, bees 60.5 

Lbs. per Tons per. 
Tensile Strength. sq. in. (2000 lbs.) 

eq. ft. 
Brick, 40 to 400 220 15.8 

Cement, hydraulic, Portland, pure, 7 days in water 300 21 . 6 

Cement, 6 months old 450 32.4 

Cement, 1 year old 550 39.6 

Common hydraulic cements average 1-6 as much. The last,neat, 
adhere to brick and stone with from 15 to 50 lbs. when only 

1 month old 32 2.3 

At end of 1 year 3 times as much 96 6.9 

Concrete „■ 180 13 

Glass, 2,500 to 9,000 5,750 414 

Glue holds wood together with from 300 to 800 550 39.6 

Granite 1,000 72 

Gutta-percha 3,500 252 

Leather belts, 1,500 to 5000. Good 3,000 216 

Marble, strong, white, Italy 1,034 74 .5 

Marble, Champlain, variegated 1,666 120 

Marble, Glenn's Falls, N. Y., blk., 750 to 1034 892 64.3 

Marble, Montgomery Co., Pa., gray 1,175 84.7 

Marble, Montgomery Co., Pa., white 734 53 

Marble, Lee, Massachusetts, white 875 63 

Marble, Manchester, Vermont, 550 to 800 675 48.6 

Marble, Tennessee, variegated 1,034 74.5 

Mortar, common, 6 months old, 10 to 20 15 1.08 

Plaster of Paris, well set 70 5 



14 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



EARTH, ORES, STONES, ETC.— Continued. 

Lbs. per Tons per 

Tensile Strength. sq. in. (2000 lbs.) 

Material. sq. ft. 

Rope, Manilla, best 12,000 864 

Rope, hemp, best 15,000 1080 

Sandstone, Ohio 105 7.56 

Sandstone, Pictou, N. S 434 31.2 

Sandstone, Connecticut, red 590 42.5 

Slate, Lehigh 2,475 178 

Slate, Peach bottom, 3,025 to 4,600 3,812 275 

Stone, Ransome's artificial 300 21.6 



Compressive Strength. 



Lbs. per 
sq. in. 



Brick 550-4,100 

Brickwork, ordinary, cracks with 280-420 

Brickwork, good in cement » 420-550 

Brickwork, first rate in cement 700-970 

Cement, 7 days in water, Portland, neat 1,050-2,100 

Cement, 7 days in water, U. S. common, neat 210-420 

Concrete. Portland, sand and gravel or broken stone. . . 165-260 

Concrete, Portland, 6 months old 670-1,000 

Concrete, Portland, 12 months old 1,000-1,670 

Concrete, with common hydraulic cements about \ to \ 
as much. 

Flagging, North River, N. Y 13,400 

Glass, green crown and flint 18,000-32,000 

Granite, U. S 13,000-28,000 

Ice, pure, hard 290-900 

Ice, inferior 220-820 

Limestone, U. S 6,000-23,000 

Marble, Lee, Massachusetts 23,000 

Marble, Rutland, Vermont 10,700 

Marble, Montgomery Co., Pa 10,000 

Marble, Colton, California 17,800 

Marble, Italian 12,100 

Mortar, 1 of lime, 3 of sand, 14^ months 118-135 

Plaster of Paris, 1 day 550 

Plaster of Paris, 4 months 1,980 



Tons 
(2000 lbs.) 
per sq.ft. 

40-300 
20-30 
30-40 
50-70 



75-150 

15-30 

12-18 

48-72 
74-120 



960 

1,300-2,300 
940-2,000 

21-64 
16-59 

430-1,660 

1,660 
770 

720 
1,280 
870 
8.8-9.7 



40 
142 



Rubble masonry, good coursed is r * n of that of the stone 
of which it is built. The strength of common rub- 
ble is not much greater than its mortar. 



Sandstone, American 6,000-12,000 

Sandstone, New York , 10,000-42,000 

Slate 5,500-11,000 

Terra-cotta, solid 5,200-7,000 



720-3,000 
400-800 



375-500 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



15 



METALS. 



Material. 



Aluminum, bar .. . 
Aluminum, ca«t .. 
Aluminum, rolled 
Antimony, cast . . . 



Bismuth, cast. 



Copper, bolts 

Copper, cast 

Copper, electrolytic. . 
Copper, rolled plates. 



Gold, cast, pure. 
Gold hammered. 



Iron, cast 

Iron, malleable . 
Iron, structural. 
Iron, wrought . . 



Lead, cast . . 
Lead, pipe.. 
Lead, red . . . 
Lead, rolled. 



Mercury 



Nickel . . . :-. . 
Nickel, cast. 



Platinum, hammered 
Platinum, rolled .... 



Silver, cast, pure . 
bilver, hammered. 
Steel, cast, from .. 

Steel, cast, to 

Steel, plate. 

Steel, rails 

Steel, rivet 

Steel, shaft 

Steel, structural . . 



Tin 

Zinc, cast... 
Zinc, rolled. 



Weight, 
Cubic 
Inches. 



.0937 
.0932 
.0972 



.351 

.321 
.314 
.322 
.318 

.697 
.704 



.260 

.278 
.278 

.411 
.414 
.324 
.412 

.491 

.318 
.299 

.736 



.379 

.380 
.284 
.284 
.284 
.284 
.284 
.284 



.248 
.260 



Lbs. per 
Cubic 
Foot. 



162 
161 
168 
162 

607 

555 
542 
556 
550 

1,204 
1,217 

450 
450 
480 
480 

711 
716 
560 

712 



542 
517 

1,271 

1,379 

654 

657 
490 
490 
490 
490 
490 
490 
490 

459 

429 
449 



Ultimate Strength, Lbs. 
per Sq. In. 



Tensile. 



28,000 

15 000 

24,000 

1,000 

3,200 

36,000 
20,000 



30,000 
20,000 



20,000 
48,200 
42,000 
50,000 

2,050 
1,650 



2,500 



55,000 
40,000 



70,000 
70,000 
60,000 
70,000 
54,000 
85,000 
65,000 

4,600 

3,?50 
7,500 



Compressive. 



12,000 



100,000 
117,000 



100,000 



100,000 



10,000 
7,350 



105,000 
250 000 
120,000 
100,000 



15,500 



1 6 



ELECTRIC KAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



ALLOYS. 



Material. 


Weight, 
Cubic 
Inches. 


Lbs. per 
Cubic 
Foot. 


Ultimate Strength, Lbs. 
per Sq. In. 




Tensile. 


Compressive. 


Aluminum Bronze, 1^ per 
cent. Al « 


.313 
.261 

.264 
.297 
.293 
.293 
.307 
.316 
.297 
.314 
.333 
- .333 

.252 
.252 


541 
451 

456 
514 
506 
506 
530 
546 
514 
543 
576 
576 

436 
436 


25,000 
1 00,000' 




Aluminum Bronze, 11 per 
cent. Al 


130,000 


Babbitt Metals 




31,000 
18,000 
18,000 
36.000 
36,000 
23,500 
23,500 
22,000 
74,000 

81.700 
92,200 




Brass, cast, from 


50,000 
160,000 


Brass, cast, to 


Bronze, gun metal, from. . . 


Bronze, gun metal, to 

Bronze, ordinary, from 






Bronze, ordinary, to 




Bronze, phosphor, from 




Bronze, phosphor, to 




German Silver, from 




German Silver, to 









WIRES. 



Material. 



Pounds per 



Million cir. 
Mil. Ft. 



Cubic Foot. 



Tensile Strength. 
Lbs. per circ. mil. 



Aluminum, from 
Aluminum, to. . . . 



Bi-Metallic (Copper Steel) 

Brass, annealed 

Brass, hard 

Bronze, phosphor, annealed.. 

Bronze, phosphor, hard 

Bronze, silicon, from 

Bronze, silicon, to 

Copper, soft, from 

Copper, soft, to 

Copper, hard, from 

Copper, hard, to 

German Silver, from 

German Silver, to 

Gold, from 

Goid, to 



Iron, bright 

Iron, gal. line wire " B. B." . . 
Iron, gal. line wire " E. B. B. 

Piano Wire, from 

Piano Wire, to 

Platinum, annealed 



Steel, bright 

Steel, gal. line wire 
Silver, annealed.. . . , 



.919 

2.87 
2.86 
2.86 
3.14 
3.14 
3.04 
3.04 

3.027 
3.027 
3.027 
3.027 

2.38 
2.38 
6.60 
6.60 

2.65 
2.63 
2.63 



167 
167 

526 
524 
524 
576 
576 
558 
558 

555 
555 
555 
555 



436 
1,210 
1,210 



7.3 

2.67 
2.65 
3.46 



490 
486 
634 



,0236 
.0511 

o0511 

.0385 

.063 

.0495 

.118 

.044 

.118 

.025 
.030 
.0354 
.0534 

.0642 
.0725 
.0195 
.0236 

.063 
.046 
.0416 



.267 
.0416 

.081 

.0515 

.0314 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK, 



17 



WOOD. 



Common Name. 



Apple 

Ash, Amer. White. 



Bamboo 
Birch .., 



Cedar, Amer. 

Cherry 

Chestnut 

Cypress 



Elm 



Fir. 



Hemlock 

Hickory, Amer. 



Iron Wood, Black. 



Lignum Vitae, Amer. 



Mahogany 

Maple 

Maple, Bird's Eye. 



Oak, Live . . 
Oak, White 
Oak, Red... 



Weight per Cu. Ft. 



From 



40 



Fine, White 

Pine, Yellow, Northern 

Fine, Yellow, Southern, Long Leaf 



Spruce 



Tamarack 
Teak 



Walnut, Black 
White Wood . . 
Willow 



To 



83 



Lbs. 

Mean. 



Strength Lbs. 
per sq. in. 



Tensile. 



12.700 
11,000 



6,000 
10,000 



7,000 



8 700 
4,000 



4,000 
6,700 



5,800 
7,300 



7,300 

5.300 
6,700 



6,700 
6,700 
6,700 

6.700 
10,000 
12,600 

6,700 



10.000 
5,300 



700 



Com- 
pres- 



4,400 



5,300 
4,000 



3,600 
4,000 



4,500 
3,500 



3,500 
5,300 



6,700 

6,000 
5,300 



5,000 
4,700 
4,700 

3,600 



5,700 
3,000 



8,000 
5,300 



3,000 



i8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



LIQUIDS. 





Weight. 


Pounds per 


Material. 


Cubic Inch. 


Cubic Foot. 


U.S. 
Gallon. 


U.S. Bar- 
rel. 
(43.21 gal.) 


U. S. Hogs- 

head 

(63 gals.) 


Acid, muriatic 


.0433 
.0439 
.0607 
.0285 
.0293 
.0335 
.0319 

.0453 

.0258 

.0337 
.0330 
.0348 
.0280 
.0316 
.0330 
.0312 
.0330 

.0359 

.0359 
.03(30 
.0368 


74.8 
75.8 
115.2 
49.5 
50.9 
58.2 
55.5 

78.6 

44.8 

58.6 
57.3 
60.4 
48.6 
54.8 
57.3 
54.2 
57.3 

62.3 

62.35 

62.5 

64 


10.00 
10.13 
15.40 
6.62 
6.80 
7.78 
\42 

>.51 

5.99 

7.87 
7.66 
8.07 
6.50 
7.33 
7.66 
7.25 
7.66 

8.33 

8.335 

8.35 
8.56 


432 
438 
665 
286 
294 
336 
321 

454 

259 

338 
331 
349 
281 
317 
331 
313 
331 

360 

360.2 

361 

370 


630 

638 


Acid, sulphuric 

Alcohol, pure 

Alcohol 95* 

Alcohol, 50* 

Ammonia, 27.9* 

Carbon, disulphide.. 

Ether, sulphuric... 


970 
417 
429 
490 
467 

662 

377 

494 




483 


Oil, palm 

Oil, petroleum 

Oil, petroleum 


509 
409 
462 

483 


Oil, turpentine 


457 
483 


Tar 


525 


Water, standard... 
Water, fresh 


525.1 

526 

539 







ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 



19 



GASES. 





PROPERTIES OF 


SATURATED STEAM. 




&b 



g a 

on -rH 
4) • 
U o< 
Pi « 

O on 


A 

c3 
PR 

"8 

f-c 



p. 

a 


Total Heat 
above 32° F. 


II * 

&A 

1-lW 


» "S 


.s 

£§ 

? 2 
O02 

«H 

. O 
OJ . 

Be, 

O 

!> 


e 


g° 


A 


S3 


si 

SUC02 

1 


29.74 
29.67 
29.56 


.089 
.122 
.176 


32. 
40. 
50. 


0. 

8. 
18. 


1091.7 
1094.1 
1097.2 


1091.7 
1086.1 
1079.2 


208080. 
154330. 
107630. 


3333.3 

2472.2 
1724.1 


.00030 
.00040 
.00058 


29.40 
29.19 
28.90 


.254 
.359 
.502 


60. 
70. 
80. 


28.01 
38.02 
48.04 


1100.2 
1103.3 
1106.3 


1072.2 
1065.3 
1058.3 


76370. 
54660. 
39690. 


1223.4 
875.61 
635.80 


.00082 
.00115 
.00158 


28.51 
28.00 
27.88 


.692 
.943 
1. 


90. 
100. 
102.1 


58.06 
68.08 
70.09 


1109.4 
1112.4 
1113.1 


1051.3 
1044.4 
1043.0 


29290. 
21830. 
20623. 


469.20 
349.70 
334.23 


.00213 
.00286 
.00299 


25.85 
23.83 

21.78 


2. 
3. 
4. 


126.3 
141.6 
153.1 


94.44 
109.9 
121.4 


1120.5 
1125.1 
1128.6 


1026.0 
10 o.3 
1007.2 


10730. 
7325. 

5588. 


173.23 
117.98 
89.80 


.00577 
.00848 
.01112 


19.74 
17.70 
15.67 


5. 
6. 
7. 


162.3 
170.1 
176.9 


130.7 
138.6 
145.4 


1131.4 
1133.8 
1135.9 


1000.7 
995.2 
990.5 


4530. 
3816. 
3302. 


72.50 
61.10 
53.00 


.01373 
.01631 
.01887 


13.63 

11.60 

9.56 


8. 
9. 
10. 


182.9 
188.3 
193.2 


151.5 
156.9 
161.9 


1137.7 
1139.4 
1140.9 


986.2 
982.4 
979.0 


2912. 
2607. 
2361. 


46.60 
41.82 
37.80 


.02140 
.02391 
.02641 


7.52 
5.49 
3.45 
1.41 


11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 


197.8 
202.0 
205.9 
209.6 


166.5 
170.7 
174.7 
178.4 


1142.3 
1143.5 
1144.7 
1145.9 


975.8 
972.8 
970.0 
967.4 


2159. 
1990. 
1846. 
1721. 


34.61 
31.90 
29.58 
27.59 


.02889 
.03136 
.03381 
.03625 


Gauge 
Pressure lbs. 


14.7 


212. 


180.9 


1146.6 


965.7 


1646. 


26.36 


.03794 


per sq. in. 
0.304 
1.3 
2.3 


15. 
16. 
17. 


213.0 
216.3 
219.4 


181.9 

185.3 
188.4 


1146.9 

1147.9 
1148.9 


965.0 
962.7 
960.5 


1614. 
1519. 
1434. 


25.87 
24.33 
22.98 


.03868 
.04110 
.04352 


3.3 
4.3 
5.3 


18. 
19. 
20. 


222.4 
225.2 
227.9 


191.4 
194.3 
197.0 


1149.8 
1150.6 
1151.5 


958.3 
956.3 
954.4 


1359. 
1292. 
1231. 


21.78 
20.70 
19.72 


.04592 
.04831 
.05070 


6.3 
7.3 
8.3 


21. 
22. 
23. 


230.5 
2-^3.0 
235.4 


199.7 
202.2 
204.7 


1152.2 
1153.0 

.7 


952.6 
950.8 
949.1 


1176. 
1126. 
1080. 


18.84 
18.03 
17.30 


.05308 
.05545 

.05782 


9.3 
10.3 
11.3 


24. 
25. 
26. 


237.8 
240.0 
242.2 


207.0 
209.3 
211.5 


1154.5 
1155.1 

.8 


947.4 
945.8 
941.3 


1038. 
998.4 
962.3 


16.62 
15.99 
15.42 


.06018 
.06253 
.06487 


12.3 
13.3 
14.3 


27. 
28. 
29. 


244.3 
246.3 
248.3 


213.7 
215.7 
217.8 


1156.4 

1157.1 

.7 


942.8 
941.3 
939.9 


928.8 
868.5 


14.88 
14.38 
13.91 


.06721 
.06955 
.07188 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



PROPERTIES OF SATURATED STEAM.— Continued. 




IB A 


E 

tE 

c * 
is a> 

a A 

O 33 

3~ 


8 

a 
"S 

a> 
A 

a 

03 

Eh 


Total hoat 
above 3^° F. 


as 


1 t 

1> ° OS 

"a; as 


etc 

• o 

Is 


C ! 




38 


+= 03 

"53 


15.3 
16.3 
17.3 


30. 
31. 
32. 


250.2 
252.1 
254.0 


219.7 
221.6 
223.5 


1158.3 

.8 

1159.4 


938.9 
937.2 
935.9 


841.3 
815.8 
791.8 


13.48 

13.07 
12.G8 


.07420 
.07652 
.07884 


18.3 
19.3 
20.3 


33. 
34. 
35. 


255.7 
257.5 
259.2 


225.3 
227.1 
228.8 


.9 
1160.5 
1161.0 


934.6 
933.4 
932.2 


769.2 
748.0 
727.9 


12.32 
11.98 
11.66 


.08115 
.08346 
.08576 


25.3 
30.3 
35.3 


40. 
45. 
50. 


267.1 
274.3 
280.9 


236.9 
214.3 
251.0 


1163.4 
1165.6 
1167.6 


926.5 
921.3 
916.6 


642.0 

574.7 
520.5 


10.28 
9.21 
8.34 


.09721 
.1086 
.1198 


40.3 
45.3 
50.3 


55. 

60. 
65. 


286.9 
292.5 
297.8 


257.2 
262.9 
268.3 


1169.4 
1171.2 
1172.8 


912.3 
908.2 
904.5 


475.9 

438.5 
406.6 


7.63 
7.03 
6.53 


.1311 
.1422 
.1533 


55.3 
60.3 
65.3 


70. 
75. 
80. 


302.7 
307.4 
311.8 


273.4 
278.2 
282.7 


1174.3 

1175.7 
1177.0 


900.9 
897.5 
894.3 


379 3 
355.5 
334.5 


6.09 

5.71 
5.37 


.1643 
.1753 
.1862 


70.3 
75.3 
80.3 


85. 
90. 
95. 


316.0 
320.0 
323.9 


287.0 
291.2 
295.1 


1178.3 
1179.6 
1180.7 


891.3 

888.4 
885.6 


315.9 
299.4 
284.5 


5.07 
4.81 
4.57 


.1971 

.2080 
.2188 


85.3 
90.3 
95.3 


100. 
105. 
110. 


327.6 
331.1 
334.5 


298.9 
302.6 
306.1 


1181.8 
1182.9 
1184.0 


882.9 
880.3 
877.9 


271.1 
258.9 
247.8 


4.36 

4.16 

.3.98 


.2296 
.2403 
.2510 


100.3 
105.3 
110.3 


115. 
120. 
125. 


337.8 
341.0 
344.1 


309.5 
312.8 
316.0 


1185.0 
1185.9 
1186.9 


875.5 
873.2 
870.9 


237.6 

228.3 
219.6 


3.82 
3.67 
3.53 


.2617 
.2724 
.2830 


115.3 
120.3 
125.3 


130. 
135. 
140. 


347.1 
350.0 
352.8 


319.1 
322.1 
325.0 


1187.8 
1188.7 
1189.5 


868.7 
866.6 
864.6 


211.6 

204.2 
197.3 


3.41 
3.29 
3.18 


.2936 
.3042 
.3147 


130.3 
135.3 
140.3 


145. 
150. 
155. 


855.5 

358.2 
360.7 


327.8 
330.6 
333.2 


1190.4 
1191.2 
1192.0 


862.6 
860.6 
858.7 


190.9 
184.9 
179.2 


3.07 
2.98 
2.89 


.3253 
.3358 
.3463 


145.3 
150.3 
155.3 


160. 
165. 

iro. 


363.3 

365.7 
368.2 


335.9 
338.4 
340.9 


1192.7 
1193.5 
1194.2 


856.9 
855.1 
853.3 


173.9 
109.0 
164.3 


2.80 
2.72 
2.65 


.3567 
.3671 
.3775 


160.3 
165.3 
170.3 


175. 
180. 
185. 


370.5 
372.8 
375.1 


343.4 
345.8 
346.1 


1194.9 
1195.7 
1196.3 


851.6 
849.9 
848.2 


159.8 
155.6 
151.6 


2.58 
2.51 
2.45 


.3879 
.3983 
.4087 


175.3 

180.3 
185.3 


100. 
195. 
200. 


377.3 
379.5 

381.6 


350.4 
352.7 
354.9 


1197.0 

1197.7 
1198.3 


846.6 
845.0 
843.4 


147.8 
144.2 
140.8 


2.39 
2.33 

2.27 


.4191 
.4296 
.4400 


190.3 
195.3 
200.3 


205. 
2i0. 
215. 


383.7 

385.7 
387.7 


357.1 
359.2 
361.3 


1199.0 

1199.6 
1200.2 


841.9 

840.4 
838.9 


137.5 
131.5 
131.5 


2.22 
2.17 
2.12 


.4503 

.4605 
.4707 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



21 



PROPERTIES OF AIR AT ONE ATMOSPHERE = 14. 7 EBS. 
ABSOEUTE PRESSURE. 



Dry Air. 


Saturated Mixture of Air and Water Vapor. 


Temp. 
Fahr. 


Cu. Ft. 
per Lb. 


Lbs. per 
Cu. Ft. 


Weight of 
Air, Lbs. 


Weight of 
Vapor, Lbs. 


Total 

Weight of 

Mixture, Lbs. 



12 
22 


11.6 
11.9 

12.1 


.0864 
.0842 
c0824 


.0863 
.0840 
.0821 


.000079 
.000130 
.000202 


.0864 
.0841 
.0823 


32 
42 
52 


12.4 
12.6 
12.9 


.0807 
.0791 
.0776 


.0802 
.0784 
.0760 


.000304 
.000440 
.000627 


.0805 
.0788 
.0772 


62 

72 
82 


13.1 
13.4 
13.6 


.0761 
.0747 
.0733 


.0747 
.0727 
.0706 


.000881 
.00122 
.00167 


.0756 
.0739 
.0723 


92 
102 
112 


13.9 
14.1 
14.4 


.0720 
.0707 
.0694 


.0684 
.0659 
.0631 


.00225 
.00300 
.00395 


.0707 
.0689 
.0670 


122 
132 
142 


14.6 
14.9 
15.1 


.0682 
.0671 
.0660 


.0599 
.0564 
.0524 


.00514 
.00664 
.00847 


.0650 
.0630 
.0609 


152 
162 
172 


15.4 
15.7 
15.9 


.0649 
.0638 
.0628 


.0477 
.0423 
.0360 


.0107 
.0184 
.0167 


.0584 
.0557 
.0527 


182 
192 
202 


16.2 
16.4 
16.7 


.0618 
.0609 
.0600 


.0288 
.0205 
.0109 


.0205 
.0251 
.0305 


.0493 
.0456 
.0414 


212 
230 
250 


16.9 
17.4 
17.9 


.0591 

.0575 
.0559 


.0000 


.0368 


.0368 


275 
300 
325 


18.5 
19.2 
19.8 


.0540 
.0522 
.0506 








350 
375 
400 


20.4 

21. 
21.7 


.0490 
.0477 
.0461 








450 
500 
550 


22.9 

24.2 
26.0 


.0436 
.0413 
.0384 









SECTION II —TESTING. 



ELECTRICAL UNITS. 

If the two terminals of a source of electrical energy, such as a battery, dyna - 
mo, etc., be joined by a copper wire or other conducting path a current of elec- 
tricity will flow through the completed circuit thus formed. The current manifests 
itself by causing neighboring compass needles to deflect from their natural posi- 
tion, by heating the wire, by the appearance of a spark if the wire is broken, by 
chemical action in an electrolytic cell placed in the circuit, etc. Pig. 4 shows a 
circuit containing a primary cell and an electrolytic cell. 

The Ampere. — The current flowing in the circuit may be determined by 
cutting the wire and connecting the severed ends to two silver plates immersed in 




SILVER PLATES 
A/VO SOLUTION. 



a nitrate of silver solution. It will then be found that the current in flowing 
through this solution carries with it silver from the positive to the negative plate, 
and if the battery gives a steady current the weight of silver carried over will be 
proportionate to the time that the current is passing through this solution. If for 
each second of time it is found that 0.001118 grammes of silver are carried over, 
then the flow of current will be one ampere; or the total grammes weight of silver 
divided by the seconds during which the current was flowing through the solution, 
divided by 0.001118 will give the total number of amperes flowing through the 
circuit during the test. 

This is the way in which the unit of current flow, the ampere, was given a 
definite value. There are many refinements necessary to carry out the above test 
in order to obtain reliable results. This method is the one used to determine the 
true value of the ampere, but it is not useful for practical work. 



ELECTRIC RAIL IV A Y HAND BOOK. 



-3 



The Ohm. — If there is added to the above circuit, Fig. 5, a much longer wire 
! of the same size, and the test repeated allowing the current to flow through the sil- 
: ver solution from one plate to the. other for the same length of time, it will be 
i found that the current has not carried as much silver across as in the first experi- 
I ment, showing that the lengthening of the circuit has diminished the current flow. 
j This was caused by the added conductor offering resistance to the current. This 
j is a property of all electrical conductors and is measured by a unit called the ohm. 
| If the circuit had been made of No. 30 wire, Brown & Sharpe gauge, and was 9 ft. 
j 9 ins. long, then the copper circuit would have been nearly one ohm in resistance. 
The standard for the ohm is the resistance of a column of mercury 106.3 cen- 
timeters long (41.8503 ins.) of uniform cross-section, and weighing 14.4521 grammes 
(.5098 ozs.) at the temperature of melting ice. This is known as the " Interna- 




Fia 5. 



tional Ohm "or "True Ohm." There are two other older standards, known as 
the British Associations and the Legal respectively, whose relation to the Inter- 
national ohm is shown in the following table. 



International. 
1. 



.9977 



B. A. Legal 

1.0136 = 1.0023 

1. = .9889 

1.0112 = 1. 



The Volt. — Electrical pressure is required to force the current through the 
wire and the silver solution. Electrical pressure can be opposed by an equal elec- 
trical pressure, and there will then be no current flow in the circuit which contains 
the opposing electrical pressure, just as a water pressure can be acted against by 
an equal pressure of water, when no water will flow. 

Fig. 5 shows how these pressures may be equalized electrically. A standard 
battery of one volt is connected in series with a delicate current indicator, known 
as a galvanometer; the ends of this circuit are connected to the end of the 9% feet 
of copper wire, as shown in Fig. 5, so that the electrical pressure of the standard 
battery circuit opposses the fall of preooure in the main circuit. Then when the 
loss in volts, or electromotive force, in the main circuit is equal to one volt, which 



2 4 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



2 19 IS 17 




AMPERES 

Fig. 6. 



10 it m 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



25 




10 20 



30 40 50 60 70 

AMPERES 

Fig. 7. 



60 100 110 1Z0 



26 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



is the pressure of the standard battery, no current will flow through the galvano- 
meter circuit. Since the circuit measures one ohm, there must have been one am- 
pere flowing through it to produce the loss of pressure of one volt. The unit of 
this pressure is known as the volt. The value of the volt is a little less than the e. 
m. f. of an ordinary gravity cell. It has been proved that if an e. m. f . of 1 volt 
acts on a circuit of 1 ohm a current of 1 ampere will flow. The ampere being fixed 
as that current which will deposit 0.001118 grammes of silver per second the volt, 
therefore, depends upon the value of the ohm and we have International, B. A. and 
Legal volts which bear the same relation to each other as the corresponding ohms. 
The practical standard for e. m. f . is the Clark cell made according to speci- 
fications drawn up by the Electrical Congress of 1893. The cell consists essen- 
tially of pure zinc in zinc sulphate and pure mercury in contact with mercurous 
sulphate the e. m. f . at 15° C being 1.442 International volts. 

OHM'S LAW. 

Ohm discovered that the current varied directly as the pressure and inversely 
as the resistance. If we measure these quantities in practical units, i, e., in am- 
peres, volts and ohms, the relation given above that the action of 1 volt on 1 ohm 
produces 1 ampere gives us the law: 

Current = Electromotive Force 
Resistance 

This is known as Ohm's Law and is generally written C = — . From this rela* 

J? 
tion, if we have any two of the quantities given, the third is readily found. 

This is accomplished graphically in Fig. 6. There volts are given on the 
vertical lines and amperes on the horizontal lines; the radial lines giving the 
ohms. In any circuit where the amperes and volts are known, if we trace these 
two values on their respective scales to their intersection, this intersection will 
occur at the radial line which is marked in ohms. In a circuit for exam- 
ple, with 8 volts and 2 amperes, we will find the intersection on the radial 
line marked 4 ohms, which is the answer. Supposing that we had a circuit of 2 
ohms resistance and 6 volts potential, then follow the radial line down until it 
intersects the 6 volts horizontal line and also the vertical line for 3 amperes, 
which is the answer required. In the same way, when ohms and amperes are 
given in- a circuit, the intersection of these values will fall on the volt line 
required. 

As in railway work 500 volts is the voltage commonly used, a scale, (see Fig. 
7), for 350 to 550 volts, and to 120 amperes is also given. 



METHODS OF CALIBRATION. 

Galvanometers.— The galvanometer is used in insulation and cable tests 
and in connection with the bridge method as a current indicator, also to make 
potential and current measurements. It is easily affected by external magnetism. 
It consists in general of a small permanent magnet suspended by a silk fibre, or 
mounted on a concave jewel having a needle point to support it. The suspen- 
sion should be such that only a very slight effort is required "to turn the needle. 
This needle is free to rotate in a spool around which are wound many turns of 
fine wire. A pointer, usually made of aluminum, is attached to the needle to 
magnify the amount of deflection. The zero position of this pointer may be fixed 
by the earth's magnetism, but is often controlled by a local permanent magnet. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



27 



The current flowing through the coils tends to cause a deflection, the magnetizing 
effect of these coils being at right angles to the suspended magnetic needle. The 
currents producing the deflections are related to each other as the tangent of the 
angles of deflection ; if the needle is short and placed at the center of a circular 
coil the galvanometer is then called a tangent galvanometer. 

In the Thomson reflecting galvanometer the readings are taken by means of a 
beam of light reflected from a mirror on the back of which is secured the mag- 
netic system. When this beam of reflected light is read on a scale at right angles 
to the beam of light before reflection, the readings on the scale of the deflected 
beam are practically directly proportional to the currents deflecting the mirror. 

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE. 

E. M. F. Direct Method.— To set up a galvanometer to read volts direct 
there is required a variable resistance-box, A s in series with a standard battery, £, 



\GALVAM>ME7£X 




SCAL£ 



Fig. 8. 



a proportional coil, C, a double-throw switch, D, and key, K. The connections 
are made as in Fig. 8. 

First such resistance is inserted by box, A, with the standard battery (if a 
Clark cell is used as that standard) that it will give a permanent deflection of 144.2 
divisions. Then this setting up gives for each division T ^ of a volt; throwing 
the switch so as to connect in T $ of the total voltage across the proportional coil, 
the galvanometer will read the main potential in 1 volt per division. 

A voltmeter to be standardized should be connected across the mains at X- Y. 
The proportional coil is generally made of No. 32 resistance wire with a low tem- 
perature coefficient, preferably platinoid. With 50 ohms per volt to be measured 
a proportion of 1:100 is usually used for potentials up to 150 volts, 1:500 for rail- 
way work. For reading potentials lower than the standard cell the connections 
are changed as in Fig. 9. The standard battery is in this case connected across 



23 



IeleZtriC rail wa y hand book. 



the proportional coils, and the resistance changed In series with the galvanometer 



until deflections (142.2) are again obtained; then each deflection is . 



of a volt if a 



proportion of 1:100 is obtained from the proportional coil. The galvanometer can 
then be thrown over to the potential to be compared and read direct in IU ^ UU of a 
volt per scale division. 

Potentiometer Method.— Where a constant potential is to be maintained 
during a test, the potentiometer method is more convenient. This requires a stand- 
ard battery, a galvanometer, a variable resistence of a uniform wire of such a size 
that it will not be heated by the current passed through it; a portion of this wire is 
provided with a sliding contact over a scale which is divided into a thousand 
divisions for this length. This apparatus is connected up as shown in Fig. 10, 
the standard battery opposing the drop of potential a'.ong the potentiometer wire. 
The contact, W, on this wire is slid along until a pcint is determined at which the 
galvanometer shows no deflection. Then the reading on the scale will be where 
the drop is 1.442 volts, or the e. m. f. of the standard cell. Then the scale length 



1 



_Q I GALMHOMETER 




SCALE 



Fig. 9. 



is to the total length of wire, as 1.442 is to X, or the terminal voltage to be meas- 
ured. Say the scale read 2 and the total length of wire was 100, then 2 : 100 : : 1.442 
: A', or = 72.1 volts. The scale can be calibrated in volts direct if the same 
standard potential is used for all tests. 

As the Clark cell is easily injured by an excess of current it is important that 
a resistance of, say, 10,000 ohms be inserted in series with it. This will prevent 
its being short circuited through the low resistance of the potentiometer wire 
when the counteracting force of the e. m. f. under investigation has been removed, 
and the battery will not be short-circuited by the slide wire. This resistance will 
have practically no effect on the accuracy of the readings as there is no current 
flowing when balance is obtained. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



29 



Current. — To read amperes "by galvanometer deflections the requirements 
are a shunt of known resistance, a standard battery, a double-throw switch and 
a variable resistance. The connections are made as shown in Fig. 11. The gal- 
vanometer is first brought hack to zero by raising or lowering the current through 
shunt, C. If this shunt was .01 of an ohm and a standard Clark cell is used, the 
battery's potential being opposed to the drop of potential in the shunt, and if 
with the double-throw switch at A , the galvanometer shows no deflection, there are 
144.2 amperes flowing through the shunt. If this current is held steady, the switch 
thrown to position, B, and sufficient resistance is added to give 144.2 deflections, 
then each division is equal to'l ampere passing through the shunt. By putting an 
ammeter in the circuit it can be calibrated throughout its scale. 

By shunts of higher or lower resistance any desired range can be secured. .1 
ohm for 15 amperes, .01 ohm for 155 amperes, .001 ohm for 1,500 amperes and .0001 
for 15,000 amperes give all the required ranges for checking up meters on a switch- 
board. The shunt can be arranged with terminals so as to plug into the switch 




Fig. 10. 



jaws when the switch is open. The galvanometer can be located at any conven- 
ient part of the building, wires leading to it from the shunt at the switchboard. If 
the test drop wires are connected together on the gallery and form part of the cir- 
cuit between the shunt and galvanometer after the proper setting up has been 
obtained for the galvanometer to read amperes from that shunt the shunt can be 
removed to the gallery and the drop points connected to the ends of the pressure 
wire, and the pressure wire connected together where they took the pressure from 
the shunt in the testing room. 

In any shunt the connection for the pressure or galvanometer wire should be 
well within the contacts that carry the main current to the shunt, and should 
never be connected to the same contact, for then the contact resistance may be 



3Q 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



included in the shunt resistance, and accurate or constant results will be difficult 
to obtain. 

In calibrating ammeters in regular use it is best to find the average load read- 
ing, and have a single stroke bell on the gallery, the man in the testing room 
giving one stroke of the bell by a push button located at his hand when the 
current attains the agreed reading in amperes. The gallery attendant then will 
note the reading of the ammeter. By repeating this a few times and averaging, 
the error of the instrument at that point can be readily discovered. 

There may be a leakage which should be removed before calibration. This is 
detected by first connecting to the live jaw of the switch, and noting if there i3 any 
permanent deflection of the galvanometer. If there is, it may be due to leakage 



TO BANK 



SHUNT 'C 



SCALE 



T 



° LAMP . 



STANDARD 

^BATTERIES 

_ o 

10000 
OHMS 




AMP.METER 
TO BE 
CALIBRATED 



VARIABLE RESISTANCE 



A 



VY 



rp 



\GALVANCME7Lfl 




SWITCH 



Fig. 11. 



of test lines or instrument; these should be discovered and insulated before pro- 
ceeding with the check measurements. 

There is often considerable magnetic disturbance around a station by which 
the galvanometer will be influenced. This can be opposed by surrounding the 
galvanometer with two cylinders of % in. sheet iron separated in the middle so as 
not to interfere with the ray of light; two short sections of wrought iron pipe are 
still better. In a d'Arsonval galvanometer the magnet is stationary and the coil 
revolves. Thus the coil turns in a strong field and is not so much affected by 
changes in the magnetic condition of the surrounding space. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK". 



31 



PRACTICAL ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS. 

Resistance Measurements.— Where it is required to compare the resistance 
of a conductor -with a standard, such as field or armature windings, the simplest 
way is to connect the resistance to he adjusted -in series with a standard resist- 
ance; then on passing the same current through both resistances they have the 
same value when the difference of potential is the same on both. This simple 
method is diagramatically shown in Fig. 12. 

Where the drop wires are lead out to a double-throw switch, so that the press- 
ure on both coils can be compared quickly by throwing the switch from one side 




WSULA710N- 



TOLA, 

BANK 



,WSU 



7 



Fig. 12. 



TEST r/ELO TERMINAL. 



Fig. 13. 



to the other, there should be sufficient current sent through the field coils to cause 
the voltmeter employed to read to nearly full scale in order to magnify any small 
differences in resistance that mav exist between the standard and the coil tested. 
Care must also be taken that the. pressure leads are distinct from the contacts 
through which the current is carried into the fields. 

A special connection is shown in Fig. 13 for this test, for fields, for clamping 
the ear projecting from the field coil, the two sides of the clamp being insulated; 




mrMETE&r\ F/ELO TEST. 




TO LAMP 
BANK 



TOGFOVND 



DIFFERENTIAL 
VOLT METER. 



Fio. 15. 



to one the current lead is attached, and to the other the lead from the voltmeter 
used in comparing. 

Tt can be readily seen that in Fig. 14 the testing current is measured; then, 
with the drop in volts known, the volts across the coil divided by the current flow- 
ing through it will give the resistance directly in ohms. 

In railway work a constant source of potential is not usually convenient, and 
under varying conditions of voltage it is tedious to get reliable results. For 



32 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



this case a method of finding the value of an unknown resistance in terms of the 
standard is shown in Fig. 15. Here the drop from both the standard resistance 
and the unknown resistance act against each other in their eCort to turn a mag- 
netic system ; consequently the deflection of the magnetic system will only be the 
resultant of these two forces. If a differential voltmeter is used and connected as 
shown in Fig. 15, the deflection of the instrument will be due to the differences in 
potential drop in the two resistances compared; from these deflections the differ- 
ences that exist between the two resistances can be determined directly, the current 
variation due to changing line voltage averaging out. 

The Thompson method, the connections for which are shown in Fig. 16, is an 
improvement over the differential method, and is especially useful for the com- 
parison of low resistances. It requires a standard resistance A £, sl galvanometer 

EF 
H, and four equal resistances or having the ratio — - . The function of these resist- 

xJ fi- 
ances, which need not be greater than 10 ohms, is to reduce the flow of current 
through the circuit leading to the galvanometer, so that all contact resistances can 
be neglected. In a conductivity bridge made for measuring copper only, A B can 




Fig. 16. 



be of copper wire, which can be made interchangeable, so that a wire of fixed 
length and standard gauge can be compared against a wire of similar dimensions 
whose conductivity is to be measured. The temperature of the standard and the 
wire under measurement must be the same. If the wire to be measured is strung 
by the side of the standard, it will shortly assume the same temperature; or a 
more expeditious way is to pass a current through both the standard and wire 
under measurement to heat them, the measurements being made while their tem- 
perature is falling. If the length of the standard be divided by the length of the 
Avire under test when a balance is obtained on the bridge, the result will be the 
conductivity in terms of the standard. If the standard is 100 units long, then the 
reading of the point of balance on the scale for the wire under test will be its con- 
ductivity in direct terms of its length. 

The resistance of a wire depends on its sectional area, and the average squares 
of the diameters should be taken in conductivity measurements. Weighing the 
standard length and dividing this weight by its length in feet and also by the 
weight of one mil foot of this conductor, will give the true average section, and 
this is the method most generally employed. 

There should be a very low resistance between the points of contact with the 
standard resistance and the rod under measurement. This is often not conven- 
ient to obtain. If the fall of potential along the standard be brought to one pair 
of terminals of a differential galvanometer or differential milli-voltmetcr and the 
potential lines from the resistance to be measured, this allows of considerable 
resistance in the circuit between the standard and the resistance to be measured. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



33 



For approximations of conductivity in commercial work, and where a gal- 
vanometer is not at hand, a considerable length of wire may be measured off; 
then, by increasing the current flow, the resistance can be measured by the volt- 
meter and ammeter method, as described in the field resistance tests. With in- 
sulated wire, it is best to submerge the wire in water in order to determine the 
temperature of the copper ; the current should be applied for as short periods as 
is possible in order to obtain reliable readings, as otherwise the heating effect will 
reduce the conductivity of the wire. 

For temperature coefficients, and standard resistances see under "Line : Prop- 
erties of Conductors." 

Wheatstone Bridge.— -The Wheatstone bridge primarily consists of a 
rheostat having two parallel circuits, one of which can be varied by cutting in 




X RESISTANCE 
TO BE MEASURED., 



Fig. 17. 



mown resistances, while in the other parallel circuit is placed the resistance to be 
neasured. If the current flow is the same through both branches of these parallel 
circuits, the resistance in the rheostat is equal to the unknown resistance under 
measurement. When on the parallel circuits equal potential points are joined by 
means of a galvanometer (see Fig. 17), then, when the galvanometer shows no 
deflection, the sections of the two paths have the proportion, A : C: : B : X. If X 
is the unknown resistance to be measured, C can be varied — if A and B are equal 
—until the galvanometer, //, reads zero ; then the current is equally divided between 
the two branches, and the resistance at Cis equal to that at X. A and B need 
not, however, be equal, but can be made of any known ratio; the same ratio will 
then exist between Cand X when the bridge is balanced. If A is 10 and B 1000, 
then the resistance of C should be multiplied by their ratio, i. e. 100, in order to 
get the value of X. If X is large the value of A is made greater than B so that C 
may be able to balance X. The reliability of the bridge method is within the 
range of y 2 of an ohm and 10,000 ohms. In the cases of low resistances the contact 
resistance where the resistance to be measured is connected to the bridge is also 
measured, causing a large element of error with low resistances, The current is 



34 



ELECTRIC RAILV/AY HAND BOOK. 



so small that a galvanometer of high sensibility has to be used in order to determ- 
ine these values with high resistances. 

Insulation Resistance.— For testing high resistances an arrangement sim- 
ilar to that 6hown in Fig. 18 is found to be very satisfactory. The connections 
are there made for testing the insulation resistance of a cable. A known length 
of the cable is placed in a tank of water, and the resistance measured between the 
conductor of the cable and the water. About 100 cells of battery are necessary, 
and the unknown resistance is compared with a standard megohm by means of a 
Thomson galvanometer. The deflection made by closing the key, A", when the 
double-throw switch is in the position shown by the solid lines, may be called A ; 
and B, that obtained with the switch thrown to the position of the dotted lines. 



Then 



A x 1,000,000 



= A r , the insulation resistance sought. 




/ MEG-OHM BO. 



TO GROUND OH SHEATH 
OF TANK OR CABLE. 



Fig. 18. 



When the unknown resistance differs greatly from one megohm it will be 
found necessary to use a shunt with the galvanometer in order that the two read- 
ings, A and B, may be on a convenient part of the scale. The shunting ratio 
should be inserted in the above formulae. 



INSULATION TEST BY VOLTMETER METHOD. 

There are required a voltmeter, F, of known internal resistance, Fig. 19, and 
a source of constant potential such as M. One method is to first determine the 
voltmeter constant, which is obtained by multiplying the voltmeter resistance by 
the initial voltage used in measuring the resistance. If we open switch, A", throw- 
ing in series with the voltmeter, the unknown resistance, A, the total electromo- 
tive force will be divided between the voltmeter and external resistance in the 



ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



35 



ratio these two resistances bear to each other. Another reading will now be ob- 
served on the voltmeter. If this reading in volts be divided into the constant for 
the voltmeter, and the resistance of the voltmeter be subtracted from this 
quotient, it will give the value in ohms of the unknown resistance, R. Thus : 




iwwvwu 

R 




Fig. 19. 

Voltmeter resistance X initial voltage 
Volts after unknown res. is in series 

Or the following formula may be employed : 
known res. = res. of voltm. X \_\ 



Unknown res. = 



Voltmeter res. 



Initial voltage 



-Volts after unknown res. is in series 



_,o] 




Fig. 20. 



In using the voltmeter for testing for grounds, it should be connected up as in 
. 20 after the initial voltage of the circuit. is known. It is necessary in this 
s to test both sides of the circuit to ground, for if there is a ground on the 
itive side, and the positive side is connected to ground, there will be a small or 
tu deflection, depending upon the difference of potential between the ground and 
the point of testing; whereas between the negative and ground nearly initial 
potential will exist, showing a nearly dead ground on the positive side of the 
system. 

If indications show voltage to ground higher than the initial voltage at that 
point, the formula does not apply; it indicates that the ground is either nearer the 
point of generation than the point of test, or an interference with other systems. 



3 6 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



DIRECT READING TESTING INSTRUMENTS. 

The Weston Instruments.— This type of instrument, largely used in rail- 
way work, consists primarily of a light rectangular frame, B (Fig. 21), pivoted at 
the center of its long axis; around this frame is wound a numher of turns of fine 
wire. This frame can rotate in a concentric circular space, through which passes 
a permanent magnetic field, and is kept in one position hy the differential action 
of two spiral springs, C C, which also carry the current into it. When a current 
flows through the coil it tends to deflect a pointer, D, which is attached to this 
frame. 

This instrument can be calibrated so as to give a scale proportional to the differ- 
ent currents flowing through the coil. If a voltmeter, it is connected across the 
leads of which the potential is required; and in serios with the leads if an ammeter. 
(See Fig. 22 for the proper connections of voltmeter and ammeter.) A Weston 




portable voltmeter for 500 volts has approximately 55,000 ohms resistance, and 
requires about .008 of an ampere for full scale deflection or 110 ohms per volt. 

The construction of the Weston ammeter is nearly the same as that of the 
voltmeter except that there is a shunt in the main circuit, and the instrument takes 
the drop across the shunt. For email instruments this shunt is in the ammeter 
case, but in station types is separate. The terminals of the instrument are marked 
-f and — , and the instrument will deflect over the scale when the positive terminal 
is connected to the positive side of the circuit. Care should be taken to see that 
the shunt leads and ammeter always bear the same shop number, for they are cali- 
brated together, and are not interchangeable. 

Nearly all station type ammeters have a constant resistance of .305 ohms; the 
current required to give full scale deflection averages .075 amperes. The resist- 
ance of the instrument and its leads being known, the length of the cable required 
as a shunt for the ammeter can be found in this way. The length of main or bus 
bar, L, is equal to the product of the resistance of the meter, including leads, 
multiplied by the current, C, required in the instrument to give full scale deflection, 
divided by the resistance of a square inch of copper 1 foot long, K. This dividend 
is again multiplied by a dividend obtained by dividing the cross- section of the bus 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



37 



bar (or cable) in square incbes, 3", by tbe maximum current, C, to be measured on 

the bus bar (or the full range of the ammeter), orI= — \ — X— • K the resist- 
or C 

ance, in case of a cable, is accurately known per foot, then the proper resistance, 

R, to be included between drop points can be found by multiplying the resistance 

of the instrument and leads by the current required by the instrument ; dividing 

this by the maximum current to be read by the instrument gives the resistances 

V x C 

required, or R — — — — , which resistance divided by the resistance per foot ef the 

cable to be used as the shunt, gives the length of cable required to give the correct 
drop for the meter to read amperes. This determination can be checked by a 



TROLLEY 



AMPERE METER 



\SHUMT 




VOLT METER 



DYNAMO 



Fig. 32. 



reading on a meter temporarily in series with the feeder or bus bar on which the 
shunt has been adjusted. 

It is often required to know the current over a number of feeders from time to 
time without the expense of a separate ammeter on each feeder, especially so on 
ground return feeders. Permanent drop points can be adjusted on the cable at 
i: some convenient place where it enters the station, and another a point at such a 
distance as to give the correct drop ; then the ammeter with the leads with which 
these shunts were adjusted to read correctly, can be connected to the drop points, 
and the current read on any feeder desired. 

POWER MEASUREMENTS. 



In order to get the power delivered to any electrical device, the constant current 
; flow in amperes multiplied by tbe vclt3 loot through the device will give the watts 
' consumed. As 746 watts are equivalent to one horse-power, the product divided by 
746 will give the horse-power absorbed. The continuous power taken can be de- 
termined by multiplying instantaneous readings of volts and amperes when both 
volts and amperes are steady, but this method does not give reliable results. 
"Where these are varying, as in a railway load, a direct reading wattmeter should 
be used. Here the main current is carried through the instrument, and also the 



3S 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



potential across the terminals of the current under measurement; the combined 
efforts of these two currents are calibrated on a scale from which the instantaneous 
watts can be read directly. (See Fig. 23 for the connections to be made with a 

70 TROLLEY 




MS 

WATT Af£T£/f. 
Fig. 23. 

wattmeter.) But these readings must be multiplied by the length of time in min- 
utes in order to get the continuous record of output in watt minutes. 

For a continuous test of power consumption, such as in a dynamo or a street 
railway equipment, an integrating wattmeter giving a summation of all energy 
delivered, is used. This meter is practically a motor whose speed varies directly 




Fig. 24. 



as the energy passing through it; and the resultant revolutions of this motor are 
recorded on a summation dial which can be read directly in watt hours. 

In Fig. 24, A, A, are the field coils; £, armature coils; C, C, copper disc; Z>,Z>, 
retarding magnets ; E, spindle; F, F, wires leading through armature coil. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



39 



TESTS ON ELECTRIC RAILWAY SYSTEMS. 

TEST FOR RESISTANCE OF INDIVIDUAL BONDS. 

The instruments required for this test are : one milli-voltmeter with zero in 
the center, two resistances, one-half ohm each, a stand like Fig. 25, or a straight 
edge like Fig. 26. In testing for individual bonds with the stand shown in Fig. 25, 
two fixed contacts bridge the rail-joint at a distance of about 12 ins. apart, and 




Fig. 25— stand fob individual bond test. 



the variable contact is moved along the rail until a balance is obtained on the 
milli-voltmeter. The scale of the stand will then read, when the keys C and D 
are both depressed, the resistance of the joint in terms of the rail length; that is, 
the length of the solid rail, which has the same resistance as the joint. 

To determine the current flow in the rail, carry the cord out until it registers 
10 ft. on the scale, and press down key D\ then the current in the rail in amperes 




DIAGRAM. 

Fig. 26 — stbaight edge fob individual bond test. 



will be the millivolts, multiplied by the weight of the rail in pounds per yard, 
divided by 8.7. 

This formula applies to steel rails not exceeding .49 of 1 per cent manganese. 
"With the straight edge shown in Fig. 26 the voltmeter reading is first taken with 
D only depressed; then with both Cand D depressed. The ratio in readings will 
then give the resistance of the bond as compared with that of straight rail. As 
usually constructed, the distance between the contact spanning the joint is 1 ft., 
and that between the contacts on the solid rail is 6 ft. This gives a ratio of 6 to 1 
and makes the bar about 7% ft. long. 



4Q 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



This test provides a more rapid way of determining defective rail-bonds than 
that given in test No. 25. The apparatus required is one special truck, made up 
of two pairs of old wheels and boxes, with one axle cut and insulated. The two 
axles should be insulated from each other by making the side framing of wood, 
and attached to this side frame should be four metallic track brushes each located 




Fig. 27— trailing truck for testing bond resistances. 

as shown in Fig.27. The other apparatus required is two voltmeters reading 3 volts 
full scale, one ammeter reading 200 amps., one motor dynamo 500 volts to 5 volts, 
and 200 amps., and a regulator to control the speed of the motor-dynamo. The 
connections are shown in Figs. 27 and 28. ' 




ami- <r/f£ /Hers* 

j 



ro row 



yOL T MfTf/t 




Fig. 28— plan view op trailing truck showing connections. 



The current from the low-potential side of the motor-dynamo" is taken to 
wheel A of the pair of wheels having an insulated axle. These wheels should be 
located furthest away from the tow-car. The metallic truck brushes are located 
as shown at D D D D, and should be as far apart as possible, but between the 



. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 41 



wheels of the truck. The path of the measuring current is from wheel A, through 
the rail to wheel £, then across the continuous axle through wheel F, then along 
the rail back to the other wheel, C, which is connected to the opposite brush of the 
ow-voltage dynamo. The voltmeters G and // measure the drop between the track 
Drushes on each side of the truck. The testing truck is towed along by a car, in 
which are located the measuring instruments, the motor-dynamo and its regulator. 
An examination of Fig. 29 will show how the voltmeter readings, as taken in 
different positions of the trail car, will determine the condition of the individual 
bonds. Assume a uniform weight of rail and the joints staggered. Then in 
Position 1 (Fig. 29), the current passes through joint B and back through rail A. 
The difference in the readings between the two voltmeters on the A and B sides 
of the car will give the resistance of joint B, as compared with solid rail. In 
Position 2, both voltmeters should read alike, if there is no cross-bonding across 
the four tracks. In the case of cross-bonding the current would be shunted 
around through the rails on the other track, and all of it would not go directly 
back through the opposite rail of the first track. The current will be diverted 
through the cross bonding, and the voltmeter readings will be less than that 



Fig. 29— direction op current plow. 

required by the amperes flowing, but the ratio of the voltmeter deflection to cur- 
rent flowing will indicate the conductivity of the cross-bonding work, as compared 
with the cross-bonding made by the car and test truck. No car should follow the 
testing truck within 1000 ft. If the road is in operation and the rails are carrying 
current, the side of the track carrying the current from the motor-dynamo will be 
increased in voltage when the test current and working current flow in the same 
direction, and when the test current is flowing against the current in the rails it 
will be decreased in voltage. When the drop in the rail is zero the current flow- 
ing from the motor-dynamo will be equal to that flowing in the rail. 

By carefully watching the voltmeter as the car proceeds, joints can be meas- 
ured in the way described at the rate of about 4 miles an hour. As the bad joints 
are found they can be marked by injecting whitewash on the roadway, and can 
then be marked permanently for repair later. 

AGGREGATE BOND TEST FOR A SECTION OF TRACK. 

The instruments required for this test are one ammeter reading 200 amps., one 
voltmeter, 30 volts, one water-barrel rheostat, one snap switch for 150 amps., and 
500 volts, and one long pole to reach the trolley wire. On a motor car place the 
water-barrel rheostat, in which have two iron plates about 14 ins. x 24 ins., sep- 
arated by slats. Connect as shown in Fig. 30. Use bicarbonate of soda in the 
water rheostat, so that with 500 volts about 140 amps, will pass. Connect the snap 
switch on the trolley side of the rheostat and the ammeter in series. Ilave the cir- 
cuit breaker opened in the station (by prearranged signals) on the feeder supplying 
the section of trolley over the track to be tested. With a No. 18 wire connect all 



4 2 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



four tracks with, the dead trolley. It is advisable to be sure first that the trolley 
is dead by reversing the trolley-pole to the dead trolley; if the lamps do not light, 
the section is open. Then the determination of the track return resistance can be 
made by first reading the volts between this dead trolley and the track, as shown 
by the voltmeter, and by dividing the reading thus obtained by the amperes flow- 
ing in that rail. 

The relative resistance of each track, as compared with the total circuit, can 
be determined by the drops on a rail length of each track. The drop between 
each rail and the dead trolley can be taken. The drop between the different rails 
will give the cross-bonding conditions. Where there is a loop or there are inter- 
secting tracks which offer other paths for the return current than the one under 
test, the current flowing back over the section under test has to be measured by 
drop on rail lengths. The current in the two paths beyond and behind the test 
car is inversely proportional to the resistances of these two return circuits. This 
gives the individual rail return resistance, and the collective rail resistance over 



Live FECD£ft~ 



0£ao 'r£eoe:A 



rstoLcer >*/#£ 



S£CT/0/Y /ASUi. A TOA 




Fig. 30— connections for aggregate bond test. 

the section under test, the cross-bonding conditions and the value of the tested 
track in its ratio with any other return circuit. If one rail is carrying less than 
the other, its bonding is poor, but effective cross-bonding with no current indi- 
cates one or more open rail joints between cross-bonds. 



TEST FOR CURRENT FLOW IN WATER PIPES. 

The instruments required for this test are one voltmeter reading 5 volts, one 
ammeter reading 15 amps., 600 ft. of No. 6B.&8. cable, 600 ft. of No. 10 B. & S. 
cable, two plug clamps like shown at A, Fig. 32, and one portable reel, shown at 
B, provided with a commutator, as shown at C. The reel should have a shelf, to 
which the instruments and switch are secured. 

If two adjacent water-plugs, which are on the same line of pipe, are connected 
together electrically, as in Fig. 32, through an ammeter and if a current is flowing 
through the pipe, a part of the current will be diverted through the external am- 
meter circuit A-B when switch E is closed. To determine the current flow in the 
water-pipe the following readings will have to be taken: volts with switch .ffopen 
which can be called V x . 

Volts with switch is closed, which can be called y 2 , also amperes flowing, A. 
If we call the normal current flow in the pipe A", then X: A'.'.V^'. V^ — V 2 . This 
is approximately correct. The results may be unreliable from the following 
causes: First, the two plugs may not be on the same water main, then the am- 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



43 



meter leads form a jumper between these two pipes, and there is a very slight 
change of voltage for considerable current flow, and apparently a very low resist- 
ance is shown. A number of adjacent plugs along a street should be measured in 
order to get the average current value. A bad pipe joint will show high voltage 



VOLT _ps^=j| 
M£7tRW^\ 


IftgmAMP. METER 




J.uJ-i:^ 




:::.— .._.:L./>tO- 


WATER PLUG 


^^j 

WATER PLU& 


' ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii ii 


1 u ur-u-u u u u 


u u u u-o u u U--IT- 


' II II III! II II II II II 



Fig. 31— diagram of connections. 

on open switch and large current with small drop in voltage when switch E is 
closed. Again, there may be considerable resistance in the lateral pipe connect- 
ing the plug to the main. When this is 'the case, the closed circuit volts will be 
low, no perceptible, or very little, current will flow, and adjacent pipe section 
readings will not approximate the values which they should show. 




ITlG. 32 — APPARATUS REQUIRED IN THIS TEST. 



TEST FOR DROP ON GROUND RETURN CIRCUITS. 

The apparatus required is the same as in test (Fig. 30). First open the circuit- 
b-eaker in the station and ground the feeder to be tested by connecting it to the 
negative bus by small fuse wire. The volts read at A, divided by the current at 
/.', will give the ground return resistance, including all paths to station. If the 
return is metallic only, the current will follow Ohm's law; if the return is partly 
metallic and partly earth the return resistance will fall with an increase in the 



44 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 



measuring current. The most convenient way is to use the longest feeder for a 
pressure feeder, and employ a tapping clamp for the pressure wire, like that shown 
in Fig. 34. 

The relative values of ground returns can also be determined by employing the 
trolley current. This test requires a five-way shunt board, as shown at C, Fig. 35, 
and an ammeter, A , to read the main current, and capable of recording 200 amps., 



UV£ F££DEff 




Fig. 33— connections tor testing the drop on ground return circuits. 

switch rheostat, one plug clamp, and four track clamps and leads and an ammeter, 
B, to read off the divided circuit shunts., "When the current from the trolley wire 
through the rheostat reaches the shunts, C, B>, F, F, 67, it splits up in proportion 
to the resistance of these various circuits. The conductivity of each circuit can 
then be obtained by seeing the proportion of the current taking each path, as 
shown by the readings of A and B. This method, however, short-circuits the 
ground resistance between rail and pipe and the apparent pipe conductivity is 
thus lower than the actual pipe return. 




Fig. 34— tapping clamp. 




Fig. 35— method of measuring 
relative values op returns. 



TEST FOR LOCAL EARTH RESISTANCE BETWEEN PIPE 
AND RALLS. 

■ The instruments required are one ammeter reading to 20 amps., one voltmeter 
reading to 20 volts, one calibrated rheostat of 20 ohms with capacity of 20 amps., 
one water-plug connection, 40 ft. of flexible table, No. 6 B. & S. ; 40 ft. of No. 10 
B. & S. cable and track clamps. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



45 



Connect all rails together and in series with the rheostat and ammeter, as 
shown in Fig. 36. Then connect the other terminal of the rheostat to a water- 
plug, then to the rail through the voltmeter. The readings to be taken are as 
follows : First, read the voltmeter with ammeter circuit open, then close the am- 
meter circuit with no resistance in rheostat and read volts and amperes ; then 



CALIBZATCD 




I 



Fig. 36 — diagram op connections for tests. 

insert enough resistance in the circuit by means of the rheostat, to make the volt- 
meter read just one-half the average volts of the previous voltmeter readings. 
Then the resistance inserted in the rheostat is equal to the resistance between the 
track and the water-pipe system. While this conclusion is not absolutely true, it 
gives results nearer the truth than the daily variation of resistance between water- 
pipes and the rail-return circuit. 

The practical purpose of this test and that of Fig. 31 is to locate metallic con- 
nections between rails and subterranean pipes, to determine neutral territory 




Fig. 37— diagram of connections for test. 



where there is no tendency for the current to leave the rails or pipe system, and 
to localize the districts where the current leaves the water-pipe system and enters 
the rails; this is the district where destructive electrolysis may occur. 

The above tests will not give all the necessary information regarding elec- 
trolytic conditions to indicate the correct remedy. The next test (Fig. 3?) is also 
necessary. 



46 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



TEST FOR RELATIVE CONDUCTIVITY OF RAIL AND PIPE 
RETURNS. 

The instruments required are a water rheostat, ammeter reading 200 amps., 
and a quick-break switch, all of which are mounted on a test car. In the station, 
the ground return of the system is broken, and an ammeter reading some 200 
amps, is in the circuit from the rails to the bus. Another ammeter is inserted be- 
tween the water-pipe system and the ground return bus, and a voltmeter is in- 
serted between the water-pipe system and the rail return connection, as shown in 
Fig. 37. 

The following precautions are necessary : There should be no load on the 
railway system except the artificial load thrown in on the test car. This can be 
readily detected, since there should be no reading on ammeter A when the con- 
troller on the test car is open. It is necessary to introduce a resistance in the 
ammeter lead between the water-pipe and the ground return bus, so that the volt- 
meter readings will not be below their normal values, unless the negative bus bar 
is connected normally to the water-pipe system at the station. In this case such 
connections must be removed in making this test, but no resistance need be in- 




FlG. 38 — DIAGRAM OF CONNECTIONS FOR TEST. 

serted. Different points should be selected along the route at which to make tests. 
These points should be numbered in consecutive order in such a way that the test 
car will pass them in a regular order, marking them up on one track and down 
the other in double-track roads. 

The test car is then brought to a stand at station No. 1, and the load is put 
on through the rheostat by means of the switch, rising gradually from 100 to 200 
amps. This current can pass back to the station through two routes, one through 
ammeter A and one through ammeter B. The reading of ammeter A are to those 
of ammeter B, as the conductivity of the rail return system is to that of the pipe 
circuit. The readings of voltmeter C will rise and fall, depending upon the re- 
sistance between the rails and earth return in the . locality of the station. By 
plotting out these relations throughout the railway system, those parts of the 
system which have to be protected may be clearly located by studying the con- 
ductivity of the two systems at different points. Metallic connections between 
the railway and the water-pipe can also be readily located in this way. 

TEST FOR LOCATION OF GROUNDS OR LEAKS. 

This test requires the use of the water-barrel rheostat, the two ammeters and 
the connections to fit the jaws, as in the previous test. The connections are shown 
in Fig. 38. If the leak is considerable the feeder ammeters will show its approxi- 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



47 



mate location by the relative readings, but if the current is slight, low reading 
ammeters will have to be used. 

As an example, suppose it be found that the resistance of feeder A was .15 
ohms, that of feeder B .3 ohms, and that of the trolley wire between A and B .25 
ohms; the total resistance of this circuit would then be .7 ohms. It will be noticed 
that:the current can take two paths to the leak, but the resistance of the leak is 
common to both circuits, consequently the current will pass to this leak through 
the circuits in the proportion that the resistance of these two circuits bear to each 
other. Suppose the readings on the two ammeters show that for the circuit A 20 
amps, pass, and that for the circuit B 12 amps, pass, the total current flow being 
32 amps. Then for A we have the proportion, 32 amps, is to 20 amps., as .7 ohms 
(the total resistance of the circuit) is to X (the resistance to the point of leak). 
For the B circuit we have 32 : 12 : : .7 : X. Solving this gives for the circuit 
through A, .437 ohms, and through B .2625 ohms. Subtracting the known resist- 
ance of B feeder from the resistance of B circuit gives .0125 ohms, from the end 
of B to the ground, and subtracting from the A circuit the resistance of A feeder 




FlG. 39— DIAGRAM OF CONNECTIONS FOR TEST. 

(.437— .15) leaves .287 ohms, beyond the end of A feeder to the ground. If we know 
that the length of the trolley from A to B is, say, 2400 ft. and uniform cross section 
we may divide the resistance of this length by its length, or .3 ohms by 2400 ft., 
which is equivalent to .000125 per foot. If this resistance per foot is divided into 
the found resistance from B to ground, or .0125 ohms, we have 102 ft. from B. The 
same calculation on the A circuit would give 2296 ft., which is the distance from 
A. Any other leak on the system can be located by removing the ground con- 
nection from the ground bus and applying it to any other feeder terminal with all 
the feeder switches open. Any connection to each independent section will then 
show if there is a leak. 

TEST FOR LINE RESISTANCE. 



The apparatus required for this test is a water rheostat, an ammeter reading 
about 100 amps., a voltmeter reading about 250 volts, and two connectors that will 
fit the jaws of a feeder switch and be capable of carrying a load of about 50 amps. 
The connections are shown in Fig. 39. It will be noticed that the current passes 
from the water rheostat through the ammeter, out through feeder Cto C 1 , along 
the trolley line to A T , and back to the ground bus at the station, through the jaw 
of switch A . Now if the voltmeter pressure between A and B and the current 
flow are known, then the volts divided by the current, will give the resistance of 
the feeder (7, and that of the trolley line from C to B 1 . Similarly the pressure be- 



4 S 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



tween B and C, when divided by the current flow, will give the resistance of the 
trolley wire from B 1 to A 1 , and the resistance of feeder A. By shifting the ground 
bus to the jaw of the switch for feeder B and again putting the load on the system, 
the volts dropped between A and B, divided by the current flowing, will give the 
resistance of feeder B. This principle can even be applied to complicated over- 
head feeder systems, which can be temporarily tied together by putting jumpers 
around the line circuit breakers, and all the electrical data, from the overhead 
line to the power station can be determined. 

TEST FOR EQUALIZATION OF COMPOUND WOUND 
GENERATORS. 

The circuits that affect the mutual compounding of generators, working in 
multiple, are the series winding A 1 , equalizers B 1 , and generator leads D l , Fig. 
40. To operate compound wound generators in multiple so that they will carry 
varying loads in proportion to their outputs the following rules must be observed : 



DYNAMO NO. J 



h— #-i| 



- — B » } , 

EQUALIZC« 1 f A* »j 



-o'-.-Jp' 




-hOpw 



H AJ -i 



•<fcM 




Fig. 40— equalizer at switchboard. Fig. 41— equalizer at generator. 



that the resistance A 1 , B T and D l constitute those resistances which are involved 
in properly equalizing the generators, and that the conductivity of the equalizer 
circuits for each generator must bear the same ratio to the conductivity of all 
equalizing circuits in multiple, as the output of each generator bears to the total 
output of all generators. 

First, consider equalizing generators of the same design and output. The 
usual method of connecting is shown in Fig. 40. To make these generators work 
properly together it is necessary that the resistance between the equalizer bus E 
and bus F be the same for all generators, aud that bus E should not have any 
appreciable resistance. Or the equalizers may be directly tied together, as in Fig. 
41. If generator No. 1 is on the bus, and it is required to throw generator No. 2 in 
parallel with it, equalizer switch F- (Fig. 40) is thrown. This has no effect until 
switch F- is thrown. Then the current flows through the series-coil of No. 2 and 
is diverted from the series winding of the operator generator. The amount of 
current thus diverted depends on the ratio of the two parallel circuits. 

When generator No. 2 is brought up to speed and bus voltage, switch IF 1 is 
thrown in, and the current gradually fades out of the equalizer connection as gen- 
erator No. 2 takes its portion of the load. The equalizer connection has the func- 
tion of maintaining the same voltage at the terminals of the two machines, and 
there will be no tendency to cross-compound. 



ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



49 



Where similar dynamos are located at different distances from the switch- 
board their equalizing connections must all be equal in resistance to the leads of 
the generator farthest distant, if the same current density has been figured on all 
the leads. In equalizing generators of different designs and outputs the same 
relation of equalizing circuits must exist between the different machines as in 
similar one, except that the resistance of the different equalizer circuits decreases 
as the output of the generator increases. In other words, the drop between the 
equalizer bus-bar and series bus-bar must be the same for all units working in 
parallel, where fully loaded; or the maximum current delivered by a unit, multi- 
plied by the resistance of its equalizer circuit, must be equal to a constant, which 
is CR = E. 

Two methods of connecting equalizers are recommended. In one the equal- 
izers are taken back to the switchboard (Fig. 41), and in the other the equalization 





I u 

MOTOt 


1 J 1. J L I 


1 


1 1 






TS //V S£fi/£S 












H 




AJ^IP METSt 










o o 


d m 


A 


J3\ 






w AAI& /yJE-Tex 


4g^> 


roosoxj sirmat 


//?f \ 










Fig. 42 and fig. 43— testing fob the equalization of motors. 

is at the generators. The only advantages gained by the first method is that the 
equalizing connection is under the control of the switchboard attendant, but as 
the resistance of the equalizer leads is thereby increased the machines do not tend 
to divide the load so readily between themselves, and act more as independent 
machines in multiple. 



TEST FOR EQUALIZATION OF MOTORS. 

The instruments required in the case of an ammeter test are two ammeters, 
both reading to 150 amp., inserted in the armature leads, as shown in Figs. 42 and 
43. In the case of a voltmeter test, the instruments required are two voltmeters 
reading 30 volts, tapping across the fields at AB and CD. 

In a two-motor equipment it is necessary for the maximum efficiency of the 
equipment that the two motors perform the same duty. To determine whether 
they are equal or not it is necessary to put an ammeter in each motor circuit, or a 



50 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



voltmeter reading 30 volts across each field (Fig. 44), and if the motors are doing 
uniform duty in the multiple position the drop across the fields will be the same 
at different speeds. 

With a wide gap between the armature and fields in one motor and a narrow 
gap in the other and the motor resistance high in the motor with the small gap, 
the load carried by these two motors will vary with the speed of the equipment. 
If the two motors are fed through a water rheostat in the multiple position, both 
ammeters, in the case of the ammeters' test, and voltmeters in case the drop is 
taken across the fields for equalization, should register the same amount, pro- 
vided the motors have been equalized as to the resistance of the two motor circuits 
when the equipment is stationary. But it does not necessarily follow that the 
motors, which have been equalized when stationary, remain so in operation, for 
this depends upon the field density. So motors can be tested for equalization 
only while operating. 



TESTS ON EQUIPMENTS. 

Tocation of Faults.^To locate equipment leaks, tie down the trolley pole 
out of contact with the trolley wire, open the controller and take .off cover, bring 




VOLT METER EQ.UAUZJNG TEST. 
Fig. 44. 



the negative end of a 500 volt voltmeter lead to the platform with an insulated 
handle, one end of which enters the flexible test cord, and the other terminates in 
a sharp phosphor-bronze point. 

With the controller off and reverse open and both head switches closed, first 
make contact with T as marked on the different types of controller diagrams, 
Figs. 45, 46 and 47. If there is no deflection of the voltmeter, it means no ground. 
A deflection will occur if lamp circuit is closed, or if there is a leak through the 
car wiring. This test should show over a megohm, and the deflection should be 
under 20 volts with 500 volts initial testing current. 

With a 60,000 ohm voltmeter, by taking out the lamps the ground can be 
located in the lighting circuit; a lightning arrester ground will then show, or if 
there is a ground in the fuse box. If the trolley stand is grounded, the grounds 
will go off on opening the head switches. On disconnecting the lightning arrester 
ground, if the ground goes off, the spark gap is probably short-circuited. 

Grounding with voltmeter terminal on R x in A~ 2 , the controller gives rheostat 
ground only. In No. 14, -f- 2 gives one resistance of rheostat only. In type G, -f- 1 
gives both rheostat and field of No. 1 motor, which have to be separated at con- 
tact %-F-l -4- and tested separately. For the armature of No. 1 motor, AA x oxy. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



5i 



the reverse; for IC 2 , A x -f- on the reverse. For No. 1 armature and rheostat in 
No. 14 controller, .,4 j -j- on the reverse in "Westinghouse type G; F x for field of 
No. 1 motor for ground in IC 2 ; F x -\- for field of No. 1 motor for ground in No. 14. 
Field of No. 1 tested with rheostat in G controller, Armature No. 2 motor in 
K 2 controller, test from A 2 . Armature No. 2 motor, ground connection has to be 
removed, or brush taken out of motor on ground side in No. 14 controller and 
test from A 2 . A 2 will give ground from reverse of No. 2 armature in type G. For 
field No. 2 motor, ground connection has to be taken off ground to test insulation 
in A* 2 , and test from F». 




Fig. 45.— k 2 general electric controller. 



F 2 -f- on the reverse gives ground on No. 2 field, "Westinghouse No. 14. F 2 -f- 
on the G controller gives field ground of No. 2 motor in controller. 

For test to ground on any contact finger to controller base, remove connection 
to that finger and test finger for ground. 

For ground on any contact ring or cylinder, test the different rings with con- 
troller open. 

To save time and calculation the resistance in series with the voltmeter can 
be figured once for all, and a scale pasted on the glass of the voltmeter marked to 
correspond with the resistance in series with the voltmeter to give the different 



52 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



deflections ; or curves can be laid out between the volts deflection and resistance 
for several different initial voltages, and in this way volt readings can be easily- 
reduced to insulation resistances. 

Equipment Resistances from Trolley to Ground. — For this test is 
required a 10-ampere lamp bank w T hich can be made up of lamp sockets and lo- 
cated anywhere in the car barn or repair shop. A convenient arrangement for 
this is shown in Fig. 48. Using 4-watt lamps will give better results with varying 
current. Locate the lamps at least 6 ins. between centers both ways, so that their 
heat will not reduce their life; lG-candle-power blackened car lamps will answer 
as well as new lamps. In series with the 8 banks of 16 use a rheostat of 4 amps. 




Fig. 46.— we stinghottse 14-controller. 



capacity and 15 ohms resistance, and about 20 steps, so that the test current can 
be adjusted to exactly 10 amps, through the ammeter. 

To connect into the equipment, pull down the trolley pole and hook over it 
the connecting hook, shown in Figs. 49 and 53. It is best to use a separate 
ground connection to a ground return feeder if possible, for the cars running on 
the main track will vary the ammeter readings, making it necessary to continu- 
ally adjust the rheostat in order to keep the ammeter at 10 amps. This ground 
connection is best made by inserting between the brake shoe and wheel a thin 
copper plate (Fig. 51) to which the ground lead is attached. If a voltmeter read- 
ing 150 volts together with a 15-volt coil, are connected between the trolley lead 



ELECTRIC RAILWA V HAND BOOK, 



53 



and ground lead, and there are 70 amps, flowing through the equipment, then 
each volt division will be & of an ohm in the circuit and by the drop. 

The resistance for each step of the controller can be read direct by adjusting 
the current to 10 amps, by means of the rheostat and bank switches. 

The following is given as the average reading in ohms for some of the equip- 
ments ordinarily found in practice after operating for some time. These results 
were obtained by the use of rheostat, Fig. 53. 




Fig. 47.— westinghotjse cohtkolleb. 



Type 


Type 
Controller. 


Equip- 
ment 
Temp. 
Fahr. 


Average Total Resistance on each Step. 


Motors. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


2-12 A 

2-12 A 

2-G E 800 

Type C Steel 

2-No. 12 West. 


28 A 

i 10 

D 

G 
14 


65 degs. 
67 degs. 
75 degs. 

62 degs." 

70 degs. 
65 degs. 


7.20 
6.80 
8.68 
2.64 
14.24 
8.75 
7.36 


4.93 
4.32 
4.17 
2.45 
6.18 
6.40 
5.30 


3.56 
3.55 
2.70 
2.10 
5.09 
2.54 
3.10 


2.87 
3.10 
2.16 
1.40 
2.15 
6.10 
3.08 


2.91 
2.57 
2.02 
2.13 
1.10 
3.75 
1.92 


.78 
2.41 
2.63 
1.25 


.78 
1.69 
1.13 

.30 


i!o7 

.63 


!78* 

.585 


2-No. 12 West. 
2-No. 12 West. 


.95 
.95 




:::: 


:::: 



The practical objections to test (as shown in Fig. 48) are that it is laborious, 
and requires constant adjustment to keep the current at a fixed value; also, 



54 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



around any open there will be 500 volts, and a mistake will injure the voltmeter; 
and, again, with high potential the operator runs the hazard of a shock. In 
order to overcome these objections test, Fig. 52 was devised. 

This requires a 4-amp. lamp bank, a milli voltmeter reading zero at the 



soap. 



J6C.P. 




<-OOCKX> 



ME0STAT. 
7HM$ 



Fig. 48. 



center of the scale, and a standard adjusted bridge reading to 20 ohms by T £ B ohm 
divisions, and capable of carrying 4 amps, without any appreciable error. It is 
convenient to locate the bank on top of the bridge box. 

The principle on which this test is made is indicated in Fig. 53. Here the 




Fig. 49. 



bank current splits through % ohm balancing arms and, when the current in 
both branches is equal, the milli voltmeter stands at zero. The variable resist- 
ance can be adjusted until this balance is obtained. Then the resistance in the 
rheostat is equal to the resistance in the car circuit. This method overcomes the 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



55 



variation of potential continually taking place when testing with trolley circuits; 
for the rise and fall of potential affects both branches equally, and the sensibility 
of the instrument and not the zero of the instrument is affected. The measuring 
circuit to ground plate being always connected, there is no danger of the operatoi 
on the equipment receiving a shock. 

To find opens remove the ground connection from under the brake shoe and 





CONTACT HOOK 

for car test: 

Fig. 50. 



&R0UMD CO/YTACT 
£ETW££/V 3RM£- 
•SM0£ A/VO W//££L. 

Fig. 51. 



turn the controller until the bank lights up, which indicates passing an open. To 
locate low resistance grounds, replace the ground plate, remove the*car ground 
connections and move the controller until the lowest resistance point is found. 
The connection from this point of the controller leads to ground. 



TROLLEY V 
2 SERIES OF J -JO C.P LA> MPS. 



MILL! V01TM£T£A 



<^%) 



UMTS HUNDREDTHS 



Ms 



>swtch 



9L 




Fig. 52. 



A car rheostat varies considerably in resistance especially when used on 
heavy grades. The G. E. rheostat as a rule falls in resistance with use, while the 
"Westinghouse, Walker and Steel rise in resistance with use. Similar equipments 
may vary between each other 80^ on the resistance steps. 

For testing the armature and field resistance when in the equipment, it is 
best to take two insulated volt test handles and stab the bars on the commutator. 



56 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



which, project from under each, brush, and read the volts; or a metal brush can 
be made having in it a pressure point lead like shown in Fig. 54, and substituted 
for the carbon brush and the resistance of armature thus obtained. For this test 
there should be a 15-volt scale on the 150-volt voltmeter connected across the test 
brushes, as the controller contacts and wiring give rise to too large a variable to 
Include them in this resistance test. The fields can be tested by means of plugs 



TROLLEY 
IVH££L 



CALIBRATED RHEOSTAT 

20 OHMSBT'/OOO 




SOO yoiT 
C/RCO/T 



2AMPERES 

CAPAC/T^ 
JT/TH .000/2 

UMP. CQ£*j 



CAR WH££L 



&ROC//YD 



TO TROLLEY 




MILL1 Y0L7ME7ER 
0- /H CENTER 



TO ground plate 

TO TffOLLEY WHEEL 



Fig. 53. 



Shown in Fig. 34, clamped to the field wire leads with the connection shown in 
Fig. 44.' Burnt-out fields are' indicated by a lower resistance than the standard 
set for each type of motor. When cold these fields may appear to be normal and 
they should be measured when hot if possible. 

In order to measure the temperature of a motor by field resistance, it should 
be borne in mind that the resistance of copper increases .21 of 1% for each degree 
rise in Fahr. A Westinghouse 12A field measures cold approximately .575 ohms 
at 60° Fahr. If the motor comes in hot and measures .620 ohms, the temperature 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



5* 




can be found by dividing the increase in resistance, .065, by the resistance of 
I field at 60°, .575, which gives 11.3# rise; dividing this again by .21 will give 53.8° 
• Fahr. increase, or 113.8° Fahr. actual temperature. 

The armature of this motor measures about .303 ohms at 60; its temperature 
i can be obtained in the same way by resistance measurements. Curves 'aid out for 
j temperature corresponding to hot resistances give the rise direct, and save com- 
j putation each time. Again this is useful for locating poorly soldered armature 
leads, which will show high when hot. If the calculated temperature is higher 
than the temperature as shown by a thermometer placed on the body of the arma- 
ture and protected from external radiation by waste placed over the bulb, then 
the armature should be tested for faults. 

TEST FOR POWER CONSUMPTION IN STREET RAILWAY 
EQUIPMENTS. 

The power consumption of an electric street car passing over a given route at 
a specified schedule will vary when any one of a number of conditions are 

PRESSURE LEAD 

FIBER BUSHING 

^ II 

If 

f/SER BU5HIN& 

Fig. 54. 

changed. Density of traffic (which will vary the number of strops), the location of 
stops, the loading of the car, condition of track and obstruction of headway, all 
introduce conditions in the operation of the car affecting the amount of power 
required to propel it over the route. In comparing the different types of cars 
among themselves the variable? are the motorman, trucks and length and weight 
of car bodies and method of control. In comparing different sections of tracks 
the variables are grades, condition of road bed, potential of power delivery and 
track construction. Tests must be made to determine these variables in order 
that the result of the different tests on different roadways under the various condi- 
tions that arise in practice may be compared. Of course, a number of these 
variables need be determined only where definite values are to be fixed, but 
methods for making all the determinations will be given. 

The first variable usually determined is the power value of a start. This value 
varies with the grade, the time allowed for acceleration and the method of motor 
control. Where a mixed car equipment is used on the road one car is selected, 
which type represents the average conditions of all the types used. In order to 
make these determinations a portable integrating wattmeter should be connected 
so that all the current passes through the series winding, as shown in Fig. 55 and 
the armature connected between trolley and ground; also in series with the watt- 
meter is an ammeter, A , through which all the current supplied to the motor 
passes and the line potential is read on the voltmeter, V, 

Switch 6" should also be connected so that the armature of the wattmeter can 
be disconnected from the line potential. In order to determine when the car has 



53 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



reached its maximum speed on level track, ammeter readings should be taken 
when the car is passing ever a level stretch of track with the controller on the 
last notch; the constant current taken under these conditions required by the 
equipment will be the maximum level run constant. This constant can be 
determined on different points of the controller where the car can be continu- 
ously operated. 

For the determination of the power value of a start from the state of rest to 
maximum speed, the car should be stopped at a marked position on the track 
where it will have at least 600 ft. clear headway and the reading of the integrating 
wattmeter taken. The pressure switch which connects the wattmeter armature 
across the line is now thrown in. The car is started up with regular time between 
controller points and the rise and fall of the current through the ammeter 
watched carefully. The instant the current has fallen to the maximum speed 
value previously determined, open switch A, and at the same instant note the 
point that the car is passing. A number of starts will have to be made from the 







Fig. 55. 



flame point and the car brought to full speed within the same distance, until the 
total watts consumed, divided by the number of starts, will give the same con- 
stant. Maximum speed constants will have to be determined for the different 
grades on the road, for different loadings of the car and different points of the 
controller and curves plotted for these results. These determinations are used in 
connection with the following tests in order that the power consumption of the 
cars in practical operation at different times of traffic density may be compared. 

Different rates of acceleration can be determined in the same way, and the 
distance and energy required to get to maximum speed. From these tests, then, 
the best method of handling the controller can be developed, both for schedule 
required and economy in power consumption, by making test runs over track 
sections and varying the method of handling the controller, both in the series mul- 
tiple and loop positions, for different grades. 

To determine the kilowatt consumption per car mile under the practical traffic 
conditions of a road and the power required by different kinds of car bodies, 
trucks and equipments, a section of tracks should be selected which represents 
the average track condition of the system, which should not be less than three 
miles long. A profile of this section will help to analyze the results, but the fol- 






ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 59 



lowing precautions must be taken in getting data from these runs so that the 
different cars will be comparable as to power consumption. If the wattmeter is 
read only at fixed intervals of time or distance or when an equal number of watts 
have been metered, the values apply only for a level track. Where there are 
several grades in the test section, readings of the wattmeter should be taken at 
the moment the car reaches the top of the grade, going in both directions over the 
test track. This will obviate the error introduced by drifting, for an easy run- 
ning truck over a variably graded track may show a very high economy, with the 
car passing in one direction. This is due to the fact that the motors are working 
at full efficiency for a a short time while climbing a short sharp grade, and after 
reaching the top, the car may drift for a long distance; yet in the return trip the 
motors will not be worked economically while climbing along moderate grades to 
reach the top, and have only a short period of rest while drifting down the steep 
short grade. Also, if the car stops at the end of the test track at a level lower or 
higher than at the beginning, the complete run to the end and back is the only 
one that will give comparable values as to power consumption. These points 
must be borne in mind in arranging the test, so that seemingly contradictory 
results will not be obtained. 

The other data to be obtained on these runs are the times which elapse be- 
tween the start and finish of the test runs. All stops should be noted, and all 
stops longer than thirty seconds should be timed. When the car is left running on 
a particular point of the controller, it should be noted. The maximum current rise 
and the running current values with the line voltage for both these values should 
be noted, where specific values are to be determined for a different car equipment; 
but these variables can be averaged out and a practical average car consumption 
value per car mile can be obtained if a large number of runs over the same test 
track for each equipment tested be averaged. 

A wattmeter in the station will show higher watt readings per car mile than 
those shown on a car test, as the readings will be increased by the line drop and 
ground return losses. These values will vary as the distance from the station 
increases and with the economy of the distribution system. 

Data used for figuring the power consumption of electric cars as usually 
given, are baaed on a false assumption, when these data are applied to the car 
mounting grades, as it is assumed that the car continues to mount the grade at 
the same speed as it travels on the level. The usual method is to take the cur- 
rent required for the level speed and add to it the energy in current necessary to 
raise the weight of the total equipment through the elevation attained by mount- 
ing the grade in one minute of time— mounted, as grades are in practice, with no 
resistance in series with the motors, in either a series or parallel combination. 

It is evident that the only way more energy can be supplied to the motors 
with a constant line voltage, is when they drop in speed and reduce their counter 
e. m. f., so that more current can flow. Consequently, the above assumption wilj 
lead to erroneous results, as the car will at all times adjust itself to such a speed 
as to obtain the maximum energy for mounting any grade when there is no 
external resistance in series with the motors. This makes the grade determina- 
tions of power consumption very important, as they cannot be figured with the 
degree of accuracy required for power consumption determinations, due to the 
large number of variables which affect the current flow through the motors ; but 
it is a wise plan to use the above approximate method in figuring the railway 
feeders as it introduces a factor of safety in railway feeder calculation which is 
usually neglected. 

While the wattmeter gives the operating economy of the equipment as regards 



6o 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK 



the demand on the power station, it does not indicate the best economy of operation 
with respect to the heating effect on the equipment; and as the depreciation and 
repairs of motors are largely dependent on the temperatures at which they are 
operated, the integrating wattmeter is not a criterion of the best method under 
a varying potential delivery due to feeder and return drops. The reason of this is 
that the heating effect is a function of the square of the current, whereas the motor 
heating per car mile will increase a great deal more rapidly than the watts per 
car mile, when operated under potentials lower than those for which the equip- 
ment was designed. 

TEST FOR MOTORMAN'S CHARACTERISTICS. 

To obtain the motorman's characteristics for running his motors, the maximum 
ammeter readings have to be taken in connection with wattmeter readings. On 
starting it is also necessary to take the volts delivered to the equipment, for as the 



- THERMOMETER 



ASBESTOS 

PAPEJ* 




Fig. 56. 



volts fall, the efficiency of the equipment falls, and therefore a mile-run on a part 
of the system distant from the power station will not show the efficiency of a 
mile-run of the equipment under the same conditions near the power station. 

The average motorman's characteristics can be more clearly ascertained by the 
C 2 J? effect of the current which results in heating the motors. They can be meas- 
ured by making a motor calorimeter (Fig. 56) as follows : A wrought iron spool has 
a hole drilled at the top to receive a thermometer and is filled with mercury ; around 
the spool is wound No. 6 B. & S. copper wire for double motor equipments, and 
No. 5 B. & S. copper wire for four motor equipments. The main current to the 
motor is carried through the calorimeter which is insulated to have practically 
the same rate of radiation as the motor; tben the tempcratuies obtained by the 
calorimeter correspond to the motorman's efficiency in handling the motors. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



61 



ACCELERATION AND BRAKING TEST. 

The same connections that are used in the above test are used in testing the 
efficiency of acceleration, with the addition of the apparatus shown in Fig. 57. 
This instrument, which is located in the car, consists of a long pendulum, A, 
arranged parallel to the rails, and a pencil carrier, E, which is moved over a sheet 
of paper, D, by means of a fine cord belt, F, passing over rollers, C,C,C,C. The 
paper may be fed along by hand, clockwork, or may be connected to the car axle 
by a belt, B. 

The zero line is made for the pencil carrier when the pendulum, A, is hanging 
plumb. On starting the car the pendulum bob will be deflected and as long as 




Fig. 57, 



the car is accelerating, will not return to the zero line; as soon, however, as It 
reaches the zero line again, the car has finished its acceleration. The wattmeter 
is first read before the car is started and again when the pencil carrier returns 
to zero. 

It is convenient to have a switch in the pressure line which can be opened 
the instant the acceleration has ceased, and the wattmeter is read. To find 
the distance required for acceleration, if the paper is fed from an axle which 
is not driven by a motor, its rate of feed can be calculated or calibrated very easily 
by a few test runs between known distauces. 

In making a brake test the pencil travels in the direction opposite from zero. 



62 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



Here the time is noted as soon as the hand leaves zero until it returns again, and 
if the paper has progressed in a ratio to the movement of the car, this curve will 
give the relative braking effect of the shoes on the wheels. 

Where acceleration is to be determined on grades, the pendulum will draw 
curves on the paper proportional to the grade over which it passes; in this case, 
therefore, the zero is to be marked at the instant of applying the brake, and the 
braking effect refers to this zero and not to the level track zero. The same pre- 
cautions must be used in acceleration tests. 

When an ammeter is placed in series with both motors in arj equipment 
(generally most conveniently done by taking out the fuse and substituting am- 
meter leads), the ammeter will show a large flow of current when the controller is 
put on the first point. This rush of current will not reach that which should be 
shown by dividing the line potential by the equipment resistance, due to the 
momentary inductance of the motors. As soon as the equipment moves, the cur- 
rent will be found to fall, due to the counter electromotive force of the motor 
armatures, that is, the armatures are revolving in their fields, and in them is 
induced a potential which in direction is against the potential of the current 
operating the motor; this produces a throttling action in effect like that of a 
resistance in the motor circuits. Due to this the resistance can be cut out of series 
with the motors as they rise in speed. 

The ideal acceleration is one in which a constant current flow would be main- 
tained through the equipment, and the resistance would be cut out as the accelera- 
tion increases the counter electromotive force of the motors (until the equipment 
has reached maximum speed). For methods of approximating these resistances 
for the different types of equipments and controllers, see under "Equipment 
Adjustments." 

There are three methods that can be used for acceleration tests. One, the 
stationary current values, the time and total distance; the second, the fixed time 
between controller points, reading the current and total distance; and the last, 
fixed distance, current and time variables. 

The test track can be marked with eleven numbered stakes 100 ft. apart for 
1000 ft.. The track should be practically level. With high speed equipments 
a 1500 ft. stretch is necessary when the first method is used. 

The acceleration tests on an equipment with K 10 controller and two 12A West- 
inghouse 30 hp. motors give the following results of current on each step : 

Steps: 1 2 345 6 789 

Equipment up to standard 68 35 26 23 20 68 71 63 52 

" with badly proportioned and \ 100 „„ 2? 27 22 120 70 „ m 

low rheostat resistance f'- lw u ^ Zi zz U[j ' u bo w 

" with baked fields in motor 120 97 85 84 82 130 100 95 90 

Running alone with No. 1 motor 140 110 90 64 50 

" No. 2 " 160 130 100 80 82 

showing the location of the bad fields in No. 2 motor. With a stop watch bad 
fields can be located by first running between fixed points, from 1000 to 2000 ft. 
apart, with motor No. 1 alone and taking the time elapsed between passing both 
posts, then going over the route again with No. 2 motor. The time to cover the 
distance should be the same for both motors if they are both good, or both burnt 
out (which is rarely the case without the fuses going so as to indicate trouble). 
This is also a good test to discover whether the fields are properly connected up. 

In K type controllers do not use the loop around fields as these loops vary in 
resistance enough to affect the running times and thus throw suspicion on the 
fields. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



63 



MOTOR TESTS FOR REPAIR SHOPS. 

The Prony brake method is sometimes used where the efficiency of the motor 
is to be determined. A double flanged pulley, as shown in Fig. 58, is belted 
to the axle shaft, and over it is fitted a short hard wood beam; a brake strap of 
rope or sheet iron lined with wooden shoes is arranged so that it can be tightened 




Fig. 58. 

or loosened by the nuts, D D, At a fixed distance from the center of the axis 
is a notch, F, in the lower side of the lever which rests on a knife edge, as at 
G; this is mounted on the platform of an ordinary weighing scales. This beam 
should be balanced so that the end of the beam will not rest with weight on the 



.— 



TROLLEr 



SWITCH 



37ART/A/6 
fi£S> OR 
WATER 
AH £0 STAT 




AMP£R£ 
M£T£R 

VOLT, 
/H£TER 



platform scales; rubber washers, IV ^ are interposed to deaden the vibration from 
Fto the scales. 

The motor is connected up as shown in diagram, Fig. 59, the voltmeter across 
the motor and the ammeter in series with it. In addition, a tachometer is required 
to read the speed of the motor. The water barrel rheostat is best where the 
voltage varies, so that the test can be made under identical conditions of line 
potential by varying the rheostat. 



6 4 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



After switching on the current and starting the motor, any desired load can 
be obtained by tightening the nuts and drawing up the eye-bolts, thus increasing 
the friction between beam and pulley. If the horizontal distance from the center 
of the pulley to the bearing point of the beam on the scale platform were equal to 
the radius of the car wheel the pounds indicated upon the scale would be the 
pull at the periphery of the car wheel for the current passing; if this distance 
were equal to four times the radius of the car wheel, the scale reading should be 

r/touir 




Fig. 60. 



multiplied by four to obtain the pull at the car wheel. By placing a tachometer 
against the end of the axle, a speed reading, usually in revolutions per minute, at 
any load may also be obtained. To calculate the horse-power developed by the 
motor for any given amount of current passing, proceed as follows: Multiply by 
two the radial distance in feet and decimal parts from the center of the pulley 
to the center of the notch on the beam and this result by 3.1416, which gives the 
circumference of the sweep of the beam were it free to move; multiply this result 
by the revolutions per minute, as read from the tachometer, and the result is the 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



65 



speed in feet and decimal parts per minute. Multiply this calculated speed by 
the pressure the beam exerts against the scale platform, when balanced, and 
divide the result by 33,000, which gives the horse-power exerted by the motor; and 
dividing the horse-power exerted by the horse-power supplied (which is obtained 
by multiplying the amperes and volts together and dividing by 74G) gives the 
efficiency of the motor. In this is included the friction of gearing and axle. 

TESTING MOTORS: MOTOR-DYNAMO METHOD. 

Here the Pronv brake is replaced by another motor. Both motors should 
be coupled together by a chuck, which will slip over both pinions on the ends of 
the motor shafts with screws set down between the teeth on both pinions ; the 

TROLLEY 



switch 



STARTING 
RES. OR 
WATER 
#H£OSTA T 



DY/VAMO 
F/ELD. 



JMMJL 




AMPERE 
AfET£R 

VOLT 
M£T£A. 



COUPLED TOGEME* 
M£C//AAf/CALLK 



GROUHD WATER 

PHEOSTAT 



Fig. 61. 



motors will then rotate together. Fig. 60 shows a diagram of the Connections 
required for testing two pairs of motors at once. With the switches closed, the 
Westinghouse 3 and the G. E. 1200 would be operating as motors and the G. E. 800 
and the G. E. 1000 would be operating as generators through the water rheostat. 
This test is used more extensively to determine the insulation, resistance of the 
armature windings and as a running test for armatures rather than to make 
efficiency measurements. 

The usual rule is to run each machine ten minutes as a motor and ten minutes 
as a dynamo; if no excessive sparking or other faults arise the armature is put in 
fctocklor use. The motor fields are best turned upside down, so that the brushes do 
not interfere with lifting the armature to be tested in and out of its bearings. 

The different ways of connecting up the motor are shown in Figs. 61 and 62- 



66 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



In Fig. 61 the field of the motor running as a dynamo is separately excited; the 
motor to excite itself as a dynamo has to be run in the opposite direction from 
that which it runs as a motor, or. the field leads should be interchanged. 

Dividing the kilowatts output by the kilowatts input gives the total efficiency 
of the transforming system, including all losses in both motor or dynamo. The 
efficiency of the motor is greater as a rule when operating as a motor than when 
operating as a dynamo. 

To make detail tests on a motor, the dynamo should supply all the current 
required by the motor, and the power losses should be compensated for by a 
second motor, geared or belted to the motor generator so as to run it faster than 

TROLLEY 



[ 



SWITCH 





STARTI/YG 
FES. OR 
WATER 
jRREOSTA T 
DYNAMO 
FIELD 



AAfRERP 
AfETE/* 

VOLT 
METER 



COUPLED TOGETHER 
MECHANICALLY 

YVATER 
RHEOSTAT 



GROUM 



Fig. 62. 



at its rated current and speed. A dynamo machine, when running at a given 
speed, will not produce an e. m. f. as great as that which it will require as a motor 
under identical conditions. 

Fig. 63 shows the diagram of connections employed. A (the dynamo) and 
B (the motor) have their armatures and fields in series and are connected so both 
revolve in the same direction. 

The necessary, increase in speed of A can be approximately calculated if the 
current, C, and internal resistance of its armature and field, a, are known; then 
a C is the drop in the machine due to the resistance. Let V be the desired volts at 
the motor terminals; the counter e. m. f . will be equal to V — aC — E. Let 5" 
be the speed of the machine when running as a motor with V volts and current, 
C Since as a motor it generates a counter e. m. f . of E volts and as a generator 
it produces V volts, then 

E: V: :S:S' 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



67 



S' being the speed required by this motor-generator so that the motor can operate 
from the current supplied by the generator to which it is coupled. 
Mr. Parham gives the following method of carrying on this test: 
A and B have their fields and armatures in series, as shown in the diagram, 
and included in the circuit are a switch, JC, and a variable resistance, R, capable 
of carrying the machine's full current. R exceeds the critical resistance of the 
machine for the given speed, so that upon closing TTthe dynamo will not generate 
until part of R is cut out. Before starting a test it is well to determine the correct 
position of the rheostat handle for the dynamo to generate. 

On account of the ability of a series machine to pick up rapidly as soon as it 
begins to generate, it is well to provide belt guards to avoid the annoyance of 
losing the belt under sudden overloads. A further precaution is to insert a light 
fusa at the start, and then cut it out when the test is under way. If the motor 
shaft is arranged to be thrown in by a clutch the start is much smoother. In 
starting up, the machine is brought up to speed, K is closed and R is slowly worked 







RMHMG MO TOR o^f 



^_D 



Fig. 63. 



out, at the same time B^s field is weakened by means of the shunt, r, shown in 
Fig. 63. As soon as the ammeter shows A to be generating, R must be very care- 
fully handled to avoid precipitating a heavy overload and throwing the belt. A 
will refuse to generate until a certain amount of R has been cut out, and will then 
pick up very rapidly. It is absolutely necessary that means be provided for weak- 
ening the motor field, otherwise since the same current must pass through 
both machines, and since they run at the same speed, the counter e. m. f. of B 
will be the same as the e. m. f. of A and a load cannot be worked on. The 
shunt affords the same regulation as obtains on a car, but has a different relation, 
; n that on a car its value is constant and the speed is variable, while in this test 
the shunt is variable and the speed constant. 

A'a current passing through B runs it as a motor, and helps to turn the sys- 
tem, thus lessening the demand on the supplier, which then supplies only energy 
enough to cover the losses, which may amount to from 25 to 35 per cent of the 
motor's output. After running A for a stated time as a dynamo it is changed 
over and run as a motor. This change is most rapidly effected by using a crossed 



6S 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y BAND BOOK. 



belt to reverse the direction of rotation; it is then only necessary to move the 
ehunt from B to A. 

To separate the different motor losses both motors are run by the operating 
motor, first free with brushes out and no fields. The reading of an ammeter and 
voltmeter across the operating motor terminals will give the electrical losses in 
the operating motor, and the friction and air resistance losses of all the machines. 
Eunning the operating motor free with belt off will give some of the losses 
which should be subtracted from the total input of the operating motor. 




Fig. 64. 



To determine more nearly tne true friction losses of the motors (the belt loss 
is still included in the motor friction) care should be taken that the two motors 
under test are properly aligned with no undue friction from coupling the 
shafts. Put in the brushes on both motors and read power input, and the differ- 
ence is the brush friction, which should be divided by two to find the brush 
friction on one motor. 

If the field is excited with different currents independently, and the power 
required for each degree of excitation is plotted between power taken and excita- 
tion current, the core losses at different outputs will be obtained. If a voltmeter 
is placed across the brushes and the voltage is read for each change in excitation 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



69 



a characteristic curve can be plotted between excitation and open circuit voltage 
developed at the armature; the set can then be run as a dynamo-motor com- 
bination up to overload, the auxiliary motor supplying losses, with a constant 
current flowing through the system. 

Another important point is to have the auxiliary motor calibrated so that from 
the current input the actual power output will be known, as the efficiency and 
looses in the auxiliary motor are not proportional to the current changes. This 
motor should be calibrated with the Prony brake as shown in "Motor Tests," 
so that a curve of actual output in horse-power will be known from the input 
in watts. 

ARMATURE TESTING. 

The armature may have the following faults, which can be located by testing: 
An open lead from the commutator to armature coil; an open armature coil; 
bars on commutator short-circuited; coils on armature short-circuited; ground 
on commutator ; grounds in armature. 



ZAMP! 



1 DEVELOPED 
1 ARMATURE 




yOLT METER 



GROUND 



Fig. 65. 



Fig. 64 show a contact bracket rig which slips over the armature shaft 
and can be revolved so that the different bars can be tested; besides this rig the 
test requires a low reading voltmeter, reading about 1.2 volts full scale, and two 
amperes from a test bank, which is all the current necessary. If the brushes 
on the test rig are so located that four commutator bars are between these 
brushes, the best average conditions for testing the different railway armatures 
in use are secured. The current is carried through two brushes and the other 
two take the drop to the voltmeter. 

In case of open lead at A (Fig. 65) the bank will go out and the current brush 
will flash when passing to that commutator bar, but it will also be seen that the 
circuit is completed to ground through the low reading voltmeter so that armatures 
tested for broken leads to commutator should be tested around the commutator 
by the lamp bank only first. Then the pressure brushes are lowered and the 
armature is again slowly revolved and the deflection on the voltmeter watched. 

If there is a break in the armature winding, as at A, the drop on the volt- 
meter will increase greatly beyond the normal drop for four bars, for the reason 
that all the test current has to follow from one brush to the other through the 
windings of the armature external to the brushes. 



7 o 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK*. 



The voltmeter will fall again to normal readings when the bar connected to 
the broken coil passes beyond the test brushes. The bar can be located in this 
way and marked. 

A short circuit between two commutator bars or windings will show a lower 
reading than normal when the commutator bars to which the windings are con- 
nected are between the test brushes, and can be located when passing from under 



Band tffieel ~ 







Fig. 6G. 



the test brushes by the voltmeter reading jumping back to normal again. To 
determine whether the short is between the bars or the windings, the adjacent 
bars should be short-circuited by a copper bridging piece, when the defective 
part of the armature is between the brusheo. If this changes considerably the 
reading on the meter, the short between bars i3 in the armature. If no change 
13 made the short is in the commutator. For these two teats see next test, 
which is the most expeditious and searching for shorts in armatures. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY BAND BOOK. 71 



For the location of grounds the connections, as shown in Fig. 65, are 
changed by carrying the current through the armature and then to the ground 
with a 500-volt voltmeter in series. A green armature should not measure less 
than 75,000 ohms (See Insulation Test by Voltmeter Method), and a baked arma- 
ture should be over 1^ million ohms, or 1^£ megohms. If the insulation rises 
on the application of the testing current it indicates the presence of moisture, 
while if it falls, a leak through a charred insulation is probably present. If the 
voltmeter shows nearly normal volts then the ground can be located in the fol- 
lowing way: 

Pass the bank current through the commutator to the shaft and also connect 
across these points a voltmeter reading the drop between the commutator and 
shaft; carry the contact and voltmeter contacts slowly around the commutator 
and watch the voltmeter drop, when this has reached its lowest point, and rises 
in volts again then the commutator bar connected to the grounded coil is 
located. Several grounds may exist, and can be picked out in this way by 
following up each one separately. 



INDUCTION METHOD OF TESTING SHORTS ON THE 
ARMATURE. 

For this apparatus working drawings are given in Fig. 66, which shows a 
framework made of angle iron mounted on three rollers. The testing trans- 
former is made of laminated iron about J 2 in. thick and of the shape and size 
shown in Fig. 66; this is adapted to test G. E. 800-1000-1200 and No. 57, and 
Westinghouse No, 3 and No. 12. The magnetizing coil is made as shown in 
Fig. 66, and wound with 1210 turns of No. 13 B. & S., D. C. C. wire. The curved 
face of this transformer is adjusted by a hand wheel and screw so that it can be 
shoved up against the armature before the latter is removed from the winding 
bench. 

The body of the armature completes the magnetic circuit of the transformer; 
the armature is then rotated by hand in this field. If any two windings are 
short-circuited and are within the influence of this varying magnetism, a local 
induction circuit is created which causes a vibrating magnetic flux in the teeth 
of the armature- included in the short circuit; this is discovered by passing a 
thin strip of iron around the armature, which when over a short-circuited coil will 
vibrate in unison with the alternating current supplied the transformer. There 
will be two such points in the armature at a quarter from each other when two 
adjacent armature coils are short-circuited, but at four points when the short is 
between the commutator bars in a four pole cross-connected armature. 

The current for this testing device may be obtained from a railway motor 
(an old style one will do), changed over for this purpose. Two slip rings should 
be secured to and insulated from the shaft, and connected to the windings 
of the armature. The connections in a two-pole motor should be located one- 
quarter of the circumference of the armature from each other and in a four- 
pole motor, one-eighth of the circumference apart. The motor should then be 
wound with a shunt field of fine wire. "With a two-pole motor a speed of 1400 
r. p. m. gives a good frequency to detect these crosses. 

The armature room should be wired for this current over the winding 
benches, and flexible cords with attaching sockets located at points convenient 
for ccniicctiiij; rathe tooting dovicj. V, lii'.j 0:1 the winding bench an armature 
can be tested by this method in less than one minute. 



72 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



FIELD TESTS. 

In fields the fault most generally looked for is a short circuit between the 
layers. This may be caused by charred insulation from overheating, or by a 
breakdown in the insulation between the windings. 

A field coil should never measure more than 5 per cent under its standard 
resistance; annealing will account for this difference in some copper wire. A 
field may be low for the reason that turns are shy or have been cut out in repairs, 
both of which are bad practices, and should not be used where the best service 
from the armature is desired. 

The most treacherous defect in the whole equipment is a baked field. These 
will test O. K. when cold, but when hot will show the defect; this is due to the 
expansion by heat; the convolutions are brought into more intimate contact 
and turns shorted out. 

For testing a cold equipment the connections are shown on page 31. While 
the current passes through the field, if mechanical pressure can be brought to 
bear on the cover or spool face so as to bring the wire in the field windings into 
close contact, and the reading on the voltmeter changes, this will indicate at 
once that the field is baked. 

When testing separate field spools that have been used, always stand on 
them, when, if they are baked, they will show change in resistance due to shorts 
set up in the coil due to pressure. 

The method of testing for field grounds in the equipment, is already given 
in Equipment Test pages 50 and 51. 

CONTROLLER TEST. 

The test on the controller consists of locating grounds and shorts. A ground 
can be located after first disconnecting the controller from the equipment and then 
testing for grounds the same as in the case of the equipment ground test. 

When the controller is disconnected from the equipment each clip has to be 
tested separately for grounds and different portions of the controller cylinder to 
see that the contact rings are not connected with each other. The test can be 
carried out by a magneto or a series of five lamps or a Weston volt meter in series 
between the line and the clips, having the other side of the line connected to 
the controller back. In some types of controllers the ground is permanently 
connected to this back frame of iron, which connection should be removed before 
attempting to locate other grounds. 

RHEOSTAT TESTS. 

Testing the rheostat for resistance is done in exactly the same way as that 
shown for fields. The resistance is measured on each step by connecting the 
voltmeter leads to the terminals of each step when a known current is flowing 
through the whole rheostat. 

For locating an open, connect the rheostat between the lamp bank and 
ground. Then take a piece of wire and bridge or jump around the open, reducing 
the span of the bridge until the break is located between the bridging wire. 

Grounds on the resistance can be discovered in the same way as given foi 
controller test. 

TEST ON RAILS. 

According to D. K. Clark the usual tests for steel tramway rails are : — 
Breaking stress (tensile), 37 to 43 tons per square inch. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



73 



Elongation in length of 8 inches, at least 15 per cent. 

Contraction of sectional area, at least 30 per cent. 

A piece of rail 5 feet long, on supports 3 feet apart, to resist a blow from 
weight of one ton falling on center from given height without causing more 
than 1 inch deflection; a second blow from another given height without exhibit- 
ing sign of fracture. The height of drop of first and second blow are determined 
by the following table. 



Weight of Rail 
per yard. 



60 to 70 
70 " 80 
80 " 90 
90 " 100 



Height of First 
Fall in feet. 



Height of Second 
Fall in feet. 



15 

20 
22V 2 



POLE TESTING. 

The method usually given to test a pole is to set it the proper depth in the 
ground, apply a tackle to the top and draw it up with a given tension, noting 
the deflection. The tension is usually applied at an angle from the ground, 
and is borne partly by the pole longitudinally and partly by the spring of the 




Fig. 68. 



pole. The ratio of the two depends on the angle of application. Any yielding 
in foundation is liable to be charged to elasticity. If the pole is planted in 
cement, several days should be allowed the latter to set before the test, which 
makes a rather lengthy affair. I have found that the following will give all 
the practical results necessary and can be readily constructed and calibrated 
on the spot. See Fig. 68. For this testing rig two of the largest and most sym- 
metrical poles are selected; they are then laid by the side of each other and 
separated far enough apart to allow any of the poles to be tested to lie between 
them. They are braced together at two points, the distance a, from the bottom 
of the foot brace to the top of the head brace, to be the depth of setting to be 
employed for the pole. Sufficient area to these braces should be given at // so 
that the strain applied will not crush the fiber of the pole under test. A 12-in. 
turnbuckle, and a 1 ; 20 steelyard, with a 100-lb. weight, completes the outfit. 



74 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



One arrangement can be made as above. The weight on the steelyard is fixed, 
and, after the bridle is put over the pole, the turnbuckle is tightened until the 
steelyard is balanced. "When the specified tension is applied, the deflection of 
the pole is measured by a mark on a board opposite the pole under test. 

This deflection is composed of the yield of the braces and the flexibility of 
the crib, but the pole on returning will show the permanent deflection which 
will be the difference before and after strain. 

Iron poles can be tested by the same method by substituting an iron pole for 
the wood, and the steelyard should be provided with a set of weights, so as to 
reach a 2,000-lb. strain, where extra heavy poles are to be tested. 



CEMENT TESTING. 

A rough way to test the quality of cement is to take two batches of about a 
handful each, mixed with as little water as possible, and make them into cakes. 
Put one of these cakes in water and the other in air. If the cake in the air dries 
with a light color without any particularly well defined cracks, and the water cake 
sets with a darker color and without cracks the cement is probably good. If the 
cement cracks badly in setting, or if it becomes contorted (sometimes called 
blowing), it is poor and should be rejected. 

Kidder gives another simple" test for the soundness of cement. This is 
to place some cement mortar in a glass tube (a swelled lamp chimney is excellent 
for this purpose) and pour water on the top. If the tube breaks the cement is un- 
fit for use in damp places. Any natural cements that give satisfactory results 
with these simple tests will answer for making mortar for any ordinary building 
construction. A good cement will not expand, contract, check or crack when 
setting. Where great strength is required in the mortar it is better to use 
Portland cement, but if for any reason Portland cement cannot be obtained or its 
price prohibits its use, the strength of the natural cement should be carefully 
tested in the manner described. Clear Kosendale cement one week old in water 
should have a tensile strength per square inch of at least 60 lbs., and the best 
brands should average 100 lbs. 

Measuring Fineness: "The degree of fineness of a cement is determined 
by measuring the per cent which will not pass through sieves of a certain num- 
ber of meshes per square inch." A cement that will pass through a sieve of 
2500 meshes (No. 35 wire gage) with only 5 to 10 per cent residue is sufficiently 
fine for any building construction. 

TEST FOR OVERHEAD LINE INSULATION. 

Testing for overhead line insulation is best done by clamping to the trolley 
pole, near the harp, two blocks of fiber to which are attached two strips of 
phosphor bronze. The latter should project beyond the trolley wheel, far 
enough to come in contact with the span wire, and as the car passes along 
these flexible strips should make contact with the span wire. Then connect a 
500-volt voltmeter between a lead from the strips and the ground so that only 
such potential as can leak through the trolley insulator can deflect the voltmeter. 
If the voltmeter is calibrated in insulation resistance in a way similar to that 
described in the section on testing equipment, the resistance can be read in 
•megohms as the car passes slowly £lon£, stride* each span wire. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 75 



HIGH TENSION INSULATOR TESTING. 

As the potential on a line increases, the tendency to loss by leakage increases 
in a ratio varying nearly as the square of the potential. This is the case with bare 
conductors, but when insulated conductors are used losses by leakage increase 
less rapidly, on account of the combined effect of the two insulations. The in- 
sulation afforded by an insulator varies with the moisture in the air, dust, tem- 
perature, and other climatic conditions. 

If the material forming the body of the insulator is a good insulator, the 
loss on each insulator is a matter of surface leakage. In the design of insulators 
and the securing of the conductors to the insulator, the subject of areas of 
leakage is not usually given proper attention. The external surface of an insu- 
lator once determined, the value of this surface as an insulator can be computed 
approximately by ascertaining what is the cross-section and length of a film 
of moisture which could be deposited thereon. The linear. distance from the 
point of connection with the conductor to the point of contact with support- 
ing pin multiplied by the mean circumference of this path, will give a compara- 
tive value for insulators of the same material which will vary as their insulating 
qualities. The insulating values of these leakage surfaces vary with the 
exposure to the weather. The external surface of a bell has in damp weather 
no appreciable insulating value, but the petticoats provided underneath the bell 
maintain the insulation. 

It is hardly possible to pierce insulators made of glass by increasing the 
potential, as they will withstand a potential which will flash over the external 
surfaces and arc between the pin and conductor before the glass is actually 
pierced. The glass surface on being exposed to rain is serrated and grooved, due 
to the solvent action of rain water on silica, and these roughened surfaces 
allow the lodgment of dust and soot, which forms a partial conducting medium, 
and reduces greatly the effective insulation. A test made on forty glass insu- 
lators, representing a mile of line, after being dipped in water once and a little 
dirt removed, gave a resistance of 23,253 ohms per mile. After being dipped four 
times this resistance increased to 56,400 ohms. With new insulators and pins 
66,600 ohms per mile was found. 

With high tension currents, particles of moisture are repelled from the 
conductor electrostatically, and foggy weather, for this reason, does not bring 
down the insulation of the line as much as on telegraph and low potential lines. 
When a leak over the surface of an insulator is established, the current flow- 
ing over this leak raises the temperature of the insulator and dries up the con- 
ductor moisture. 

Power transmission lines require the stringing of wires of considerable 
weight per foot, and the fragility of glass has made it an uncertain mechan- 
ical support for these conductors when under tension. It is very important 
that the conductor should never touch the cross-arm or pin, as the leak will 
probably burn up the pole if of wood, and if of iron, it will cripple the conductor 
system. Porcelain, when used for the body of the insulator, possesses more 
mechanical strength and the surface of porcelain when good, weathers exposure 
without deterioration. In the clay from which these insulators are made, a 
large proportion of American kaolin should be avoided where the insulators are 
to be used for high tension work, as these clays are too refractory to completely 
coalesce or vitrify when fired, and consequently they lack homogeneity, an 
€?sential quality in a hi^h potential insulator. 

£■^±1 ^c^Oii3iD^„i„U: j o.-i -U; c.-.iiy detected by applying aniline ink to a 



76 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



fractured surface. If porous, this ink will be absorbed into the porcelain, but if 
thoroughly vitrified, the ink can be washed off without leaving any stain. This 
test should be tried on the thicker portions of the body of the insulator, as they 
may not have been vitrified, while the thinner portions reach sufficiently high 
temperatures to be vitrified. 

The specific insulation of porcelain is less than that of glass, and being 
opaque, it affords a good harbor for the nests of insects inside the insulator; but 
on account of its superior mechanical properties, it is used on nearly all the 
transmission lines in America employing high potential. 

Insulators for high tension lines should be tested individually at at least four 
times the electrical pressure under which they are to be used. This will probably 
give a factor of safety of 16. 

The method of testing generally adopted is to insert the insulator head down 
in a shallow pan, into which is poured sufficient solution of bicarbonate of soda 
and water to reach above the groove for the tie wire. The same solution is 
poured in the hole for the pin, and in this is inserted a metallic wire which forms 
one terminal of the high potential circuit, the other being connected to the pan 
on which the insulator rests. The testing potential applied should be of the 
same character as that to be used on the transmission lines. A metallic con- 
ductor connected on the outside of the insulator, in the same manner as used in 
the transmission line, and the insulator screwed down with a metallic pin, 
reduces the area of contact, so that the insulator will stand a much higher poten- 
tial than in the test given above. When in actual practice this conductor is sup- 
ported in the rain on this insulator, the area of contacts will be much greater than 
in the dry test. The insulator should be submitted to the testing potential for 
some time, as for a few moments it may stand a much higher potential; but it is 
under a stress which reduces its insulating values, and if applied long enough 
may break down the insulator. Ten minutes should certainly determine whether 
this fatigue would reach the rupturing point. It is hardly advisable to place any 
insulators on a high potential line without first testing them individually, for 
the reason that in the formation of the insulator in the mould, the clay has to be 
moulded under a uniform pressure. If this pressure is not distributed through- 
out the clay while in the mould, it will cause the clay to be of unequal density 
throughout the body of the insulator, which will result in unequal shrink- 
ages while firing. These differences will cause small fissures through the 
body of the insulator, and this inequality will lead to a breaking down under 
the potential test. This condition is not evident from external inspection. The 
final glaze on an insulator should be entirely burnt into the porcelain itself. If 
too much glaze is put on it is worse than none at all, as this glaze has all the 
characteristics of a glass surface. 

When an insulator breaks clown under a high potential, it is actually punctured 
by the current, which usually pierces between the pin and the external surface of 
the insulator. Under 60,000 volts, a poor insulator will explode with some vio- 
lence. 

The open double petticoat insulator was found to dry more rapidly than the 
closed single petticoat insulator, but during actual rainfall the insulation lost hy 
the double petticoat form is greater and more rapid than that of the single form. 
In order to break the conducting film of moisture on the surface of an insulator, 
several methods are used; one is to have an internal groove in which oil is 
poured. This interrupts the continuity of the moisture film and improves the 
insulation. Lining the top of the petticoat with paraffin has also been tried 
with partial success. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 77 



Another feature of design of these insulators for high tension work is to 
make them helmet shape, the rim of the helmet being over tho cross-arm, so that 
I water dropping from this insulator will not fall directly on the cro3S-arm, and 
j spattei moisture underneath the insulator. The greatest leak on transmission 
: lines occurs during fogs, and the greater the change in temperature, under foggy 
j conditions, the greater the leak. The insulation of a line rises as soon aa rain 
I begins to fall. 

The method of securing high tension lines to their insulators is to provide a 

j groove in the top of the insulator, in which the conductor rcsta. The conductor 

I is held in place by a tie-wire, the object of this wire being to hold the ccncluc- 

| tor in the groove, and yet allow of contraction and expansion of the conductor, 

without bringing additional strains on the line. 

Pins. — Wooden pins are as a rule preferred for supporting these insulators. 
! They should be made from split locust and their values as an insulator are in- 
creased by being boiled in paraffin. 

Some tests on the leakage of cross-arms, made in New York City, are given, 
but in the test the length and dimension and method of test of the cross-arm are 
not stated; consequently, the results are only comparable among themselves. 

Ohms. 

All four surfaces wet with sponge 3,120 

Soaked one day, left to dry one day, and then wet 2,680 

Painted three years before test 6,150 

Same washed 9,166 

Very dry 11,000 to 330,000 

Newly painted 7,214 

TJnpainted for many years 4,300 

Same after being well washed 13,653 

Same after being well dried 80,000 

Arms and pins together (wet) 3,686 

POWER STATION TESTING. 

It is important to determine the economy under which a station operates 
Tinder the various loads, management of boilers and engines, and the loading of 
different units. Such data are essential in order to determine how to best operate 
the plant for maximum efficiency. 

Coal.— The weight of coal that is burnt under the boilers can be readily de 
termined, and when only a temporary test is to be made, a platform scale large 
enough to hold a wheelbarrow, can be used, Fig. 69. The scale is generally se! 
so that an even number of pounds is weighed each time — either adding or taking 
off coal, until the scale balances. The coal handler should make a record each 
time he weighs, and if the coal is to be used moistened.it should be weighed 
before wetting. 

For continuous records of station operation, a number of methods are used. 
Fig. 70 shows one method of supporting a hopper where the coal is stored above 
the boilers in bins. The hopper is filled by opening the chute, and when nearly 
balanced, the coal can be throttled until a perfect balance is obtained. The 
bottom part of the weighing hopper can then be opened, and the coal delivered 
on the boiler room floor, convenient to the boilers. It is also suggested to 
have an electrical contact on the top of the arm of the weighing device, so 
that each weighing can be recorded on a dial magnetically. 



7S 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Firing. — Before starting a boiler test, all coal should be cleaned up from the 
floor around the boiler, so that only the weighed coal will be fired. In making 
comparative boiler tests, the coal for each boiler should be kept separate. The 
proper method of firing a boiler dcpcnd3 upon the coal, the furnace, the grate 
and the draught. An expert will cnanre his* methods to suit different steam de- 
mands on the boiler. 

There are three distinct methods in hand firing: (1) Spreading, which is the 
common method, where the coal is scattered evenly over the whole surface ci 
the grate, commencing at the bridge and spreading toward the door. (£) Alter- 
nate firing, in which the charge of coal is laid along one -half of the grate at a 
time, from the bridge to the door, each side alternately; with a double door 
furnace, this is usually the method used. (3) Coke firing, which ia more specially 
applicable to bituminous coal, here the charge of coal is first thrown on the 
dead plate or front part of the grate, where the volatile matter is burned out 
and the coke coal gradually pushed back to the bridge, where it is completely 




Fig. 69.— hand coal weighing. 



burned. The steaming advantages of the different methods of firing can only 
be determined by their application to individual cases. 

In regard to the wetting of the coal before firing, this has advantages in 
some few cases of slow burning furnaces. The action of the excessive water in 
the coal is to decompose into hydrogen and oxygen in the intense heat of the 
combustion of the coal, which gases combine again to form water in the cooler 
parts of the furnace; in combining they raise the temperature of the gas pass- 
ing through the furnace. The effect is to transfer the active heating of the 
gases from the furnace fire to other portions of the furnace whose normal tem- 
perature is lower. The energy required to raise this additional water to the 
temperature of the gas leaving the boiler will be lost, and through this range the 
capacity of water for heat is great. 

In the case of wet coal, the temperature of the gases issuing from the 
boiler maybe reduced over the dry coal, but the actual number of thermal units 
escaping up the chimney may be increased. Water used under the grate to wet 
the ashes is evaporated by their heat, and the heat radiating downward through 
the grate bars; this steam passes through the grate up with the draft and re- 
duces the intensity of the heat of the glow fire, and most of the energy used to 
ypI'v* f v i '--~.tct i'i r " L --— i v" v c;i i ' " 1 t v: i v"-y wouIJ oticnvi.t'j La vra^tcU. Ashes 
should not b.3 wet if they are to 13 wc.i~h.cd, 






ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



79 



Combustion.— Coal in burning combines with, the oxygen of the draft, 
giving up its carbon; first, to form carbonic oxide, CO, and then further com- 
bining with oxygen to form C0 2 , or carbonic acid, the presence of which indi- 
cates complete combustion. Insufficient air supply or incomplete combustion 
| of the coal will change the ratio of carbonic oxide to carbonic acid in the gas 
| issuing from the boiler. The carbonic oxide in uniting with oxygen will give up 
| one-third more energy than if passed out as carbonic oxide. The condition of 
combustion is indicated by the percentage of carbonic oxide that exists irr the 
\ gas leaving the furnace. There is an instrument made called a composimeter, 




Fig. 70.— automatic coal weighing. 



which indicates and records continuously the percentage of carbonic oxide, or 
CO, in the chimney gas, and indicates the condition of combustion. This is 
connected directly to the up-take of chimney, and the indicator can be located 
at any convenient place for the firemen's inspection. The above is only strictly 
true for anthracite coal: bituminous coal increases in smoke as the draught 
is increased, or the temperature of fire falls 

Each pound of coal requires 21.3 lbs. of air for complete combustion, or 
at 60 dogs, Fahr., 280 cubic feet of air. In coal the carbon, hydrogen and oxygen 
are the heating elements, and water, nitrogen and ash the waste. For the an- 
alysis of some of the American ar.thracite coals, see under Fuels. "Where only an 
approximate determination of the heating capacity of coal is required, it can be 
figured from its analysis where the percentage of free carbon in the coal is 
known,, 



8o 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



Example: Take Lehigh anthracite coal which contains 3.7 per cent moisture. 
6.3 per cent ash, 84.6 per cent carbon, and 5.4 per cent volatile matter. De- 
ducting moisture and ash, which make a total of 10 per cent, from the 100 per 
cent, gives 90 per cent; fixed carbon is 84.G per cent, which gives the fixed car- 

84 6 
bon ratio of the coal -—. ? which equals 94 per cent. 

The table below gives for this ratio 15,120 B. T. U. Ten per cent of this is ash 
APPROXIMATE HEATING VALUE OF COALS. 



Percentage 

fixed carbon in 

coal, dry and 

free from ash. 




Equivalent 

evaporation 

from and at 212° 

per lb. 

combustible. 


Percentage 
fixed carbon in 
coal, dry and 
free from ash. 


0.0 , 
gP.g 


Equivalent 

evaporation 

from and at 212° 

per lb. 

combustible. 


300 


14,500 


15.00 


68 


15,480 


16.03 


97 


14,760 


15.28 


63 


15,120 


15.65 


94 


15,120 


15.65 


60 


14,580 


15.09 


90 


15,480 


16.03 


57 


14,040 


14 53 


87 


15,660 


16.21 


54 


13,320 


13.79 


80 


15,840 


16.40 


51 


12,600 


13.04 


72 


15,660 


16.21 


50 


12,240 


12.67 



and moisture, having no heating value, and consequently the coal would only have 
90 per cent of this value, which would be 13,608; as it takes 966 B. T. U. to evap- 
orate one pound of water from and at 212 degs. Fahr., at the pressure of the air, 
the evaporative efficiency of this coal, if used with perfect combustion and a 

13 608 
perfect boiler, would be ~~-, which would be 14.08 pounds of steam at 212 degs. 

Fahr. 

Ashes.— There is always considerable difference between the weighed ashes 
and the ash found by analysis of coal, caused by unconsumed carbon being car- 
ried away with the ash and clinker, and the ash will absorb considerable moisture 
on being exposed to the air. In analysis, care is taken to prevent any absorption 
of the moisture by the ash. In temporary tests ashes can be weighed in the same 
way as provided for coal. Where continuous records are kept the ashes are gen- 
erally weighed as they are hauled away for disposal. The weight of coal sup- 
plied to the grate in a given time, divided into the weight of ash taken from 
under the grate, will be the commercial percentage of ash, which will vary with 
different coals, and will be affected by the skill in handling the fire. The impor- 
tance in knowing the percentage of ash in the different coals used has a bearing 
on its steaming values, as the wasted ash costs as much as the consumed carbon. 
It is not always true that the coal that gives the least ash has the highest evap- 
orative efficiency, as bituminous coals are very low in ash, yet may waste their 
carbon in smoke. 

Water.— The amount of water entering the boiler is a third quantity which 
has to be known in the boiler room, in order to determine the efficiency of steam 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 



production. Each, boiler should be provided with a water meter attached to the 
| feed pipe near its entrance to the boiler, and it should be so connected to the 
| piping system with flange couplings, valves and a by-pass that it can be readily 

removed for recalibration. The temperature of the feed water should be known, 
I and this is readily determined by means of a f,ped water thermometer, (Fig 71). 
j The form made for this purpose can be screwed to a Y connection in contact with 

the water in its passage to the boiler. These thermometers are graduated from 

60 degs. to 260 degs., where feed water heater is used, and from 100 degs. to 400 

degs. where an economizer is used. 

The heat units that are added to the feed water before its introduction to the 

boiler above the normal temperature of the water should be deducted from the 
i total units required to evaporate the water into steam at the pressure used. For 



Fig. 71. — feed water thermometer. 



this allowance see Table of Properties of Saturated Steam, giving the thermal 
units in a pound of water at different temperatures, and the thermal units given 
up by coal combustion will be the difference between those in the feed 
water and those of the steam issuing from the boiler. The temperature of 
the draught of the up-take in the chimney, which can be measured by a draught 
thermometer reading up to 700 Fahr., is useful information in order to determine 
the management of the dampers and drafts, especially where the forced fire is 
used for any period of the station load, and also indicates which method of firing 
gives the best results. 

Losses.— Having arranged the above apparatus, the losses which will occur 
in this utilization of coal in the form of steam are as follows: 

First.— Heating draught air to temperature of up-take. As it takes 21.3 
pounds dry air at 60 degs. Fahr. to burn one pound of coal, and, assuming the 



82 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK, 



temperature of up-take in the chimney as 560 degs., and each pound of air requires 
.238 B. T. U. to raise it one degree; then as the air is raised 500 degs. Fahr. the 
heat units lost per pound of coal are: 21.3 X .238 X 500 = 2,534. 

Second — If the relative humidity of the air is 00 per cent., then there will he .007 
lb. of moisture in each lb. of air, which is delivered to the chimney up-take, at an 
elevation of temperature of 500 d<?gs. Fahr. As it takes .48 B. T. XL, per pound of 
moisture for each degree, then the heat required for the moisture in 21.3 lbs. of 
dry air will bo : 21.3 X .007 X .48 X 500 = 36. 

Third— The weight of the moisture in the pound of coal is taken at .029 lb., 
and is first heated from 60 degs. Fahr. to 212 dogs. Fahr., = 4.4. As it takes 966 
B. T. U. per pound of water to change from water at a temperature of 212 degs. 
Fahr., to steam at the same temperature, the .029 lb. of water will require 
.029 X 966 = 28. 

Fourth— .029 lb. of steam heated from 212 degs. Fahr. to 560 degs. Fahr., 
will be .029 X 348 X .48 = 4.8. 

For properties of saturated steam see pages 19 and 20. 

There is in the ash .021b. combustible carbon wasted, which has a value of 
14,544 B. T. U. per lb., and which will give in wasted energy, 290.9 B. T. U. 

In the draught .0237 lb. C burned to CO, which by incomplete combustion will 
be .0237 x (14,544—4,451) = 290 B. T. IT. The rest will be radiation and unaccount- 
able difference, and the total losses assembled in this way, with coal, having 14,- 
245 B. T. IJ., are:— 

Total per 
B. T. U. cent of 
B. T. U. 
Heating, draught and moisture in draught to temperature 

of up-take 560 degs 2,570.0 18.04 

Heating water in coal 37.2 .26 

Heating water formed by combination of hydrogen in coal 97.2 .68 

Loss by incomplete combustion 239.2 1.68 

Combustible loss in ashes 290.9 2.04 

Eadiation and other losses by difference 712.0 5.00 



Total 3,946.5 27.70 

Beat units utilized in making steam, equivalent evapora- 
tion 10.66 lbs. from and at 212 degs. F., per lb. coal .... 10.298.8 72.30 



14,245.3 100.00 

In connection with the above equivalent, it is important to determine, first, 
whether the steam is saturated or contains the quantity of heat due to the pressure; 
second, whether the quantity of heat is deficient so that the steam is wet; and 
third, whether the heat is in excess of the pressure or the steam superheated. The 
quality of steam given off by the boiler bears directly on the work being per- 
formed by the boiler, and its efficiency, and if it is not taken into consideration, 
the evaporation performance of the boiler can be made to show any efficiency 
desired. 

A simple method of testing steam for its condition is to use a barrel calorime- 
ter which will give fairly accurate results within 2 per cent of the true quantity, 
when carefully operated. The steam to be tested should be taken from the steam 
pipe near the boiler by means of a perforated J^-in. pipe inserted into the 
pipe leading from the boiler, so that no condensed steam can enter the test pipe, 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 83 



and provided with, a valve. The steam is carried through a hose which is well 
wrapped in felt to prevent condensation, and led to a barrel set on platform scales 
holding about 400 lbs. of water, and provided with stirring vanes, so that the 
water can be kept in rapid circulation. After carefully weighing the barrel and 
the water, steam is turned on through the hose and allowed to blow off 
until the pipe is thoroughly warmed. The hose is then inserted in the barrel so 
that all steam is condensed, and the water is kept in rapid circulation. The steam 
pressure on the boiler tested should be noted and kept uniform. 

In order to determine the temperatures, a thermometer is inserted In the water 
and watched until the temperature arises to about 110 degs. F. The hose is then 
quickly withdrawn and exact temperature noted, and the barrel carefully re- 
weighed. An error of ^ of a pound in weighing the water or J^ a degree in tem- 
perature will cause an error of over 1 per cent, in the calculation of moisture in 
the steam. 

The original weight of water is, say, 404 lbs., and its temperature 34 degs. F.; 
the final weight of water is 435 lbs., and the temperature 106 degs. F. ; the boiler 
pressure is 60 lbs. To find the percentage of moisture, proceed as follows: — 

H = total heat of 1 lb. of steam at 60 lbs. pressure.. „ 1,175.6 

T = total heat of 1 lb. of water at temperature of steam at observed pres- 
sure i 307.10 

N = temperature of condensing water in barrel, original 34 degs. F. 

N r = temperature of condensing water in barrel, final 106 degs. F. 

W = weight of condensing water, corrected for water equivalent to ap- 
paratus „ „ 410 lb. 

U = weight of steam condensed 435 — 410 lbs.... s .;. ....... 251b. 

1 r-W -1 

Percentage of moisture— 100= j—- |— ■ (N 1 — N)— (T— N x ) J 

Substituting values: 

Percentage of moisture-100= * [^106— 34)-(307.1-106)l =122.7 

This shows that in the case assumed above, there was 122.7—100 = 22.7 per 
cent moisture in the steam, indicating heavy priming in the boiler. 

The appearance of a steam jet will indicate roughly with a little experience the 
quality of steam; if a jet flows into the air a change of 1 per cent saturated steam 
is easily discernable. If the jet is transparent, close to the orifice or even a light 
grayish color, it may be assumed to be nearly dry, and the ordinary methods will 
not determine the water in the steam, but if the jet be strongly white, with experi- 
ence the amount of water may be judged up to about 2 per cent; beyond this, a 
calorimeter only can determine the exact amount. Ordinarily a boiler should not 
give more than 2 per cent moisture unless foaming or priming; the water level 
should not be carried too high, or the boiler forced beyond its capacity, which 
generally increases the percentage of moisture. If a boiler gives normally more 
than V& per cent moisture, there is something wrong in its construction or 
connection, and it is very uneconomical to use wet steam in the engine cylinder, 
as it increases greatly the losses due to cylinder condensation and the danger of 
entrained water in the cylinder. 

These tests have so far referred to continuous boiler tests, but actual condi- 
tions that arise in station practice change greatly the demands on the boiler dur- 
ing different periods of the day, and there are hold-over losses on boilers not 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



delivering any steam whose values, for economical management of the boilers, 
should be known. Coal burnt to keep a boiler in steaming condition ia lost, and 
it has been proposed to use a cheaper grade of coal for the purpose, which will 
keep a uniform low fire and give to the boiler those heat units which are lost in 
conduction and radiation. 

The report of the committee on data of the National Electric Light Associ- 
ation, gives the following figures for hold-over loGses. In this case the boiler is 
shut off from the main steam supply. No water is added and the coal is simply 
to supply the constant losses. A boiler runs 16 hours a day at an average rate of 
12 lbs. of coal per square foot of grate per hour, and stands over the othei 
eight hours with a consumption of J^ lb. of coal per square foot of grate 
'surface; while idle it will consume 2.04 per cent of the whole. If it runs twelve 
hours and stands twelve hours, the coal cost idle will be 4 per cent of the total 
expense. The data given for different boilers is as follows;— 

A Philadelphia station requires 1 200 lbs. of coal to keep up a pressure ol 
125 lbs. on two water tube boilers, each having 59 sq. ft. of grate surface; that is. 
.424 lb. per sq. ft. per hour. A five days' test on a horizontal tubular boiler 
showed a consumption of .35 lb. per sq. ft. of grate; another water tube boiler 
showed .5 lb. of coal per sq. ft. of grate per hour. 

Waste in the form of leakage, whether from wet steam or actual escape, has 
reached in three stations 3.500 lbs., 2,000 lbs., and 500 lbs. Auxiliary uses of 
steam, such as heating and feeding water to boilers, are drags on the boiler, 
but have to be considered in the total boiler room efficiency, and bring down the 
total plant efficiency. 

Boiler room records are usually kept on printed forms by the foremen of the 
different shifts of firemen, and the form adopted by the different stations will 
depend on the data obtained. A form largely used is given below: 

Date , .Weather Foreman 

Time or coming on..... Boiler Pressure, Maximum, 161: Min., 142. 



1. Boiler number. 


1. 


2. 


o 


4. 


5. 


6. 


2. Condition 


Banked 
110,684 
1,306 
5.10 p.m 
11.06 
122.384 


Fired 

117,680 

7,141 


Fired 

111,466 

6,400 


Sh'td'wn 
111,480 


Banked 

18.705 

1,685 

6 P.M. 


Sb-'t d'w 


3. Water meter, lbs 


18,971 








6. Shut down at 


12 M.N. 
163,760 


178,600 


"lVl',485" 




7. Water meter, end of run 


123,240 I 18,971 


8. Temperat. of feed water, «is° F., 106° F. 

9. Weight of ash 


Remarks. 


10. Natural draught, inches 

11. Forced draught, inches . 

12. When started up 

13. When shut down 


M— 7/ a 


9 


.45 P.M. 
.30 P.M. 
..Pump 
....618° 
.15*— 6* 




14. How fed 

15. Temperature of uptake 

16. Per cent of C0 2 











Item 9 is usually taken at stated intervals when ash is hauled away and not for 
each boiler, but is entered on this form. Items 10, 11, 12 and 13 (where forced 
draught is used), are important to know when forced draught is started up to de- 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOR'. 85 



termine if it was not put in operation too Boon for the power demand on the sta- 
tion; also to know the natural draught conditions due to the weather. Item 14, 
the method of feeding water, whether injector or pumps were used, affects the 
economy of operation of the boiler plant. Item 15, temperature of np-take, gives 
a value depending upon firing and arrangement of dampers. Item 16 gives from 
the oomposimeter the condition of draught for the proper consumption of the 
coal burned. A recording pressure gage is the only means for showing whether 
the proper maintenance of boiler pressure has been uniform throughout the run. 
but from the above figures all the commercial efficiencies and losses in the 
boiler room can be computed. 



SECTION III —THE TRACK. 



LOCATION. 



The location of street railway tracks in streets and highways is largely con 
trolled by ordinances, which specify the distance from the rail to the curb 01 
from the center of the track to the curb, the distances between track centers of a 
double track road, the type of rail head, its location regarding the street level, 
etc. In country and interurban roads, however, a greater latitude as regards , 
track construction is usually allowed the engineer. The question of crossings, 
trees to be removed, roadway obstructions, character of roadbed, and cubic yards 
of embankment necessary to cut or fill have all to be considered with regard to 
each section of the road, to ascertain which location had best be adopted; and , 
where the right of way has to be secured through private property its cost is 
another factor. 

LEVELS. 

As the possible speed and energy required to make a trip between two terml- 
naf points are largely determined by the grades over which the road must be 
built, the profiling and determining of grades and levels is one of the necessary 
duties of a railway engineer, particularly in interurban railway construction. 
The details of the methods employed in laying and profiling can be found in any 
text book on surveying, but the simpler methods are given here to assist the 
street-railway engineer in plotting grades. 

The elevation of any part of a road is always given as higher than some 
level surface of known or assumed elevation, and in order that the elevations 
may all be positive, this surface should be selected below any elevation to be 
measured. This surface is called "The Datum." The elevation of the datum 
is always zero and the elevation of any point is its vertical height above the 
datum. The point selected for a datum should be permanent and is called a bench 
mark; in a long route several bench marks are taken for convenience, but all the 
elevations are figured from the datum, and the elevations of the other bench 
marks are determined in reference to the one first selected. The instrument gen- 
erally used for levels is a spirit level, mounted on, and parallel to, a telescope, 
the field of which is provided with cross hairs, so that the line of sight through 
the intersection of the cross hairs is horizontal when the bubble stands in the 
middle of its tube. Then any point in the line of the horizontal cross-hairs 
through the telescope is on the same level as the cross-hairs. 

To ascertain levels, the instrument should be set up and levelled at a point 
higher than and in full view of the first bench mark, on which a surveyor's rod 
should be held vertically. When the line of sight is turned on the rod the point of 
the rod covered by the horizontal cross-hair is then on a level with this cross- 
hair, and the cross-hair is higher than the bench mark by the distance on the 
rod from the bench mark to the point where the horizontal cross-hair crosses 
the rod. Add this distance to the height of the bench mark, and we obtain the 
height of the instrument, technically known as the " Height of Instrument," 
and sometimes designated by H. I. 



ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



8/ 



Havin- obtained the height of the Instrument above the datum line any 
point llwer than the cross-hairs can be easily found by taking the reading of he 
rod upon ; the reading subtracted from the height of the instrumen gives the 
Son above the datum of the point on which the rod is set. * o e evaUon of 
anoint can be obtained if the rod, when placed on that point is not in the line 
of b" ht of the instrument; in this case the instrument must be moved to a new 
nosition either higher or lower than before as the case may require 
" Befo're the instrument is removed a temporary bench called a '•turning 
print "and designated by T. P. or Peg, must be established, and its elevation 
aetermined; as for any other point the reading of elevation on the rod b ing 
taken on the turning point, the instrument can be removed to another position 
After Us properly levelled up. the new height of the instrument is obtained by 
fnew reading on the same turning point; since the cross-hairs *™ J^^* 
the point, this reading, added to the elevation of the point, give, the height of 
the instrument. . n , nirD fh 

Records are kept of the levels of the different stations as they rise above the 
datum or zero level selected, and the distances between stations. These , stations 
can be 400 feet from the instrument and accurate work done. These distances 
and elevations are then laid out on profile paper to any desired scale. For con- 
venience in drawing the profile, the entire length is considered as straight 

The limiting grade, up which it is safe to carry an electrical equipmen , 
except under special conditions, is about 15 per cent. Where traffic is heavy it 
s^tionable'whether considerable investment could not often be profitab y 
made to obviate a heavy grade on account of the slow time made, together with 
the heating and consequent depreciation of the equipment. 

The cost of operating over grades is governed by local conditions so that it is 
not amenable to any general treatment. The elements that enter in this calcu- 
lation, however, can be indicated by an assumed case: Suppose that a grade 
affect such a reduction in the speed that an extra equipment has to be operated 
all the time to maintain the proper schedule between cars, then the cost per year 
to operate this equipment would be the interest on the amount of money which 
would be profitable to expend to avoid or reduce the grade, the other considera- 
tion being the greater depreciation of all equipments ascending the grade and 
the additional hazard on descending the grade. 

Cuts and Fills.-To estimate cubic contents of excavations or fillings as- 
snming parallel end faces, parallel top and bottom surfaces, and uniform section 

/ = length. 
dp - perpendicular height or depth. 
wd = width at bottom of cut or top of fill. 
Dimensions in linear feet, results in cubic yards. 

Slope 1 to 1 : 

Cu. yds. = .03704/ X dp(wd-\-dp). 

Slope 1^ -o^ = -087M/ ^ ^(W-f iy z dp). 

Slope * to 1^ = .03704/ X dp(wd+2dp). 

Slope 2Yz to^ ^ = o37Q4/ x dAwd ±J0dpj. 

To estimate cubic contents of wedge-shaped end of cut, assuming horizontal 
base and uniform decrease in depth from maximum to zero, 



88 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 



Slope 1 to 1: 

Cu. yds. = .006172/ X dpQwd+ldf). 
Slope V/ % to 1 : 

Cu. yds. = .006172/ X d/(3wd -\- 3dp) 
- .018516/ X dj>{<wd4-dj>). 
S.ope 2 to 1 : 

Cu. yds. = .006172/ x dJ>{3wd + Adj>). 
Slope 2}4 to 1 : 

Cu. yds. = .006172/ x dj>{3wd+5dj>). 

The above formulae are true for fill having horizontal top surface, and uni- 
form decrease in depth from maximum to zero. 

To estimate cubic contents of wedge-shaped end of fill, assuming horizontal 
base and uniform decrease in depth from maximum to zero. 

Slope 1 to 1: 

Cu. yds. = .006172/ X dj>{3ivd+4dp). 
Slope V/i to 1 : 

Cu. yds. = .006172/ X d/(3wd-{-6d/). 
= .018516/ X dj>(ivd-\-2dp\ 
Slope 2 to 1 : 

Cu. yds. = .006172/ x dp{3wd-\-Sdp). 
Slope 2% to 1 : 

Cu. yds. = .006172/ X d/>{3wd-{-\0dp). 

Shrinkage.— In estimating the relative amounts of excavation and em- 
bankment required, allowance must be made for difference in the spaces occu- 
pied by the material before excavation and after it is settled in embankment. 
The various earths will be more compact in embankment, rock less so. The 
difference in volume is called shrinkage in the one case, and increase in the other. 

SHRINKAGE IN 1000 CU. TDS. 

Material. Of Excavation. Of settled embankment. 

Sand and gravel 80 cu. yds. 87 cu. yds. 

Clay , 100 " 111 

Loam 120 " 136 " 

Weteoil 150 " 200 " 

INCREASE IN 1000 CU. TDS. 

Rock, large fragments 600 cu. yds. 375 cu. yds. 

Rock, medium fragments 700 " 413 " 

Rock, small fragments 800 " 444 " 

Thus an excavation of sand and gravel measuring 1000 cu. yds., will form 
only about 920 cu. yds. of embankment; or an embankment of 1000 cu. yds. will 
require 1087 cu. yds. of sand or gravel measured in excavation to fill it ; but will 
require only 587 cu. yds. of rock excavation, the rock being broken into medium- 
sized fragments; while 1000 cu. yds. of the later, measured in excavation, will 
form 1700 cu. yds. of embankment. 

For Weights of Earths and Stones, see pages 11 to 13. 

TRACK LOCATION. 

Track is made up of straight and curved track; the straight track is called 
" 6 tangent " and the curved may be a simple curve, that is, a circle struck from 
the center so as to be tangent to both tracks which it connects. The length of 
this radius can be found by erecting at the adjacent ends of the tangent track 
vertical lines, which will intersect at the center of the curve to be struck. To 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 89 



correctly join these two tangents in street railway -work the curved position of 
the track is defined by the radius of this curvature. Steam roads usually adopt 
a diCcrent nomenclature, which is the number of degrees of curvature, included 
in an arc 100 ft. long. With the short curves used in street railways it is readily 
seen that this designation would not be suitable 

The survey of a line of track is always made from the middle of the track by 
setting a row of stakes where the center line of the track passes, and the rail is 
gaged both ways from this center. 

Before these center points are located by the engineer in city streets, all 
knowledge possible should be obtained regarding existing subterranean struct- 
ures, which may be beneath the surface or on the street surface, in order that 
they may not be disturbed nor their usefulness interfered with. All city maps of 
the city, gas, water, subway systems, sewage, etc., become useful if reliable. 
Usually all obstructions that are in direct line of the rail can be relocated, but in 
the case of water and gas mains, any street surface structures leading to, or 
mctallicly connected with, this piping system should be removed at least two 
feet from the rails, and if possible cement should be interposed between these 
two structures. Otherwise current may be deflected into these piping systems 
from the metallic connections made in this way and damage from electrolysis 
may result. 

In city work where curves occur, it is desirable, before commencing work, 
first to lay out each curve on a fairly large scale, say 1 in. = 5 ft., drawing in the 
tangent tracks which meet at this corner, also any obstruction in the street such 
as sewer covers, man holes, gas or water gate boxes, also the curb line and any 
obstruction on the corner if it should offer any possibility of hazard to a passenger 
standing on the running board of an open car in passing around the curve. After 
all these details have been drawn in the map the curves can be thrown in, as ex- . 
plained later. 

In laying road on paved streets with traffic on them, it is best to set stakes at 
an offset from the line of track out of line of the traffic, about 50 ft. apart on 
straight track, and close enough together on curves to have at least two points 
opposite each rail. In special work a point should be set opposite the heel and 
toe of each switch. 

TYPES OF ROADBED. 

Specifications for Street Railway Track in Cities. — Pratt & Alden 
give the following specifications for railway track, located in city streets. 

Construction.— Nine inch girder rail on wooden ties, broken stone ballast 
and granite block pavement. 

1. Work to he Done.— The work to be done consists of the construction of a 

single track on , , and Streets, between 

Street and Street, in the City of , State of 

2. Tools and Labor.— The contractor is to furnish all necessary tools, appara- 
tus, and other means of construction, and do all the work required for the above 
construction. 

3. Material. — The company will furnish and deliver to the contracter, at its 
yard located on Street, all material required for the above construc- 
tion except such as are not to be part of the finished construction, which will be 
furnished by the contractor,, 



go ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



4. Interference -with Traffic. — The street must not be torn up for a greater 
distance than 500 ft. in advance of the finished paving. The contractor must so 
arrange his work and deliver the material upon the street as to obstruct public 
travel as little as possible, and a roadway must be kept free on at least one side of 
the street for public travel. 

The contractor shall use all necessary precautions to prevent accidents by 
maintaining suitable barriers and by keeping lights burning at night. 

5. Grading and Excavation. — The roadbed is to be excavated to sub-grade, 
which will be 24 ins. below the finished grade of the street. This excavation is 
to extend.... ft. each side of the center line of track. If any further width of 
excavation is required, it will be directed by the engineer in writing, and paid for 
under clause c, paragraph 17. All material removed from the excavation is the 
property of the company, and must be promptly removed by the contractor and 
deposited in such places and in such manner as may be designated by the engi, 
neer. It shall not, however, be hauled a distance greater than.... ft., except as 
provided for under clause/", paragraph 17. 

No plowing will be allowed which disturbs the material below 6 ins. above 
sub-grade. 

6. Sub-drains— -If considered necessary by the engineer, a trench will be dug 
in the center of the roadway to such depth and grade as he shall prescribe. After 
thoroughly compacting the bottom of the trench, a.... in. porous tile-drain shall 
be laid and such connection made with the sewers or other drains as the engineer 
may direct. The trench is then to be refilled with clean gravel filling, in layers 
not exceeding 12 ins. in thickness. Each layer is to be thoroughly compacted by 
ramming before another layer is added. 

7. Preparing Sub-grade. — The sub-grade shall then be thoroughly rolled to 
the satisfaction of the engineer with a roller weighing not less than ....lbs. per 
inch of roller. If any portions of the sub-grade cannot be reached by the roller, 
snch portions shall besprinkled with water and thoroughly compacted by ram- 
ming. If any spongy or vegetable matter, or material which cannot be rolled, is 
found in the excavation, it must be removed and the space below sub-grade 
filled with clean gravel filling. The roadbed shall bo in a moist condition when 
rolled, and if dry must be moistened by the contractor. 

8. Baiiast.—TJ-pon the sub-grade, prepared as above described, there shall be 
spread a layer 5 ins. thick of broken-stone ballast, composed of stones not larger 
than 2J^ ins. in their largest dimension. This layer shall be thoroughly com- 
pacted by rolling with the roller heretofore described, or by ramming in such 
places as cannot be reached by the roller. 

9. Distribution of Ties.— Upon this layer of ballast the ties shall be distrib- 

uted and spaced at intevals of ins. on centers. The joint tics will be spaced 

. . . .ins. on centers and arranged as shown on plan furnished by the engineer. 

10. Laying Track.— The rails shall then be placed on the ties and the splice- 
plates bolted on. Care must be taken not to handle the rails in such a manner as 
to bend them or mar the heads or flanges. The Tails will be spiked with four 
spikes to the tie. Spikes will be staggered at least 2% ins. in the tie, and driven 
in such a manner as to hold the tie at right angles to the track, except when 
otherwise directed. Brace tie-plates will be used and spiked to the tie with three 

spikes at intervals of ft. The rails will be laid with staggered joints, and no 

joint shall be more than 12 ins. from a line drawn at right angles to the center of 






ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 91 



the opposite rail. Care must be taken to place the splice-plates squarely in posi- 
tion, and any scale or rust must he removed from the bearing surfaces of plates 
and rail. The heads of the bolts must be struck with a two-pound hammer 
while pressure is applied on a 30-in. wrench to tighten the nuts. The rail ends 
must be placed in as close contact as possible. The rails must not be bolted 
up for more than five rail lengths in advance of the finished paving. The gage of 
the track shall not vary more than fa in. from the standard on this road, which is 
ft ins. 

11. Special Work.— In laying frogs, switches, and other special work, special 
j care will be taken to maintain line, surface and gage. The latter will be widened 

on curves if so directed by the engineer, but not otherwise. The straight-track 
j gage at switches and mates will preferably be fa in. tight. If the special work 
jj does not appear to fit, no attempt whatever must be made to force it except by 
[ direction of the engineer. 

12. Raising Track and Tamping. — After the preparation of the track as: 
i previously described, the entire track must then be raised to the finished grade; 

and aligned to the lines given by the engineer. The space under the ties must; 
j then be filled with broken-stone ballast, composed of stones not larger than 
' 1% ins. in their largest dimension. This shall be tamped under the ties in such a. 

manner as to secure an even, solid bearing throughout the entire length and. 

width of the tie. 

Care must be taken in raising and tamping the track not to deform the rails 

or splice-bars. The space between the ties is to be filled with the same ballast, 

and thoroughly rammed. 

13. Bonding.— The rails are to be bonded with the bond, applied in the 

following manner : . „ . 

14. Joints. — The joints are to be gone over again and each bolt tightened up, 
Striking the head of each bolt with a two-pound hammer, while steady pressure 
is applied to the end of a 30-in. wrench until they cannot be further tightened. 

15. Preparation of Rail for Paving.— -The recesses under the head and tram 
of the rail will be filled with concrete in such a manner as to present a vertical 
surf ace for "the paving to rest against. This concrete shall be composed of one 

part Eosendale cement, parts sand and parts of broken stone, no piece 

of which shall be larger than 1 in. in its greatest dimension. 

16. Paving.— Over the entire portion of the street to be repaved will be spread 
a layer of clean sharp gravel, not larger than % in. in its largest dimension, and 
thoroughly compacted until its upper surface is 8 ins. below the finished grade. 
Especial care must be taken to thoroughly compact that portion between the ties. 
A layer of bedding sand will then be spread over the gravel of sufficient thickness 
to bring the granite blocks that are to be embedded in it to the proper grade after 
they are thoroughly rammed. The blocks are to be covered with clean, fine and 
dry gravel or coarse sand, which shall be raked and swept until all the joints 
become filled therewith. The blocks shall then be rammed to a firm, unyielding 
surface to agree with the section of track as furnished by the engineer. No 
ramming will be done within 15 ft. of the face of the paving that is being laid. 
The blocks will again be covered with a layer of clean, fine, or dry gravel or 
coarse sand, and raked and swept until the joints are filled therewith. The 
blocks shall then be rammed until made solid and secure. Finally, the paving 
Sfhall be covered with a Javei at least 1 in. in thickness of fine, dry screened gravel. 



92 ELECTRIC 'RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



17. Measurements. — The work will be measured and paid for under the fol- 
lowing prices : 

(a) Per foot of single track, including all excavation, refilling, preparation of 
the sub-grade, ballasting, paving and track-laying 

(<S) Special work shall be measured on the center line of track, measuring the 
center line from the separation of theoretical center lines to the similar separa- 
tion or to a point opposite the farthest joint of special work. Price per foot, 
determined in this manner, including items mentioned in clause (a) 

(c) Price per square yard for excavation, refilling, ballasting, and paving 
ontside the limit of ...... ft. from the center line of track, when required by the 

engineer; 

(d) Price per cubic yard of excavating and refilling measured in excavation 
for tile-drains 

(e) Price per running foot for laying tile-drains and connecting to sewers or 
drains 

(/) Price per ton per 1000 ft. for hauling material from the excavation a 
greater distance than ft. from the excavation 

18. -Estimates.— It shall be understood and agreed by the parties hereto that 
due measurements shall be taken during the progress of the work, and the 
estimate of the engineer shall be final and conclusive evidence of the amount of 
work performed by the contractor under and by virtue of this agreement, and 
shall be taken as the full measure of compensation to be received by the con- 
tractor. The aforesaid estimates shall be based upon the contract prices for the 
performance of all the work mentioned in these specifications and agreement, 
and when there may be any ambiguity therein, the engineer's instructions shall 
be considered explanatory, and shall be of binding force. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR EXPOSED TRACK. 

On interurban lines, when the track is exposed, the steam railroad practice 
can be followed very closely. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company has de- 
veloped the most complete set of specifications, which indicate that company's 
method in grading, ballasting and draining. Below is given an abstract from 
the Pennsylvania Railroad's general specifications, covering such, structural 
features as would be well to follow in cross-country electric track construction. 
Figs. 72 and 73 show the cross section of single and double track as designated 
by the specifications. 

P. R. R. Specifications for Laying Roadbed. — Roadbed. — The surface 
of the roadbed should be graded to a regular and uniform sub-grade, sloping 
gradually from the center towards the ditches. 

Ballast.— There shall be a uniform depth of 6 ins. to 12 ins. of well broken 
stone or gravel, cleaned from dust by passing over a screen of J4-in. mesh, spread 
over the roadbed and surfaced to a true grade, upon which the ties are to be laid. 
After the ties and rails have been properly laid and surfaced, the ballast must be 
filled up as shown on standard plan; and also between the main tracks and sid- 
ings where stone ballast is used. All stone ballast is to be of uniform size and 
the stone used must be of an approved quality, broken uniformly, not larger than 
a cube that will pass through a 2^ in. ring. On embankments that are not well 
settled the surface of the roadbed shall be brought up with cinder, gravel or some 
other suitable material. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



93 



m 


^ 

§ 


1 1 *? 


i— 


CO 


1 3 V % 


3 


o 

o 




! I 



Li 



-— s- 



94 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Cross-Ties. — The tics are to be regularly placed upon the ballast. They must 
be properly and evenly placed, with 10 ins. between the edges of bearing surface 
at joints, with intermediate ties evenly spaced : and the ends on the outside on 
double track, and on the right-hand side going north or west on Bingle track, 
lined up parallel with the rails. The ties must not be notched under any circum- 
stances; but, should they be twisted, tbey must be made true with the adze, that 
the rails may have an even bearing over the whole breadth of the tie. 

Line and Surface. — The track shall be laid in true line and surface; the 
rails are to be laid and spiked after the ties have been bedded in the ballast; and 
on curves, the proper elevation must be given to the outer rail and carried uni- 
formly around the curve. This elevation should be commenced from 50 ft. to 
300 ft. back of the point of curvature, depending on the degree of the curve and 
speed of trains, and increased uniformly to the latter point, where the full eleva- 
tion is attained. The same method should be adopted in leaving the curve. 

Joints. — The joints of the rails shall be exactly midway between the joint ties, 
and the joint on one line of rail must be opposite the center of the rail on the 
other line of the same track. A Fahrenheit thermometer should be used when 
laying rails, and care taken to arrange the openings between rails in direct 
proportion to the following temperatures and distances; at a temperature of 
Odeg., a distance of f B in.; at 50 degs., 3 6 2 in.; and in extreme summer heat, of, 
say 100 degs. and over, ^ in. must be left between the ends of the rails to allow 
for expansion, The splices must be properly put on with the full number of 
bolts, nuts and nut-locks, and the nuts placed on inside of rails, except on rails 
of 60 lbs. per yard and under, where they shall be placed on the outside and 
screwed up tight. The rails must be spiked both on the inside and outside at 
each tie, on straight lines as well as on curves, and the spikes driven in such a 
position as to keep the ties at right angles to the rails. 

Switches. — The switches and frogs should be kept well lined up and in good 
surface. Switch signals must be kept bright and in good order, and the distant 
signal and facing-point lock used for all switches where trains run against the 
points, except on single track branch roads. 

Ditches. — The cross-section of ditches at the highest point must be the width 
and depth as shown on the standard drawing, and graded parallel with the track, 
so as to pass water freely during heavy rains and thoroughly drain the ballast and 
roadbed. The line of the bottom of the ditch must be made parallel with the 
rails, and well and neatly defined, at the standard distance from the outside rail. 
All necessary cross-drains must be put in at proper intervals. Earth taken from 
ditches or elsewhere must not be left at or near the ends of the tics, thrown up on 
the slopes of cuts, nor on the ballast, but must be deposited over the sides of 
embankments. Berm ditches shall be provided to protect the slopes of cuts, 
where necessary. The channels of streams for a considerable distance above 
the road should be examined, and brush drift, and other obstructions removed. 
Ditches, culverts, and box drains should be cleared of all obstructions and the 
outlets and inlets of the same kept open to allow a free flow of water at all times. 

Road Crossings.— The road-crossing planks shall be securely spiked; the 
planking on inside of rails should be % in., and on outside of rails it should be 
}4 in., below the top of rail, and 2^4 ins. from the gage line. The ends and 
inside edges of planks should be beveled off as shown on standard plan. 



ELECTRIC RAILWA V HAND BOOK. 



95 



EXAMPLES OF TRACK CONSTRUCTION. 

Track Construction on Concrete Girders.— This form of track con- 
struction does away with the frequently spaced tie and substitutes a lateral 
bearing for the rail. The rails are tied together at intervals, but depend upon 
the concrete foundation for their support. This construction is especially useful 




j,B<SE OF CONCRETE 



Fig. 74.— scranton, pa., track construction. 



where paving such as concrete, brick or asphalt already exists on the street to be 
tracked as trenches only have to be cut in the paving for the rails and their 
foundations with occasional cross cuts for the tie rods, thus reducing the cost 
for renaving. 



9 6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Scranton, Pa., Construction.— The rail is a 5-in. T, weight 57 lbs., in 60-ft. 
lengths and with a 6-bolt joint. Underneath each joint is an inverted section of 
same rail, 4 ft. long, extending 2 ft. each side of the joint and riveted to the rail 
by eighteen %-m. rivets ; four of these rivets are copper for bonding. The concrete 




i| VOIDS UNCER 
« RAIL HEADS 
\ FILLED WITH 

CEMENT MORTAR _4lgJ/" 



rzr 



iB'i |r — n 

I i I 6ANQ_L 



Ofol 



CONCRETE.-. 



f^^ 



Fig. 75. — Detroit track construction. 



is laid 6 ins. below rail except for 2 ft. 6 ins. each side of the joint where it is 
12 ins. below the rail. The ties which are old 52-lb. girder rails, are spaced 10 ft. 
apart and the rails are bolted to them. There is also a tie rod % ins. x 1J^ ins. 
between each tie. For details of construction see Fig. 74. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



97 



.st -J 




'* 



9 8 



ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



Detroit Track Construction. — The rail is a9-in., 100-lb. girder with, steel 
ties 5-ft. centers. The ties are channels 7 ins. wide, 7 ft. long and % in. thick, 
with flange 1% in, deep. Concrete was laid 6 ins. below base of rail and tamped 
under tie, also laid on top of ties and carried np to within 1^ in. of the base of 
the paving. Where concrete stringers were used, the trench was 15 ins. deep and 
1 ft. wide. A layer of concrete composed of 1 part Portland cement, 4 parts 
Louisville cement, 8 parts sand and 1G parts broken stone was then laid in bottom 
■ of the trench to depth of G ins. The rail used in this construction was 7 ins. high; 
the space between the base of rail and base of concrete was grouted with 1 part 
Portland cement, 1 part sand and 3 parts clean fine gravel. Tie rods were used 
10 ft. apart. For details of construction see Fig. 75. 

Kansas City Construction. — The foundation trench is 20 ins. wide on 
top, 16 ins. on botton and 15 ins. in depth, so there will be 6 ins. below the rail 
when it is on grade. At 10-ft. intervals are placed wooden blocks 8 ins. x 10 ins. x 
16 ins. to which the rails are spiked. After gaging and aligning the track, the 
trenches arc filled with concrete made of 2 parts sand, y 2 part Portland cement, 
y 2 part domestic cement and 5 parts crushed stone small enough to pass through 
Y 2 in. ring, all by measure. Temporary splice bars are bolted on at rail joints 
which eventually are cast welded ; the metal for the cast weld being composed of 
Yz pig iron and y z scrap iron. See Fig. 76 for this construction. 

L,os Angeles Track Construction. — The rail is a 6-in., 60-lb., 60-ft. T. 
The managers of the Los Angeles Eailway Company were the pioneers in the 




•-v :':-■■ : -v*m&X^?*^XHmw&S.Sr;: : - .= 



Fig. 77.— los angeles track constructions 






bringing of theee long rails across the continent, and report finding no difficulty 
or additional expense in transportation. In a recent shipment of 500 tons only 
three rails had to be straightened. For details of construction see Fig. 77. 

Milwaukee Track Construction. — The rail is a 6-in., 72-lb. Shanghai 
section in 60-ft. lengths and is laid on cedar ties 6 ins. x 8 ins. x 7 ft., 2-ft. centers. 
L'nder pavements which have concrete foundations the ties are laid on a 6-in. bed 
of cement, and in other streets broken stone ballast is used. The Falk cast-weld 
joint is used. In exposed track which is cast welded slip joints are provided 
every 500 ft. The contraction and expansion in exposed track has been found to 
amount to about 1J4 i n - pe* 100 ft. of track, so at the slip joints the rails are 
sometimes 6 ins. apart. The standard suburban roadbed of this company con- 
sists of a 56-lb. T, 434 in - 60-ft. rail laid on broken stone or gravel ballast, 
with Weber joints. See Fig. 78 for these constructions. 



ELECTRIC RAILV/A Y HAND BOOK. 



99 



3TT x. - 





-U-U-LHH ffl U"U " 

FlG. 78.— MILWAUKEE TRACK construction. 



LofC. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



RAILS. 

Sections.— Rails have been rolled in nearly every conceivable shape, which 
would serve the purpose of a rail. The forms illustrated are those most used iu 
modern street railway practice. Fig. 79 gives some general sections, the 
box girder being nearly obsolete; the T and the girder are the prevailing rail- 






7. RAIL 



Fig. 79.— general rail forms. 

/ • 

forms now in use. Fig. 80 gives the nomenclature for the different parts 
designated. 

Taking up the grooved type of girder rail, Fig. 81 shows the Crimmins or 
original rail adopted by the Metropolitan Street Railway Company of New York 
City. The peculiarity of this rail consists in its long lip, extending beyond the 
guard. This allows of the pavement being laid adjacent to the rail, and carries 
the street traffic which tracks ou the rail, thus preventing to some extent the 
wearing of grooves along the pavement adjacent to the rail. Fig. 82 shows the later 
eection of the girder rail adopted by the Metropolitan Street Railway. The head 



TRAM OR TREAD 




TRACK BOLT 
SPLICE BAI\BOLT 
.FILLET 
~JOINT PLATE" 
SPLICE BAR 
CHANNEL PLATE 
FISH PLATE 



FLAN&E^ANeiE 



LOyf£K riAMZE' 



Fig. BO.— rail nomenclature : side bearing girder rails. 



differs from that shown in Fig. 81 in that the width of the lip is reduced, and the 
tram is dropped % in. below the head of the rail; the head has also been thick, 
ened, and the rail has been increased to a depth of 9 ins. to make itstiffer. 
Fig. 83 gives the grooved rail for the Brooklyn Heights Railroad, designed by J. 
C. Brackenbridge. Here the web has been moved nearer the center of the head 
of the rail. Fig. 84 gives the flat tram used by the same company. The Brook- 
lyn road uses the support more nearly under the head of the rail, which produces 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK:, 



101 



! less canting effect upon the rail and its bearing on the passing of an equipment. 
Fig. 85 shows the section adopted by the Boston Elevated Railway Company for 

; its" city surface lines. Fig. 86 shows the section used in Washington, D. C. 

I This is used in recently installed conduit roads, and the pavement is asphalt 

' throughout. Fig. 87 shows the New Orleans section which has many of the ad- 

I vantages of a center bearing rail in its freedom from dirt. Fig. 88 gives the 

| standard T-rail section of the American Society of Civil Engineers, which has 

I been largely adopted throughout the country, the dimensions and weight varying 




CRIMMIHS RAIL. 
FiG.~8l7 



STANDARD RAIL OF METROPOUTO/f M" *™"*'!- °? SftOUfLrAt 
■STREET RAILmr. MS/G-H7S RAILtTAK 



Fig. 82. 



Fig. 83. 




4f~ 



■STANDARD /fA/l OF 
BROOKiM HE/GHTS MlUTAi 

Fig. 84. 




WEST END STREET RA/LtVAf* 
fA/L. 

Fig. 85. 



to meet the different traffic conditions. Figs. 89, 90 and 91 show some of the rail 
sections used on some of the important steam roads in this country which could 
be used in street railway work. 

A good track is stiff enough to renist flexion, has a rail joint as strong and 
rigid as the rail itself, is kept clean by the passage of the cars and presents small 
I obstruction to traffic. The weight and depth of the rail are determined by the 
traffic, weights and speeds of equipments, the pavement and the limiting profit- 
able cost of construction and track maintenance. 

It i.? most important that the head and groove of a rail be kept clean. It is 
not generally understood how much extra demand on a power station a dirty 



102 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY BAND BOOK. 



track will make. In a test made on a track, which was covered with dust and 
dirt, the starting current was 212 amps., the car started slowly on the second 
notch of the controller, and 3.28 kw-hours per car mile were consumed under 
regular traffic conditions. After cleaning the track the car started with 96 amps. 
on the first notch and the kw-hours per car mile fell to 1.24. This, however, can 
not be cited as a fair average for the track was so located as to readily collect dirt 
It will also be noticed that the head of a rail that has dirt or dust over it will 
not present the polished condition of a clean track, but will be discolored and 
pitted, due to the arcing between the wheel and rail. This character of rolling 




mSH/NGTON AIM. 
Fig. 86. 




— Jt 
HEN ORLEANS RAIL 



Fig. 87. 






Fig. 89 



7-ffM SECTION. 

Fig. 90. 




Fig. 91. 



Burface presented to the wheel increases the power required to propel the equip- 
ment over the track. With a grooved rail the dirt packs in the groove and the 
weight of the equipment is partly rolled on the flange of the wheel over the 
packed dirt in the groove. The center bearing rail, which includes the T-rail, is 
the most economical of power and most desirable in many other respects. The 
objection used against it is that, it affords more obstruction to vehicles crossing 
the track and as vehicle wheels will not run on the head two grooves are 
often formed in the pavement on either side of the rail. 

Street Traffic— Street traffic has to be carefully considered in each ques- 
tion of roadbed construction. In the smaller towns where it is light a rail head 
can be used which, will afford a track for the vehicles. But a rail that forms a 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAXD BOOK. 103 



good wagon way will attract wagons to it and reduce the schedule time possible 
for the cars following thern. What has to be cared for is proper surfacing so 
that buggy wheels are not wrenched in turning out from the track, the principle 
element of damage. 

In larger cities where traffic is heavy, the condition of an unbroken street 
surface should be attained as nearly as possible. Here a full-grooved rail will 
accomplish the desired results more nearly than any other type. With the other 
sections there is a guide way to keep the vehicles to the track by the projecting 
head of the rail. The sections of the half -grooved type, is a compromise between 
the grooved rail and flat tram rail. The full flat tram causes greater straining to 
vehicles when turning out, and the width of the tram has no useful purpose when 
viewed from the street railway point of view. 

Light carriages have tires of a width of 1J4 in. ; delivery wagons, 1% in. and 
heavy wagons from 2 ins. to 4 ins. and wider. The usual thickness of a car wheel 
flange is from %in. to 1 in. To allow play to the wheels and for the difference of 
34 in., which is the undergage usually allowed for setting wheels, the groove 
should be at least 1J4 iris, wide at top. It will be noticed that the groove is usu- 
ally sloping with a large guaid angle so that the wheel flange will throw out dirt 
that accumulates in the groove. In a straight sided groove the dirt is packed by 
the rolling flange, and the power required is increased. 

A grooved rail which has a groove not wider than 1*4 ins. will not form a 
tramway for vehicles, and they will follow more the stieet to the side of the track 
and reduce the w r ear on the pavement adjacent to and between the rails. 

Pavement.— In pavement with asphalt laid against the rail, the full-grooved 
rail is largely used, as any other attracts traffic and concentrates vehicular traffic 
on or parallel to the rails, which soon wears the asphalt in deep grooves and 
breaks up the surface of the pavement. Also in cold climates the iron rail against 
the asphalt makes it brittle and depreciate rapidly. In order to reduce this 
wear at these points, a granite toothing stone is first laid against the rail, 
consisting of alternate headers and stretchers, and the asphalt pavement is 
brought to this surface. There have been made bricks which overlap the tram of 
the rail, forming a grooved rail and reducing the breadth of the tram. Where a 
T-rail is laid in paving, the paving is laid directly against the rail and a car truck 
with larger flanged wheels than ordinarily used and heavily weighted is drawn 
over the road to form the groove in the paving stone. 

The depth of the rail is regulated somewhat by the character of pavement 
used. Brick or asphalt require a sub-base and should not rest on the ties, as this 
will soon give the pavement an unequal setting. Where this pavement is used, 
therefore, a 7-in. girder, at least, is required. With a 6-in. Belgian block there is 
required 1 in. of sand for a bed and a deep rail must also be used. 

In macadam pavement the T section forms the best rail, as the grooved rail 
would be continually filled with dirt, and the flat tram would attract traffic which 
would put excessive wear on the pavement adjacent to the track. 

BAILS: SPECIFICATIONS, COMPOSITION AND TESTS. 

Illinois Steel Company Standard Specifications for Steel T-Rails. — 

1. The section of the rail throughout its entire length shall conform to the 
American Society of Civil Engineer's Standard lbs. per yard. 

The fit of the fishing or male templet shall be perfectly maintained. When 
the rolls are new, the section of the rail may be fa in. low. As the rolling pro- 



104 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



ceeds, a variation not exceeding fa in. in excess of height over templet may be r 
permitted in a delivery of 10,000 tons of rails, after which the rolls must be reduced 
to standard height of such sections. 

The standard of measure to be Brown and Sharpe's United States standard 
steel vernier caliper rule. 

2. The weight of the rail shall be kept as near to lbs. per yard as is 

practical after complying with Section 1. The rails shall be accepted and settled 
for according to actual weights. 

3. The standard length of rail shall be 30 ft., at a temperature of 70 deg., 
Fahr. Shorter rails, having length of 22 ft. to 29 ft. inclusive, shall be accepted 
to the extent of 10 per cent of the entire order. A variation in length of J4 in- 
over or under the specified length will be allowed. 

4. Care to be taken in cambering the rails so as to reduce the amount of work 
in the straightening press to a minimum. The rails must be kept straight in all 
directions as to both surface and line, without twists or kinks. 

5. The rails must be smooth on the head and base, and free from all mechani- 
cal defects and flaws, and must be sawn square at the ends; the burrs made by 
the saws must be carefully chipped and filed off, particularly under the head and 
on the top of the flange, to ensure proper fit of the angle-bars. 

6. The drilling for the bolts to be in strict conformity with the blue print at- 
tached, or the dimensions given. Holes imperfectly drilled to be filed to proper 
dimensions. All holes must be accurate in every respect. 

7. The section number, name of maker, year and month, to be rolled on the 
side of the web. The number of the heat to be stamped in the side of the web. 

8. The chemical composition of standard rails under 70 lbs. per yard to be as 

follows : 

Carbon 37 to .45 of 1 per cent 

Sulphur not to exceed 05 " " 

Phosphorus not to exceed 10 " '" 

Silicon 07 to .15 " 

Manganese 70tol.l0 " " 

The chemical composition of standaid rails 70 lbs. and over per yard to be as 
follows: 

Carbon j .45 to .55 of 1 per cent 

Sulphur not to exceed 05 " " 

Phosphorus not to exceed 10 " " 

Silicon 10to.20 " 

Manganese , . .80 to 1.00 " " 

9. From each heat one test ingot shall be cast 2J4 in- x 234 * n - x 6 in. long. 
This to be drawn down at one heat by hammering to a test piece % ins. square by 
18 ins. to 20 ins. long. The same when cold to be required to bend to a right 
angle without breaking. This bar must be bent by blows from a hammer. 

10. After cutting off or allowing for the sand on the top end of the ingot, at least 
12 ins. more of seemingly solid steel shall be cut off that end of the bloom. If 
after cutting such length the steel does not look solid, the cutting shall be contin- 
ued until it does. 

11. The inspector representing the purchaser shall have free entry to the 
works of the manufacturer at all times while*his contract is being filled, and shall 
have all reasonable facilities afforded to satisfy him that the rails are being made 
in accordance with these specifications. The manufacturer shall furnish daily 
the carbon determinations of each heat, and a complete chemical analysis of at 
least one heat of each day and night turn in which each element is to be de- 
termined. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



105 



12. The requirements for No. 2 rails shall be the same as for No. 1 except that 
they will be accepted with a flaw in the head not exceeding 14 in., and a flaw in 
the flange not exceeding y 2 i n - in depth. 

No. 2 rails to the extent of 5 per cent of the entire order will be received. 

Composition.— The composition of steel rails is a much mooted question 
for the reason that the different processes used in the manufacture of the ore 
cause the rail to vary in its chemical composition, but do not necessarily change 
markedly the physical properties of the metal. 

Mr. E. W. Richards suggests the following composition after considering the 
matter from both the point of view of the manufacturer and the user: 

Minimum. Maximum. 

Carbon 35 .5 of 1 per cent 

Silicon 05 .1 " " 

Sulphur 04 .08 " " 

Phosphorus .08 " " 

Manganese 75 1.00 " " 

The American Committee of the International Association for testing 
materials for rail from 50 lbs. to 75 lbs. per yard gives the following composition : 

Carbon 35 to .50 of 1 per cent 

Silicon Not over .20 '* " 

Sulphur 

Phosphorus Not over .10 " " 

Manganese 70 to 1.05 " " 

The strength of the rail is affected by the temperature at which it passes 
through the rolls. It is proposed to introduce into rail specifications that the 
shrinkage after they leave the finishing roll till thej attain normal temperature 
shall be expressly stated in per cent. 

Regarding the wearing qualities 'of a rail A. J. Moxham states that the life of 
a rail is now determined by the life of the joint. The question is not how much 
the rail has worn, but how much has the hammering at the joint destroyed its 
usefulness. For heavy traffic he states that what is wanted is a hard ductile rail 
which can only be produced by low phosphorus and high manganese. Anything 



RESULTS OF THREE YEARS' TESTS ON RAIXS. 

(A. j. moxham.) 

























d 
































O 0Q 


















«M 




a 


"m 





r-J 03 . 
















jA 


O 
>> 


Ba 


c.S 


ft3 


IS 


a c3 
3 £13 







a 






ft 


ft 


m 



c3 





2 




5n 5 


fee u 




1 * 

■u CD 


000 












a 




<3 


O O 


M A 


~ ft 


"3 ft 











XII 


A 


02 


63 




"0 


■-C ■-> 




i-l . 


c . 


"Z A 


s^ m 








Ph 




& 




ft 

CO 


72 


0^2 


.2J5 

a 


.2 

c3 


go 


fe."S > 

Z £ ° 

2 ST 


Soft rail.. 


.280 


.026 


.106 


0.066 


.790 


98.732 


7.355 


7.956 


75.860 


45.730 


35,000 


.00345 


25 


Hard rail. 


.590 


.056 


.097 


.059 


.830 


98.368 


7.841 


7.971 


118,100 


62,500 


50,000 


.00205 


35 


Hard and 




























Ductile. 


.570 


.234 


.050 


.078 


.980 


98.088 


7.825 


7.977 


120,380 


53,160 


47,100 


.00488 


60 



io6 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK 



below .10 of 1 per cent phosphorus can only be obtained by greatly increased cost 
of manufacture equalling practically 8 per cent of the total. The joint wear was 
not taken into consideration. The service was at the rate of 11,600 cars passing 
per day. 

There is another point in regard to high carbon in a rail, which is, that it is 
pitted by rain water and is yet too hard to have these pits rolled out by the wheel 
of the equipment ; this increases the rolling friction between the car wheel and 
rail. The ends of rails also are in some cases ordered to be cut to ^ in. slope, 
the longest part of the rail being on the head ; this will cause the joint at the head 
of the rail to close first. 

The coefficient of expansion of steel may be taken at .0000066 per degree Fahr- 
enheit, and the extreme range of temperature at 120 degs. The change in length 
of the total iange will be .0008 of the length; in a mile this amounts to over 4 ft. 

Electrical Resistance of Kails.— There is considerable variation in the 
determinations of the resistance of steel rails, largely due to the marked effect 
the percentage of manganese and phosphorus has on the conductivity of steel. 
A steel rail has a temperature coefficient for resistance of about 0.48 of one per 
cent for each degree centigrade rise above 20 degs. 

The following values have been given for 90-lb. single rail for 1000 ft. in 
ohms ; 

Bell 00666 

Goto 00552 

McTigh 00660 

Vail 00528 

Herrick 00521 

For each mile of continuous rail 1 sq. in. section equals approximately 0.21 
ohms; then the sectional area of rail divided 'into this resistance gives the resist- 
ance per mile of rail alone. 



AREA OF RAILS AND EQUIVALENTS IN COPPFR CONDUC- 
TORS FOR TWO TRACKS, FOUR RAILS IN PARALLEL. 



Multiply results by two for single track. 



"Weight of 
Hails 


Total 

Sectional 

Area, 

Sq. in. 


Equivalent in Copper. 


Approxi- 
mate 

Number 
0000, 

B. W. G. 


Resistance 

per Mile. 

Rail only. 

Ohms. 


per 

Yard. 

Lbs. 


Sectional 
Area, sq. in. 


Thick- 
ness, in. 


Width, 
in. 


50 
60 
70 

80 
90 
100 


20 
24 

23 

32 
36 
40 


3.33 

4.00 
4.66 

5.33 
6.00 
6.66 


1 
1 
1 

1 
1 
1 


3.33 
4.00 
4.66 

5.33 
6.00 
6.C6 


20 
24 
23 

32 
36 

40 


0.0121 
0.0101 
0.0086 

0.0075 
0.0067 
0.0060 



Expansion, and Contraction of Rails. — Temperature of rail for the year 
round; flange, 69 degs., head, 70 degs. when the air is 71 degs. in the shade. In a 
continuous rail it is found from experiment that there was absolutely no move- 
ment out of place of the track with the girder type of rail, 6 in. deep, set in con- 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



107 



Crete, weighing 78 lbs. to the yard ; and it was proven that not only the roadbed 
will hold the track as a complete structure when once imbedded, but that it will 
hold a rail 10 ft. or 30 ft. as well as one 1100 ft. The expansion in 1100 ft. if not 
neutralized would be 534 i ns - I* * s believed that this expansion is actually due to 
a minute enlargement and reduction of the sectional area of the rail. A variation 
of ? degs. in temperature would subject the rail to a stress of 1000 lbs. per sq. 



TABLE OF WEIGHTS AND LENGTHS OF RAILS. 






18.86 
20.43 
22.00 

23.57 
25.14 
26.71 



31.43 

33.00 
34.57 
36.14 

37.71 

39.29 
40.86 

42.43 
44.00 
45.57 

47.14 

48.71 
50.29 

51.86 
53.43 
55.00 

56.57 
58.14 
59.71 

61.29 
G2.86 
64.43 

66.00 
67.57 
69.14 

70.71 
72.28 
73.86 



2 =* : 
Eh 



280.0 

258.46 
240.00 

224.00 

210.0 

197.65 

186.67 
176.84 
168.0 

160.00 
152.72 
146.09 

140.00 

134.4 

129.23 

124.44 
120.00 
115.86 

112.0 

108.39 
105.00 

101.82 
98.82 
96.0 

93.33 
90.81 

88.42 

86.15 

84.0 

81.95 

80.00 
78.14 
76.36 

74.67 
73.04 
71.49 






o§2 



75.43 
77.00 
78.57 

80.14 

81.71 
83.29 

84.86 
86.43 
88.00 

89.57 
91.14 
92.71 

94.29 

95.86 
97.43 

99.00 
100.57 
102.14 

103.71 
105.29 
106.86 

108.43 
110.00 
111.57 

113.14 
114.71 
116.29 

117.86 
119.43 
121.00 

122.57 
124.14 
125.71 

127.29 
128.86 
130.43 



Feet of 
Track per 

Ton 
of liails. 


O u 


70.00 
68.57 
67.20 


84 
S5 
86 


65.88 
64.62 
63.40 


87 
88 
89 


62.22 
61.09 
60.00 


90 
91 
92 


58.95 
57.93 
56.95 


93 
94 
95 


56.00 
55.08 
54.19 


96 
97 
98 


53.33 
52.50 
51.69 


99 
100 

101 


50.91 

50.15 
49.41 


102 
103 
104 


48.70 
48.00 
47.32 


105 
106 
107 


46.67 
46.03 
45.41 


108 
109 
110 


44.80 
44.21 
43.64 


111 

112 

113 


43.08 
42.53 
42.00 


114 
115 

116 


41.48 
40.98 
40.48 


117 
118 
119 
120 



Eh 



132.00 
133.57 
135.14 

136.71 
138.29 
139.86 

141.43 
143.00 
144.57 

146.14 
147.71 
149.29 

150.86 
152.43 
154.00 

155.57 
157.14 
158.71 

160.29 
161.86 
163.43 

165.00 
166.57 
168.14 

169.71 
171.29 
172.86 

174.43 
176.00 

177.57 

179.14 

180.71 
182.29 

183.86 
185.43 
187.00 
188.57 



Eh 



ga 



40.00 
39.53 
39.07 



38.18 
37.75 

37.33 
36.92 
36.52 

36.13 
35.75 
35.37 

35.00 
34.64 
34.29 

33.94 
33.60 
33.27 

32.94 
32.62 
32.31 

32.00 
31.70 
31.40 

31.11 
30.83 
30.54 

30.27 
30.00 
29.73 

29.47 
29.22 
28.97 

28.72 
28.47 
28.24 
28.00 



ioS 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



in. Taking a track laid at a low temperature of 40 degs., and subject to a maxi- 
mum of 120 degs. or a variation of 80 degs. the stress is equal to less than 12,000 
lbs. per sq. in., much less than the elastic limit. It would therefore appear that 
the effect on the steel would be harmless. 

It is well known to track men that the heavy rails do not show as much ex- 
pansion and contraction by heat as the lighter sections do. A report was made 
to the Road Master's Association in 1899 by Mr. V. T. Douglass of the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio R. R., on exposed track construction. He gives the following 
coefficients for different weights of rails. 



Contraction from 4-5 degrees 
to —20 degrees F. 

- Rail. Coefficient. 

56-lb 00208 

75-lb 00139 

85-lb 00101 



Expansion from-|-5 degrees 
to -j-70 degrees F. 

Rail. Coefficient. 

56-lb 00107 

75-lb 00009 

85-lb 00065 



A 66-lb. rail, if supported by the proper number of cross, ties, will answer 
every engineering demand, even of high speed electric cars. Anything over thia 
goes to the debt of bad joints. 

Rail in use by different companies varied between 2 ins. and 2%, ins. head 
A large number of roads used % in. to 1 in. wheel flange in width at tread of 
wheel and % to % ins. deep. 

Useful Formulae For Rails.— The number of tons of rail for one mile 
single track equals approximately 1 \ of the weight of rail in pounds per yard; tho 
sectional area of rail in square inches equals approximately ^ of the weight of 
rail in pounds per yard ; the maximum safe weight for rails properly supported on 
ties is one ton for each 10 lbs. weight of rail per yard. 

TIES. 

The life of ties is largely affected by the earth in which they are buried, and 
raising on ballast and drainage increases their life. The life of ties as given by 
Prof. Roth is as follows: 

Black locust, cypress, red cedar , 10 years 

White oak, chestnut oak, chestnut 8 

Tamarack 7 to 8 

Cherry, black walnut, locust 7 

Elm 6 to 7 

Long leaf pine 6 

Red and black oaks 4 to 5 

Hemlock 4 to 6 

Spruce 5 

Ash, beach, maple 4 

Mr. Hough gives the following table: 

Oak 7.4 years 

White oak 7.3 

Post " 7.0 

Burr " 7.4 

Rock " 7.0 

Red " .5.0 

Chestnut oak 7.1 

Black oak 4 5 

Southern pine 6.5 

White " 6.5 

Cedar, red 11 .8 

Cedar, white 7.5 

Cypress ..8.7 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 109 



Ash, black 3.8 years. 

Ash, white 4.3 " 

Cherry 6tol0 " 

The Railroad Gazette, Dec. 2G, 1884, gives the following percentage of the 
various woods used upon 90,900 miles out of 121,592 miles in operation of steam 
track : 

White oak 58.2 per cent. 

Cedar 10.4 " •■ 

Yellow pine 8.7 " " 

Northern pine 6.9 " " 

Hemlock 5.9 " " 

Chestnut 44 " * 

Fir 1.7 " " 

Spruce 1.6 " " 

Cypress 1.0 " " 

Miscellaneous soft woods 0.6 " " 

Miscellaneous hard woods 0. 6 4i " 

Total 100.0 " " 

Climatic conditions play a large part in the depreciation of ties. In low 
moist country cypress ties last fully as well as cedar; in a dry climate their life is 
reduced to seven years. Where a tic is covered with earth in its entirety it 
will decay much more rapidly than where it is only partially covered. It has 
been noticed that a large percentage of lime in soils will produce premature decay. 
Yellow pine tics have been found to be preserved by salt used in thawing the 
snow at guard rails and frogs, while they were badly rotted on adjacent portions 
of track not salted. 

When tics have to be laid on ground, the action of which on the different 
woods is not known, an examination of fence posts along the route, noting the 
kind of wood, and obtaining the length of time planted, will suggest the best 
kinds of woods to use for ties, 

There is no economy in putting down cheap ties. The cost of labor alone in 
ten years will be more than double that of the most durable tie that can be se- 
cured. The essential feature of any railway is the permanency of its rail sub- 
structure and without good ties this cannot be obtained. 

The treatment of ties primarily consists of heating the tie to evaporate the 
sap out of the cells, and afterwards filling or lining these cells with some com- 
pound or chemical which will preserve the mechanical characteristics of the tie, 
and hermetically seal the cellulose of the tie to protect it from attacks of fungi, or 
dry or wet rot. 

The three principal methods used are Burnettizing, Creosoting and Kyanizing. 
Burnettizing consists of partially impregnating the wood with zinc chloride. 
The preparation being soluble loses its value when exposed to rain or water. 
Oak, pine and fir cannot be thoroughly treated as the preparation only reaches 
1}4 in- in hard woods, and in soft wood penetrates the sap wood but not the 
heart of the wood at all. 

The Barschall treatment is the Hasselmann method largely used in 
Germany. Here the cellulose of the wood is chemically acted on during the 
treating process and forms a direct chemical combination with the woody fiber 
cellular tissue and cell contents. The treating liquid consists of a combination 
of sulphates of iron, copper and alumina and kainit (which is a natural salt of 
sulphate of potash and magnesia and the chloride of magnesia.) This treat- 
ment chemically impregnates the whole mass when the timber is boiled in it at a 
temperature of from 100° cent, to 140° cent., and under a pressure of 15 to 45 lbs. 



no 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



per square inch and this treatment is said to prevent decay and rot effected on 
exposure and docs not change the physical characteristics of the wood except to 
reduce its inflammability. 

The treatment by creosote or dead oil of tar is largely used, and reports of tests 
show that the life of ties can be greatly prolonged by such treatment. The cost 
of treating ties should show a profit over labor of renewals and cost of new ties 
during the life of the treated tie. 



Ties per 1000 ft. and per Mile. 

SPACING PER 1000 FT. 

10 ties to 30 ft. rail 



11 " 


ti 


it <t 


12 " 


it 


tt ti 


13 " 


" 


It tt 


14 " 


** 


ft it 


15 " 


ti 


t! ti 


16 " 


it 


tt ii 


CENTER TO 


CENTER 




18 ins. 




21 


" 




24 


*• 




27 


" 



400 
433^ 



500 
5333^ 



PER MILE 
1,760 
1,936 
2,112 
2,288 
2,464 
2,640 
2,816 



TIES PER MILE 
3,520 

3,017 
2,640 
2,348 
2,113 
1.760 



Board Feet, Cubic Feet, and Square Feet of Bearing Surface per Tie. 



5 ins. 
5 " 
5 " 

5 " 

6 " 



x 

X 

x 7 
x 8 
x 6 
x 7 
x 8 
x 9 
xlO 
x 8 
x 9 
xlO 



SIZE 

5 ins. 

6 " 



BOARD FEET CUBIC FEET BEARING SURFACE 



x7ft. 
x7 " 
x7 " 
x7 " 
x7 " 
x7 " 
x7" 
x7 " 
x7 " 
x8 " 
x8 " 
x8 " 



14 56 

17.5 

20.41 

23.33 

21. 

24.5 

28. 

31.5 

35. 

32. 

36. 

40. 



1.213 

1.458 

1.7 

1.944 

1.75 

2.041 

2.333 

2.625 

2.916 

2.666 

3.00 



2.91 

3.5 

4.08 

4.66 

3.5 

4.08 

4.66 

5.25 

5.83 

5.33 

6.00 



The inspection of ties is largely a matter of experience and judgment. The 
hewn tie should have flat surfaces. There should be no bark or knot holes or in- 
dications of rot. Ties are graded and placed according to traffic, or the rails 
which they support; the largest and best proportioned ties are used for the joint 
on main line traffic, the second selection, for general main line work. It is nearly 
impossible to draw a specification for a tie, as the wood adopted, the location and 
local timber possibilities to produce good ties and the price advisable to pay, fix 
the character of tie which it is possible to obtain. The selection of the ties 
should be in the hands of a competent and skilled inspector. 

Steel Ties. — Steel ties have come into use, especially in hot countries where 
wood is attacked by insects. The steel tie or its equivalent, as shown in the 
Scranton construction, is becoming more extensively used, as concrete is now 
largely employed for foundation under roadbeds. 

Fig. 92 gives one form of steel tie, which consists of an inverted channel iron 
7 ins. wide, l%ins. web and T 5 5 ins. thick. The rail is secured to the tie by means 
of an angle bar and bolts. The total weight of tie is about 55 lbs. The spacing 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



in 



of these ties should be arranged from 5 ft. to 11 ft. according to the weight of the 
rail and the character of sub-construction in concrete work. 

Steel ties which rest on ballast are usually provided with concave under- 




FlG. 92.— STEEL TIE. 



surfaces to prevent ballast from working from under tbe tie. This character of 
tie is largely used for steam railroads in southern countries. 

Spikes.— The size of the standard spikes for rails from 35 to 40 lbs. is 5 ins. 
x}4 in.; from 40 to 521b. rails, 5 ins.x^gins. ; from 45 to 85 lb. rails, SLgins.x^g 
ins. 

Spikes Required per 1000 ft. and per Mile Single Track, with Four 
Spikes per Tie. 

SPACING OF TIES 

10 ties to 30 ft. 

11 " 

12 " 

13 " 
12 " 

15 " 

16 " 

SPIKE TABLE. 



PER 1000 FT. 


PER MILE 


1333^ 


7,040 


1466?6 


7,744 


1600 


8,448 


1733^ 


9,152 


1866% 


9,85G 


2000 


10,560 


2133^ 


11,264 





.2 

u 

. 
.a to 
a a> 

|m 

©■-' 

eS © 

3 


M 
Pi 

ai 
u 
a> 
Pi 

'5 




KEGS 


PER MILE OP 


TRACK 




Size of 


Tie Spacing 


Spike. 


4 Spikes per Tie. 


6 Spikes per Tie. 




2 ft. 
6 in. 


2 ft. 
3 in. 


2 ft. 
Oin. 


2 ft. 
6 in. 


2 ft. 
3 in. 


2 ft. 
Oin. 


3*4 in. x T 7 5 in. 
4 in. x j 7 s in. 
4% in. x T 7 S in. 


900 

780 
675 


0.2222 
0.2564 
0.2963 


9.39 

10.83 
12.52 


10.43 
12.04 
13.91 


11.73 
13.54 
15.64 


14 08 
16.24 
18.78 


15.65 

18.06 
20.86 


17.60 
20.31 
23.46 


4 in. x ^2 in. 
4L3 in. xL^in. 

5 in. xL£i u . 


600 
530 
500 


0.3333 

0.3773 
0.4000 


14.08 
15.94 
16.89 


15.65 
17.71 
18.78 


17.60 
19.92 
21.12 


21.12 
23.91 
25.33 


23.47 
25.56 
28.17 


26.40 
29.88 
31.68 


5 in. x & in. 
5}4 in- x j 9 e in. 


390 
350 


0.5128 
0.5714 


21.66 
24.14 


24.07 
26.82 


27.08 
30.17 


32.50 
36.21 


36.10 
40.23 


40.61 
45.25 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



It has been found that it takes 4281 lbs. to draw a ^ 6 -in. spike driven 4J4 in* 5 . 
into a seasoned oak tie; the same spike in nnseasoned oak took 6523 lbs. On 
seasoning the wood the spike loses in holding power. Experiments on J^-in. 
spikes driven 414 1IllS - i nto yellow pine, showed 3000 lbs. and for oak, 6000 lbs. 
The force is considerably more in hard wood to pull the spike out ; in softer 
woods the force is about £ less to pull the spike than that required to drive it. 

Tie Rods. — These take all lengths and sizes depending upon the service and 
gage of road. The form generally adopted is shown in Fig. 93, % ins. x V/% ins. being 



Fig. 



a section of iron commonly used. The thread should be cut far enough back so 
the tie rod can be inserted after the rails are in place, and the hole in the rail 
should be large enough so as not to mar the thread in passing the tie rod in. The 
flat section requires very little space between the blocks in brick or granite pave- 
ment, but the tie rods should be so spaced that they can accomodate between 
them a convenient number of paving blocks or bricks without loss of time in cut- 
ting the pavement to fit. Round rods are used in macadam construction. 

Tie Plates.— The tie plate is more generally used on elevated than on surface 
roads and is interposed between the base of the rail and tie so as to present a larger 
surface to the tie than the base of the rail, Fig. 94; it is usually secured independ- 
ently to the tie so the rail movement will not chafe and wear the tie at the point 
of bearing with the rail. On curves tie plates have an additional advantage of 
distributing the canting effect and lateral strain on the rail over a large area, and, 
in addition, where the spike passes through the tie plate the efficiency of the spike 
is increased, preventing the movement of rail away from gage line. 





Fig. 94.— tie plate. 



Fig. 95.— old horse- car rail 
on stkinger. 



Chairs. — In horse railways, the flat rails emp/oyed were mounted on 
wooden stringers. This was necessary to raise the rail above the tie and thus 
provide room for paving and sufficient filling under the pavement to prevent un- 
equal settling due to the pavement bearing directly on the tie. This construction 
is shown in Fig. 95. 'With the low rails first used in electric railway work chairs 
were used to supplant this wooden stringer, as it gave trouble from rapid decay, 
especially under the joints. They were originally of cast iron, but on account of 
the variation in castings their fitting to the rail section was not satisfactory, and 
the fragile character of the chair led to the introduction of chairs made of drop 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



"3 



f orgings of iron and steel in various forms, Figs. 96, 97, 98 and 99, taking the form 
of the box girder rail to which is fastened the base of the rail by bolts or clips as 
shown. To overcome the canting effort of the rail on the passing of a load, 
chairs combined with braces were used, see Figs. 100, 101 and 102. These also 






Figs. 96, 97, 98 and 90.— rati, chairs. 

transfer directly to the tie the side thrust caused by the car wheel flanges bearing 
against the side of the rail. 



RAIIi JOINT FASTENERS. 

In no part of the track has more thought or ingenuity been spent than on the 
proper mechanical joining of the rail lengths together. The ideal joint is one 
which is as strong and substantial as the rail itaelf . If an opening is left between the 
ends of the rails, say of % in., to accomodate the changes in the length of the 



H4 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOO K 



rail due to differences in temperature, an opportunity is afforded to start a pound 
when the wheels pass over it; each wheel in passing contributing its quota toward 
the destruction of the joint. 

Bolted joints take the form of a plate bearing against the side of the rail and 
bridging the joint. The common form consists of an arched plate having a top 
and bottom bearing rolled to fit the rail, and secured in position by bolts passing 
through the joint plate and rail. Figs. 81 to 91 show sections giving some differ- 
ent forms of joint plates. For rails 6 ins. and over in height the bolts can be 
drawn so as to buckle the joint plate thereby destroying its bearing contact with 
the rail. Figs. 82, 83. 84 and 85 show an intermediate rib rolled in the joint plate 
which is normally out of contact with the web of the rail, but is brought to bear 
on the web before the bolts are tightened sufficiently to buckle the plate. 

Pratt & Aldcn give the following recommendations regarding joint plates: 
" For 6-in. rails they should not be less than ^ ms. thick at the center; for 7-in. 





Figs. 100, 101 and 102.— rail chairs and braces. 



rails % ins., and for 9-in. rail not less than % ins., to prevent buckling under the 
bolt pressure." They advise a double row of bolts located as near the bearing sur- 
face as possible for the reason that the channel or joint plate as shown depends 
entirely on the compression given them against the rail. Several railroads have 
hot riveted the plate to the rails, instead of using track bolts. 

To strengthen this weak part of the track numerous track joints have been 
devised to afford a bearing to the rails independently of the track bolt tension. 
The lengthened chair at the joint was the first attempt in this direction for im- 
proving the joint. 

The "Continuous " rail joint shown in Fig. 103 is an extension of the joint 
plate, which includes the bearing of the base of the rail on the plate; here ten- 
sion and compression are set up within the joint plate, and do not act directly 
against the bolt heads. If the fit was perfect around the lower flange of the rail 
it could transfer the strains across the joint without movement of the rail head. 
Fig. 104 shows the " Churchill " rail joints which provides a bearing for the rail 
on a plate secured between the projecting sides of the joint plate, the lower bolt 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



"5 



acting as a locking device for this bearing plate. The Atlas joint shown in Fig. 105 
embraces the joint with two pieces which are clamped together by bolts, and ex- 
tra metal is nsed where the joint is suspended. Fig. 106 shows the Weber rail 
joint which consists of an L-iron, on which rests the rail base, and is secured to 
the rail joint by lengthening the track bolts to pass through the angle, as well as 
through a wood filter interposed between the regular joint plate and the angle. 





Fig. 103.— continuous RAtL joint. 



Fig. 104.— churchill bail joint. 



There are a number of track joints of the bolted and keyed type, some of 
which should give good service. But the track joint question is one that every 
railway man has to study for himself in order that the conditions of his own 
special problem of tracks can be fully considered. The spacing of the bolts and 
the length of the joint olate'are matters on which there is a diversity of opinion, 





Fig. 105.— atlas bail joint. 



Fig. 106.— weber rah, joint. 



and are governed largely by local conditions. Track joints vary in length from 
20 ins. to 38 ins. , and are fitted with from four to twelve bolts 

Electrically Welded Joints.— In the original method of electrically 
welding joints the adjacent rail ends were abutted and a current of about 20,000 
amps, was passed through the joint. This heating effect brought the contact 
surfaces up to welding temperature and while at this temperature the rail ends 
were forced together and welded. The heating of the rails evidently reduced the 
carbon in the steel for the rail was softened and when the contraction took place 



n6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



due to air temperature changes, the rail fractured at the points of welding in a 
number of cases, and the rail being softer at these portions low spots also 
developed. The latest method is to electrically weld on each side of the joint 
bars with bosses which confine the heat to small areas. The results are said to be 
very satisfactory and a large amount of track welded in this way is in use in 
Buffalo. 

Cast "Welded Joints.— In this case the joint is surrounded by a matrix to 
hold molten iron in such form that when the mass is cooled the additional 
strength afforded by the metal surrounding the joint compensates for the loss in 
strength of the rail due to its rise in temperature. These joints are poured 
weighing from 120 lbs. to 250 lbs. each and have given good results in service. 
For the electrical connection of the rail joint, see "Return Circuit.'" 
Bolts.— Bolts for plain channel joint plates should be % ins. in diameter with 
ribbed plates. Bolts may be 1 in. in diameter. The nut may be either square or hex- 



WEIGHTS OF STANDARD TRACK BOLTS. 

Bolts with Square Nuts. Pounds per Thousand. 



.So 

fi.9 


.s 


0* 

5 




5 


.9 

CO 


5 

CO 


a 


s 

CO 


d 


.9 

5 


i 


i 




S v 
ci ,3 


Si 


V, 


260 


274 


288 


302 


316 


330 


344 


358 


372 


386 


400 


414 


428 


M 


112 


& 


352 


370 


388 


406 


424 


442 


460 


478 


496 


514 


532 


550 


568 


3 9 S 


146 


\ 


454 


476 


498 


520 


542 


564 


586 


608 


630 


652 


674 


696 


718 


% 


218 


626 


658 


690 


722 


754 


786 


818 


850 


882 


914 


946 


978 


1,010 


% 


245 


% 


858 


901 


944 


987 


1,030 


1,073 


1,116 


1,159 


1,202 


1,245 


1,288 


1,331 


1,374 


% 


374 


1 


1,155 


1,210 


1,265 


1,320 


1,375 


1,430 


1,485 


1.540 


1,595 


1,650 


1,705 


1,760 


1,815 


1 


525 


IX 


1,595 


1,666 


1,737 


1,808 


1,879 


1,950 


2,021 


2,092 


2,163 


2,284 


2,30b 


2,376 


2,447 


m 


747 


Bolts with Hexagon Nuts. Pounds per Thousand. 


S.S 

5 J 


.5 




.9 


5 


CO 


.9 


co 


CO 


.9 


Nf 


5 




i 


d 


as 
9. a 


SI 

K- 1-1 


u 


253 


267 


281 


295 


309 


323 


337 


351 


365 


379 


393 


407 


421 


u, 


m 


I 9 B 


327 


345 


3G3 


381 


399 


417 


435 


453 


471 


489 


507 


525 


543 


A 


122 


% 


436 


458 


480 


502 


524 


546 


568 


590 


612 


634 


656 


678 


700 


P 
| 


182 


% 


597 


6-29 


661 


693 


725 


757 


789 


821 


853 


885 


917 


949 


981 


216 


822 


865 


908 


951 


994 


1,037 


1,080 


1,123 


1,166 


1,209 


1,252 


1,295 


1,338 


316 


1 


1,087 


1,132 1,187 


1,242 


1,297 


1,352 


1.407 


1.462 


1,517 


1,572 


1,627 


1,682 


1.737 


1 


462 


134 


1,513 


1,584 ;1,655 


1,726 


1,797 


1,868 


1,939 


2,010 


2,081 


2,152 


2,223 


2,294 


2,365 


m 


685 



agon, the square nut giving the largest surface against the joint plate, but in many 
cases the hexagon has to be used in order to obtain clearance. The portion of the 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



117 



bolt adjacent to the head for a length equals the thickness of the joint plate. It 
is oval in form and fits into an oval hole punched in the joint plate. See Figs. 107 
and 10S. 




bo 

c 




Figs. 107 and 108.— track bolts. 



SPECIAL WORK. 

This term is used to cover all portions of track requiring any special design- 
ing, such as curves which cannot he sprung into place by the track foreman, 
crossings, turnouts, switches, etc. 

A plain curve, Fig. 109, connects two straight sections of track at an 
angle to each other, both of the straight sections being tangent to the 
connecting curve. Fig. 110 shows the reverse curve which connects two 
tangent sections of track parallel to each other. Fig. Ill shows the right hand 
crossover, Fig. 112, the left hand crossover. Figs. 113 and 114 gives the right and 
left hand branch-offs respectively. Fig. 115 shows the crossing and Fig. 116, the 
connecting curve and crossing. Fig. 117 shows the plain Y; Fig. 118, the three- 
part Y and Fig. 119, the three-part through Y. 

Turnouts, Switches, Etc.— Turnouts are illustrated in Figs. 120 to 122. The 
diamond turnout, where the main track is central to both turnout tracks is given 
in Fig. 120. Fig. 121 shows the side turnout where the turnout is thrown over to 
the side of the main line, and Fig. 122 shows the turnout where the center of the 
main line track is displaced by the distance between the centers of the turnout 
tracks. 

In Fig. 123 tne names of the different parts of special work as they are gener- 
ally known are given, although their nomenclature varies in detail in different 
parts of the country. The point of crossing of two rails is commonly known as 
a frog. The initials of the different parts are generally used: e. g., L. H. T. S. 
for left-hand tongue switch, etc. 



n8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Where special work is ordered the parts that are shown in Fig. 123 together 
are generally made in one piece. The " hand " is always determined by the side 
to which the curve turns off as it appears to a person facing the point of the 
curve. 




PLAIN CURVE. 
Fig. 109. 





Wl 

LEFT HAND CROSSOVER. 
Fig. 112. 



reverse cm me: 

Fig. 110. 




RIGHTHANO 
BRANCH -OFR 

Fig. 113. 




FtlGHTHAND CROSS-OVER. 

STg. 111. 




LEFT HAND BRANCH- 
Off 

Fig. 114. 



CROSSING. 
Fig. 115. 




CON NEC TING CURVE, 

and crossing. 
Fig. 116. 




THREE PART y. 
Fig. 118. 




THREE-PART FNROU&N K 
Fig. 119. 



DIAMOND TURNOUT. 
Fig. 120. 



SIDE TURNOUT. 
Fig. 121. 



THROWN OVER TURNOUT. 
Fig. 122. 



The method of construction of special work varies with its uses. Bolted 
rt-ork is largely used in exposed surface track, but in city streets a more perma- 
nent structure has to be used in order that the life will be longer, on account of 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK 



ng 



Y XUA/OFF 



YXU/VOFF 



-'MA TE Z$>Zl _f°> 



.-- s? a/v off 



YMATE 



Y TOWG(/£ SW/TCH 




Fig. 123.— nomenclature of special vokk, 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



the large expense of repaying and renewal. Here the rail parts are cast together 
after being fitted. 

Fig. 124 shows one of the methods used for built-up frog work, and the 
nomenclature of the different parts. The fitting of pieces of rail together is done 
by using a templet to obtain the proper track angle between the rails and mak- 
ing a pattern which fits between the heel and flangeway. These patterns are then 
cast in iron and bolted and riveted in position. 



THEORETICAL POINT- 



-ACTUAL POINT. 







SPRIAD> 
RT_POJNT_R/y^ 
~" REEL. 



--TURNOUT. WINGJWL. 

Fig. 124.— built-up frog -work and nomenclature of different parts. 



dJNPTRAlT. 

HEEL BLOCK OR RAISING BL'K. 



The wear on special work occurs at the switch and mate points and frog 
crossings. In order to maintain these points and have the flange of the wheel 
ride so that the tread of the wheel will not bruise the switch or frog points, they 
are made of harder metal than the main part of the special track. This result is 
generally obtained by an inset of manganese, or nickel, steel, formed to fit as in 
Fig. 125, or by some special hardening process. 




Fig. 125.— special work with hardened points. 

The spring frog, Fig. 126, is used on the main line where it is normally con- 
tinuous; at track crossings angle plates are used, as shown in Fig. 127, in built- 
up frogs, which are bolted or riveted to the intersecting rails. In addition a sole 
plate is usually bolted underneath the track crossings to maintain the alignment 
of rails. 

Guard Rails.— At curves there is required a guard for the outside of the 
flange of the outside wheel on the curve for curves of radius of 300 ft. and - 
under. It is the practice for curves under 70 ft. radius to have guards on both 
rails for both wheels. The distance to space a guard depends upon the depth arid 
thickness of the car wheel flange, and whether the curve is laid wider than gage 
or natural gage. In some track construction the curve is laid to a slightly nar- 
rower gage than the main track gage for the reason that the gage line is a radius 
of the curve while the wheel axles are at an angle to this radius, making their 
gage line across rails shorter. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



In relation to curved rails the clearance between guard and rail can be de- 
termined by making a section of the wheel flange tangent to the wheel tread in 
celluloid and passing this around the gage line of the curved rail; allowing the 




Fig. 126.— spring frog (main line). 

guard rail to clear this at least one-quarter of an inch will give the proper spacing 
between the guard and the rail. 

Fig. 128 shows one method to be used on long radius curves where a cast iron 
spacing piece and strap iron guard is bolted to the rail. The spacing pieces are 
from 14 ins. to 24 ins. on centers depending upon the curvature of rails. Figs. 
129, 130 and 131 show other approved forms. 




Fig. 127.— built-up fkog. 



"Where tracks cross trestle work and at dangerous crossings it is compulsory in 
some states (and also an advisable construction) to place two continuous guard 
rails between the rails, bent to nearly reach each other ten feet before approach- 
ing the hazardous crossing, in order to throw a derailed car toward the track. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



Curves. — Where the track changes its direction the introduction of a curve 
is necessitated. The center line of this curve may be struck joining the tangents, 
the radius being determined by the local conditions. In single track, in streets, 
the center from which the curve is struck may be in the curb. Sufficient clear- 
ance must be allowed for the obstructions at street corners so as not to endanger 
alighting passengers, or, in the case of open cars, passengers standing on the 





Figs. 128 and 129.— -guard bails. 

tunning board. An accident arising from such a condition is evidence in itself 
of improper construction, and renders the railway company liable for injuries 
sustained. 

The surface of a street presents obstructions in the way of manholes, and 
subsurface structures belonging to other companies. If none of these exists the 
diagram given on page 123 of curves for 90 degs. when main line tangents are 
at right angles, can be used in the following way: [Required to find from the 
tangents the largest radius possible for the track; suppose that the road passes 
from one intersecting street 50 ft. wide to another 30 ft. wide at right angles to 
each other, this will bring the center line of track 25 ft. from one curb and 15 ft. 
from the other curb. From one scale terminating at A on the diagram page 123 
follow the line from 25 until it meets the line from the other scale terminating at 
A from 15; these will be found to intersect near the curve 60 which gives the radius 
of the largest curve that can be used under these conditions. Plotting these re- 
sults on section paper shows, M, Fig. 132, that the dotted center line just strikes 





Figs. 130 and 131.— guard rails. 



the curb line. The radius of the proper curve must be reduced by such an 
amount that the center of the track will be so far away from the corner of the 
curb that the widest car will pass with sufficient clearance. The car body forms 
a portion of a moving polygon, the side of which is permanently fixed through 
the centers of the car axles in a single truck, and through the truck pivots in a 
double truck car. All car body movements due to play in trucks tend to throw 
the car body away from its shortest curve of motion. 

The usual way that this proper curve is located graphically is to cut out of 
translucent celluloid the horizontal projection of the outline of the car body on the 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



123 




124 



'ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



same scale as is used for the special work layout, and through the fixed center of 
axles or trucks as the case may be drill a small hole. With this templet the position 
of nearest approach can be found, and it will also locate the points through which 
the truck centers must pass for the largest available curves. Thus, with fixed 
tangent positions, the two points which represent the truck centers will locate 
the simple curve to be used for each case. 




12 3 + 56 

Fig. 132.— graphic method of laying out curves. 

If there are any obstructions, such as poles, lamp posts, or water plugs along 
the curb, allowance should be made for clearance when passengers are standing 
on the running board or step of car. For economical reasons the tendency is to 
increase the length and width of the car body. It is therefore important that the 
best possible compromise should be made between the longest curve radius that 
can be used and the maximum clearance, many roads to day being compelled to 
change curves in order to operate larger cars. 

In the consideration of curves on double track, each track can be treated in- 
dependently, but as in this case the car on the other track is the obstruction to 
be cleared, the car fender has to be considered as part of the car, as well as the 






ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAXD BOOK. 



125 



movement of tiie carbody on its bearings due to centrifugal force which will dis- 
place the inside car toward the outside one in passing. Two templets should be 
used and in no positim of either should there be less than the allowed safe clear- 
ance, which varies with the speed and radius of curves. 

The curves in Fig. 132 have been worked out for 28 ft., single over all, car 
bodies having trucks 7 ft. between wheel centers, to show the method of applica- 
tion. In many cases this curve has again to be shifted to avoid obstructions 




CI 2 3 4 D 5 6 7 8 1 

Fig. 133.— method op lattstg ottt easement curve. 



which cannot be moved, such as gate boxes, man hole covers, etc., all of which 
are difficulties which confront the railway engineer at many curve locations. 

The simple curve only has so far been considered, but the ones really laid 
down in modern railway practice are what are variously known as spiral, transi- 
tion and easement' curves. These are compound curves which change their 
direction near the tangent less rapidly than the simple circle. They are com- 
posed of a number of curves with varying radii, the longer radii being at the 
switch point and gradually reducing in length until the central portion of the 
curve becomes a plain circle. The effect of a car passing around one of these 



126 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



compounded curves is to gradually increase the angular motion of the car around 
the curve so as to make the change in direction less perceptible. 

An easement curve of the form of a parabola can be laid out on the ground in 
the following manner: Continue the track tangents to their point of intersection, 




and at the point, which will allow of the clearances in the center of the curve, 
drive a stake in a symmetrical curve, at the point marked /in Fig. 133, which will 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



127 



be at equal distances from the point where the track center leaves the tangent. 
Having located these points, marked A and /\ by driving stakes, stretch a string 
0^ in. cotton cord will do) between C and B and C and A which will form the 
track tangents; then between these two lines stretch a cord and carry it toward 
A and B from C until it touches the stake /. This cord should be secured to 
stakes /*and D both located the same distance from C, when the cord is touching 
stake A 

To locate the other points in the curve, divide distances C-F, C-D into an 
equal number of parts and also F-A and D-B, numbering the divisions from A to 
Cin order and from C to Bin the same order. Stakes should be driven at each 
of the points and cords should be drawn for stakes of like number on the two 
tangents, when the points on these curves will be at the center of any cord be- 
tween two adjacent intersecting cords: e. g. /is located midway between 10 and 
12, M is located midway between 9 and 10, etc. 

When work is ordered for curves of this character, the points A, B, C, D, F 
and /should be plotted, as these points will determine the form of the curve 
from which the rail manufacturers can bend the rail. The dotted line shows the 
departure of this curve from the plain circle connecting the two tangents. This 
curve presents difficulties in double tracks, but curves derived from a succession 
of decreasing arc lengths from the point of tangency of the track until a simple 
curve can be struck, and again becoming a symmetrical spiral until the other 
tangent track is reached, give better center clearances. 

Fig.434 gives the method of laying out; the center line of track tangents are 
laid out, and from them are computed the displacement of the track from this 
line for the different radii of curves forming this spiral. 

Supposing that spiral No. 1 was required to fit between two track tangents 
at right angles to each other, the first curve would have a radius of 210 ft., and 
would include an arc of 42 minutes, as shown in the table under the heading 
"angle." The center line would depart .015 ft. from the center line, column "jr." 
and this point would be 2.5G5 ft. from the point of starting. These points can be 
measured off for each point of departure along X and Y as shown in Fig. 134. 

The column headed " S° " gives the total angular deflection at each point of 
the spiral. 

SPIRAL NO. 1. 





Ead. 


Angle. 


X. 


y- 


S°. 

0°42' 


Yer. Sine. 


Sine. 


1 


210 


0° 42' 


0.015 


2.565 


.00007 


.01222 


2 


105 


1°24' 


0.078 


5.130 


2° 06' 


.00067 


.03664 


3 


70 


2° 6' 


0.219 


7.692 


4° 12' 


.00269 


.07324 


4 


52^ 


2° 48' 


0.4G9 


10.245 


7° 0' 


.00745 


.12187 


5 


42 


3° 30' 


0.860 


12.780 


10° 30' 


.01675 


.18224 


6 


35 


4° 12' 


1.420 


15.283 


14° 42' 


.03273 


.25376 









SPIRAL NO. 


2. 








Had. 


Angle. 


X. 


y- 


S°. 


Yer. Sine. 


Sine. 


1 


300 


J 30' 


0.011 


2.618 


0°30' 


.00004 


.00873 


2 


150 


1°00' 


0.057 


5.235 


1°30' 


.00034 


.02618 


3 


100 


1°30' 


0.160 


7.851 


3° 0' 


.00137 


.05234 


4 


75 


2° 00' 


0.342 


10.463 


5° 0' 


.00381 


.08716 


5 


60 


2° 30' 


0.627 


13.065 


7° 30' 


.00856 


.13053 


6 


50 


3° 00' 


1.036 


15.651 


10° 30' 


.01675 


.18224 


7 


42J^ 


3° 30' 


1.587 


18.187 


14° 0' 


.02970 


.24192 


8 


37^ 


4° 00' 


2.309 20.703 


18° 0' 


.04894 


.30902 



128 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 









SPIRAL NO. 


3. 








Ead. 


Angle. 


X. 


y- 


s°. 


Yer. Sine. 


Sine. 


1 


300 


PO' 


0.016 


5.236 


1°U' 


.00015 


.01745 


2 


150 


2°0' 


0.229 


10.468 


3 J 0' 


.00137 


.05234 


3 


100 


3°0' 


0.639 


15.688 


6°0' 


.00548 


.10453 


4 


75 


4°0' 


1.368 


20.871 


10° 0' 


.01519 


.17365 


5 


60 


5°0' 


2.501 


25.982 


15° 0' 


.03407 


.25882 


6 


50 


6°0' 


4.118 


30.959 


21° 0' 


.06642 


.35837 


7 


40 


7° 0' 


6.143 


35.403 


28° 0' 


.11705 


.46947 









SPIRAL NO. 


4. 








Ead. 


Angle. 


X. 


y- 


S°. 


Ver. Sine. 


Sine. 


1 


420 


0= 42' 


0.031 


5.131 


0° 42' 


.00007 


.01222 


2 


210 


1°24' 


0.157 


10.261 


2° 06' 


.00067 


.03664 


3 


140 


2° 6' 


0.439 


15.384 


4° 12' 


.00269 


.07324 


4 


105 


2° 48' 


0.939 


20.490 


7° 0' 


.00745 


.12187 


5 


84 


3° 30' 


1.720 


25.561 


10° 30' 


.01675 


.18224 


6 


70 


4° 12' 


2.839 


30.567 


14° 42' 


.03273 


.25376 


7 


60 


4° 54' 


4.352 


35.469 


19° 36' 


.05794 


.33545 









SPIRAL NO. 


5. 








Rad. 


Angle. 


X. 


y- 


S°. 


Ver. Sine. 


Sine. 


1 


600 


0° 30' 


0.023 


5.236 


0° 30' 


.00004 


.00873 


2 


300 


1° 0' 


0.114 


10.471 


1°30' 


.00034 


.02618 


3 


200 


1°30' 


0.320 


15.703 


3° 0' 


.00137 


.05234 


4 


150 


2° 0' 


0.685 


20.926 


5° 0' 


.00381 


.08716 


5 


120 


2° 30' 


1.255 


26.130 


7° 30' 


.00856 


.13053 


6 


100 


3° 0' 


2.073 


31.302 


10° 30' 


.01675 


.18224 


7 


85 


3° 30' 


3.175 


36.374 


14° 0' 


.02970 


.24192 









SPIRAL NO 


. 6. 








Ead. 


Angle. 


X. 


y- 


S°. 


Ver. Sine. 


Sine. 


1 


900 


0° 20' 


0.015 


5.236 


0°20' 


.00002 


.00582 


2 


450 


0°40' 


0.076 


10.472 


1° 0' 


.00015 


.01745 


3 


300 


1° 0' 


0.213 


15.706 


2° 0' 


.00061 


.03490 


4 


225 


1°20' 


0.457 


20.936 


3° 20' 


.00169 


.05814 


5 


180 


1°40' 


0.837 


26.158 


5° 0' 


.00381 


.08716 


6 


150 


2° 0' 


1.385 


31.365 


7° 0' 


.00745 


.12187 


7 


128 


2° 20' 


2.125 


30.524 


9° 20' 


.01324 


.16218 



"Where a switch is to be located at the beginning of a curve the radius of the 
switch tongue limits the first radius to be used, and the easement cannot be as 
great as in plain track, 100ft. being a common radius for switch points. 

The Union Traction Co., Philadelphia, has developed for its own work spirals 
for 90 deg. curves which fit its track gage, 5 ft. 2^4 ins. The company always take 
these measurements from the gage line of the inner rail, the first easement radius 
being greater than the above tables, and the center radius less, which gives 
greater clearance between cars at center of the curve. Fig. 135 and table on 
page 129 give data of the standard plain curve. Fig. 136 and the table give 
curves with 100 ft. radius switch. Fig. 137 gives the combination of these two 
curves in the standard branch-off curves. 

It is not within the scope of a handbook to go into the details of the treatment 
of complicated cases of spirals and curves. The matter can be found treated 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



129 



fully in Pratt & Alden's " Street Railway Roadbed," Tratman's '-Railway Track 
and Track "Work,'' Searle's "Field Engineering," and many articles on special 
work in the Street Railway Journal. 




Fig. 136. — easejient eok beanch-off curve with switch. 



13° 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HA MB BOOK~. 



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ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



131 



MIDDLE ORDINATES OX TEN FOOT CHORDS. 



M. O. 


Radius. 


M. O. 


Eadius. 


M. O. 


Radius. 


M. O. 


Radius. 





ft. 


in. 




ft. 


in. 




ft. 


in. 




ft. 


in. 


\ 


300 


\ 


2ft 


64 


lift 


3 T 9 S 


42 


8ft 


4}| 


31 


4| 


206 


S£ 


2*1 


64 


1ft 


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41 


10U 


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31 


2ft 


240 


ft 


2§ 


63 


3ft 


3| 


41 


6| 


41 


30 


HI 


l' 


218 


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2|f 


62 


5§§ 


mh 


41 


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9ft 


200 


99 


2 t 7 f 


61 


m 


m 


40 


10 


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7 


u 


184 


n 


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60 


10A 


m 


40 


51 


30 


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171 


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m 


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150 


2 


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10ft 


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141 


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nt 


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126 


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120 


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ft 


4%| 


32 


10| 


5§i 


25 


10*1 


21 


70 


81 

7| 


3f 


44 


7 


4| 


32 


7l 


5| 


25 


9i 5 6 - 


2& 


69 , 


m 


44 


24 


. 4|| 


32 


41 


5|| 


25 


m 


2ft 


68 


7M 


3ft 


43 


9| 


4H 


32 


2| 


511 


25 


u 


2/2 


67 


81 


i? 


43 


4'i S 


4?,| 


31 


Hfl 


5|i 


25 


4ft 


2i 


66 


H 


43 


# 


4f 


31 


9ft 








2A 


65 


10ft 


3M 


42 


4§I 


31 


61 









In- order to determine the radius of any simple curve of track, a straight 
edge 10 ft. long is laid against the rail on the inside of the curve or gage line, 
and the distance between the middle of the straight edge and curve on gage line, 
perpendicular to the straight edge is measured. This will give what is called the 
" middle ordinate." From this length the radius of the curve can be determined 



132 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAXD BOOK'. 



by reference to the table of middle ordiuates on page 131. For example, if the 
distance was 2 9 2 ins., then the radius of the curve is 65 ft. 10 X 3 G ins. 
Kail bending to any radius is determined in the same manner. 




Fig. 137. — easement — standard branch-off switch at both ends op curve. 

Super Elevation of Rails.— Where cars run rapidly around curves it is 
the practice where possible to elevate the outer rail in order to reduce the pres- 



SUPER ELEVATION OF OUTER RAIL. 



Radius 


3 Ft. Gage. 


3 Ft. G In. Gage. 


4 Ft. 8J4 I"- Gage. 


of 








Curve 








in 


Speed of Train in 


Speed of Train in 


Speed of Train in 


Feet. 


Miles per Hour. 


Miles per Hour. 


]Uiles per Hour. 




10. 


20. 


30. 


40. 


50. 


10. 

| 


20. 


30. 


40. 


50. 


10. 


20. 


30. 


40. 


50. 


40 


4 




50 


3,^ 










n 










5 










60 


Sii 










84 










4i 3 « 










90 


n 










2^ 










9\9 










120 


lVk 










1 o 

k 










2i- 










150 


Ire 


















m 










200 


13 


&ft 








t.1 


8} 








« 


5 








300 


1 9 6 


2i 








! 


s?4 








f 


m 








400 


I 


If 


«A 






H 


4 t :! e 






4 


5g 






600 


lfV 


23 






t 


n 


OI3 






, 7 «- 


w 


3| 


61* 




800 


3 


T 1 * 


Hi 


8$ 




it 


«i 


34 




I b 6 


*il 


5 





ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



133 



sure against rail and wheel flanges due to the centrifugal force exerted by thd 
moving car. The table on preceding page gives the elevation allowed for 
different gages and speeds. Sometimes only one-half the elevation is given to 
outer rail and the the inner rail is depressed by the same amount. 
For Bonding and Rail Connections see "Line Work," Section 5. 

TRESTLE WORK. 

Where trestles show less cost than filling, especially over marshy or soft 
ground, and over railway tracks, they may be built either of wood or iron. The 
combination of wooden approach trestle and iron lattice or girder spans over 




Fig. 138. 



tracks where locomotives pass underneath is often used on account of danger 
from fire from sparks. 

Fig. 138 gives an excellent form of trestle for marshes. (Designed by Ford, 
Bacon & Davis.) The following is the general data: The bents shown in Fig. 138 
are 15 ft. apart for cars not weighing, loaded, over 25,000 lbs. at a speed not 
exceeding 16 miles per hour. There are six piles in each bent located as shown, 
in this case from 30 ft. to 45 ft. long, 10 ins. to 12 ins. top. The framing is long 

t 



*34 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



leaf yellow pine. The caps are 12ins. x 12 ins. There are four girders under- 
neath each track, 8 ins. xl2ins.; the cross and longitudinal braces are 3 ins. x 
10 ins.; the braces are thoroughly bolted, and the caps are secured by a 1 in. 
dowcll pin from 18 in^. to 24 ins. in length driven in a J|-in. hole, the dowell 
being covered with white lead before driving. The ties are 6 ins. x8ins. x 
9 ft. yellow pine, spaced 18 ins. on centers; the guard stringers, one on each side 
of rail, are also yellow pine; the track centers are 11 ft. 1J^ ins. apart, allowing 
two 9 ft. 6 in. car bodies to pass. 

The mean given for the ultimate resistance to compression for white oak 
used as a post is 3470 lbs. per sq. in., and 4544 lbs. per sq. in. for yellow pine. 
500 lbs. per sq. in. is the figure generally used, giving the proper factor of safety, 
for yellow pine. 

The length of the post which will not yield., as found from tests made at 
the Watertown Arsenal is given in the table below. These tests were made upon 
rectangular yellow pine posts with flat ends having a length of from 5 ft. to 28 
ft., and ranging in sectional area from 27 to 140 square inches. 

The results may be generalized as follows, calling — the ratio of length of 
post to least side of cross-section, and f the ultimate resistance to compression, 
in pounds per square inch: 

I f RATIO OF DECREASE. 

4000 1.00 

3500 0.88 

3000 0.75 

2500 0.63 

2000 0.50 

1500 0.38 

WOODEN BEAMS. 

The following is a general summary of the results obtained by Prof. Lanza 
from numerous experiments upon wooden beams. They were of an average 
section of about 12 ins. x 4 ins. and were tested for mean span lengths of about 
18 ft. 

„.-",.... ,, , , , . M _ (Moment of forces causing rupture.) 

Kind of timber. Modulus of rupture =— = — — — — - — *—— — - 

R (Moment of resistance ot cross section.) 

MINIMUM. MEAN. 

2995 4884 

3438 4808 

4984 6075 

5092 7292 

The above statement of the maximum and minimnm values does not con- 
sider the results obtained in a few isolated cases for which the conditions were 
radically different than for the others. It was found that the beams frequently 
gave way through longitudinal shearing near the neutral axis, though this was 
not as common a source of failure as breaking across the grain. 

For spruce the mean intensity of the shearing strains, for beams that failed 
in this manner, was 191 lbs. and for yellow pine 248 lbs. For beams that failed 
otherwise, the mean intensity of shearing strains at the moment of rupture was 
very nearly the same. 

The conclusion appears, therefore, to be warranted that for soft timber there 
is an almost equal tendency for beams to fail by shearing longitudinally at the 
neutral axis, as by the tearing of the outside fibers. 






15 


15 


80 


80 


40 


40 


45 


45 


50 


50 


60 





MAXIMUM 


Spruce 
White Pine 
Oak 
Yellow Pine 


5878 
6415 
7659 
11360 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 



135 



Owing to the wide range of the results obtained and the generally erratic 
behavior of timber subjected to strains, Prof. Lanza recommends the following 
values for moduli of rupture to be adopted in practice. 

Spruce and "White Pine 3000 lbs. 

Oak 4000 " 

Yellow Pine 5000 " 

These values are lower than heretofore in use, and a safety factor of 4, on the 
basis of these values may be assumed as ample for all cases. 

The following table has been calculated for extreme fiber strains of 750 lbs. 
per square inch: 

SAFE LOADS, UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED, FOR RECTANGU- 
LAR SPRUCE OR WHITE PINE BEAMS. 

One Inch Thick, 

(For oak, increase values in table by one-third). 

(For yellow pine, increase values in table by two-thirds). 



Span 










Depth of Beam. 








in 

Feet. 


6" 


7" 


8" 


9" 


10" 


11" 


12" 


13" 


14" 


15" 


16" 


5 
6 

7 


600 
500 
430 


820 
680 
580 


1070 
890 
760 


1350 
1120 
960 


1670 
1390 
1190 


2020 
1680 
1440 


2400 
2000 
1710 


2820 
2350 
2010 


3270 
2730 
2330 


3750 
3120 
2080 


4270 
3560 
3050 


• 8 
9 
10 


380 
330 
300 


510 
460 
410 


670 

590 
530 


840 
750 
670 


1040 
980 
830 


1260 
1120 
1010 


1500 
1330 
1200 


1760 
1560 
1410 


2040 
1810 
1630 


2340 

2080 
1880 


2670 
2370 
2130 


11 
12 
13 


270 
250 
230 


370 
340 
310 


490 
440 
410 


610 

560 
520 


760 
690 
640 


920 

840 
780 


1090 
1000 
930 


1280 
1180 
1080 


1490 
1360 
1260 


1710 
1560 
1440 


1940 

1780 
1640 


14 
15 

16 


210 
200 
190 


290 
270 
260 


380 
360 
330 


480 
450 
420 


590 

560 
520 


720 
670 
630 


860 
800 
750 


1010 
940 
880 


1170 
1090 
1020 


1340 

1250 
1180 


1530 
1420 
1330 


17 
18 
19 


180 
170 
160 


240 
230 
210 


310 
290 
280 


400 
370 
360 


490 
460 
440 


590 

560 
530 


710 
670 
630 


830 
780 
740 


960 
910 
860 


1100 
1040 
990 


1260 
1190 
1130 


20 
21 
22 


150 
140 
140 


200 
190 
190 


270 
260 
340 


340 
320 
310 


420 

390 
380 


510 
480 
460 


600 

570 
540 


710 
670 
640 


820 
780 
740 


940 

890 
850 


1070 
1020 
970 


23 
24 
25 


130 
130 
120 


180 
170 
160 


230 

220 
210 


290 
280 
270 


360 
350 
330 


440 
415 
410 


520 

500 
480 


610 
590 
560 


710 
680 
660 


810 
780 
750 


920 

899 
860 


26 
27 
28 

29 


110 
110 
110 

110 


160 
150 
140 
140 


210 
200 
190 
180 


260 
250 
240 
230 


320 

310 
300 
290 


390 
370 
3G0 
350 


460 

440 
430 
410 


540 
520 
500 
490 


630 

610 
580 
560 


720 
690 
670 
640 


820 
790 
760 
?40 



To obtain the safe load for any thickness: Multiply values for one inch by 
the thickness of beam. 

To obtain the required thickness for any load: Divide by safe load for 1 in. 



136 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



For use in trestle work the load of car is treated as a live load, the bearing 
centers of load being the distance between wheel centers; using beams under 
this condition the beam will only take one-half on high speed roads, and two- 
thirds on moderate speed roads, of the loads given. 

CAR HOUSE TRACK. 

This is built generally on a slight grade toward the main track in order to 
facilitate the movement of the cars in case of fire. Several methods are used to 





Fig. 140. 



ELECTRIC KAIL WA Y HAND BOOK 



137 



avoid breaking the main line rail when it is used for regular tragic especially 
where the switches have to face the direction of traffic. One is, where space is 
available, to run a track parallel to the main line track and to have all the car 
house tracks' switches on this auxiliary track. 

Another method, a compromise from the parallel track, is to run a gauntlet 
track, Fig. 139, 6 ins. or 8 ins. from the main line track, and have the crossings 
all jump over frogs so that the main line track is unbroken to traffic. This re- 
quires two switches. 

What is known as the ladder method (which is used extensively where the 
car house sets back from the track) shown in Fig. 140, is to run a spur from 
the main line track at an angle to the car house, and from this spur take the 




Fig. 141. 



entrance tracks to the car house. Fig. 141 gives a compromise on the ladder 
method, and requires only half the switches on the main track over the direct 
curves, but does not give so much room for the cars when in front of the car 
house. 



COST OF TRACK AND PAVEMENT. 

The following estimates were made by John A. Beeler of the Denver City 
Tramway Company in 1893. 

Section A. (Fig. 142)— This shows a 70-lb. T-rail (Shanghai) doing away 
with chairs, having a tie rod every four feet, which would make a very durable 
and serviceable track construction. This road is ordinary stone block pavement 
with one inch sand cushion and six inches of concrete for a base, as per city 
specifications, with a gravel foundation for track. 



138 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




Fig. 142.— section a.' 



Block Stone Paving on Concrete and Gravel. Ties 31" C. to C. 

• Cost per 

Mile 
Single Track. 
110 tons rails (including freight, inspection 

and hauling) at $37.50 per ton % 4,125.00 

18,000 lbs. angle bars (360 per 50 lbs. each) 

at $2.01 per 100 lbs 361.80 

1,700 lbs. track bolts (% x%% ins.) at $3.01 

per 100 lbs l\l .17 

6,050 lbs. railroad spikes (5 x T 9 5 ins.) at 

$2,46 per 100 lbs 148.83 

134 M nut locks at $6.50 per M 8.12 

3,017 hewn red spruce ties at 55 cts. each. . 1,659.35 
360 bonds (placed complete) at 25 cts. each. 90.00 

1,320 tie rods at 20 cts. each 264.00 

2,347 cu. yds. excavation (trench 8 ft. wide 

18 ins, deep, all hauled off) at 30 cts. 

per cu. yd 704. 10 

Track laying, including blocking, etc 1,000.00 

$ 8,412.37 



Quantities 

per 

Lineal ft. 


Cost 

per 

Lineal ft. 


46.667 lbs. 


$0.7813 


3.409 " 


0.0686 


.322 " 


0.0997 


1.146 " 


0.0282 




0.0015 




0.3143 




0.0171 




0.0498 




0.1334 




0.1893 



$1.5932 



Stone Paving 7.5 Peet Wide (Including 1 in. Sand Under Blocks.) 



Cost per 

Mile 

Single Track. 

4,400 sq. yds. (stone $1.50, laying 75 cts., 

sand, tar, etc. 50 cts.) at $2.75 per yd. . . $12,100.00 

14,085 cu. ft. concrete (10 per cent cement 6 
ins. deep between ties) at 15 cts. per 
cu. ft 2,112.75 

800 cu. yds. gravel under ties at 50 cts. per 

cu. "yd 400.00 

22,000 ft. B. M. lumber (2 ins. x 14 ins. pine, 
retaining concrete, etc.) at $14. per M. 
ft 308.00 

Carpenter work, nails, hauling, etc 60.00 

Total cost per mile of paving $14,980.75 

Cost of paving per sq. yd. $3.40. 

Total cost per mile single track 8g3.-393.12 



Quantities 

per 
Lineal ft» 

0.833 yd. 



Cost 

per 

Lineal ft. 

$2.2917 



2.669 C. ft. 


0.4001 


0.151 C. yd. 


0.0758 


4.167 ft. 


0.0583 




0.0113 




$2.8372 




$4.4300 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK 



Section B. (Fig. 143)— Same track construction as Section A, and same pav- 
ing, "but a good foundation for track is provided by a continuous bed of concrete 
six inches deep under ties. This would make the most serviceable and durable 
construction for streets where stone blocks are to be used and, he thinks, would 
give best satisfaction. The additional cost of a foundation is very little when 
compared to the total cost. 

Block Stone Paving on Concrete Foundation. Ties 21 ins. C to C. 





Cost per 
Mile 


Quantities 


Cost 




per 


per 


Single Track. 


Lineal ft. 


Lineal ft. 


110 tons rails (including freight, inspection 








and hauling) at $37.50 per ton % 


4,125.00 


46.667 lbs. 


$0.7813 


18,000 lbs. angle bars (360 per 50 lbs. each) 








at $2.01 per 100 lbs 


361.80 


3.409 " 


0.0686 


1,700 lbs. track bolts (%ins. x3J^ins.) in- 
cluding freight and hauling at $3.01 














per 100 lbs 


51.17 


.322 " 


0.0097 


6,050 lbs. railroad spikes (5 ins.x &■ ins.) 
including freight and hauling at $2.46 














per 100 lbs 


148.83 
8.12 


1.146 " 


0.0282 


134 M nut locks at $6.50 per M. 


0.0015 


3,017 hewn ties (6 ins. x8ins.x7 ft.) red 








spruce, including hauling and inspec- 








tion, at 55 cts. each 


1,659.35 




0.3148 


360 bonds (placed complete) at 25 cts. each 


90.00 




0.0171 


1,320 tie rods at 20 cts. each 


264.00 




0.0498 


2,357 cu. yds. excavation (trench 8 ft. x 18 








ins. deep all hauled away) at 30 cts per 








cu. yd 


704.10 




0.1334 


Track laying including blocking, etc 


1,000.00 




0.1893 



5,412.37 



$1.5938 



Stone Paving 7.5 ft. Wide (Including 1 in. Sand Under Stone Blocks. 

Cost per Quantities Cost 

. Mile per per 

Single track. Lineal ft. Lineal ft. 
4,400 sq. yds. (stone $1.50, laying 75 cts., 

sand, tar, etc. 50 cts.) at $2.75 per yd. . .$12,100.00 0.883 $2.2917 
11,734 cu. ft. concrete (10 per cent cement 5 

ins. deep between ties) at 15 cts. per cu. 

ft • 1,760.10 2.222 0.3334 

21,120 cu. ft. concrete (10 per cent cement 8 

ft. wide 6 ins deep under ties) at 15 cts. 

percu.ft 3,168.00 4.000 0.6000 

22,000 ft. B. M. lumber (2 ins. x 12 ins. pine 

for retaining concrete and pavement, 

at $14 per M 308.00 4.167 0.0583 

Carpenter work, nails, etc 60.00 0.0113 

Cost of paving per sq. yd. at $3.95 ....$17,396.10 $3.2947 

Total cost per mile single track $25,808.47 $4.8879 

Section C. (Fig. 144)— This track construction is good, heavy, 60-lb. steel 
with joint boxes. This rail is especially adopted for the Blake asphalt. In this 
section, track rests on a concrete foundation, with concrete to the top of the ties, 



140 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




11" m 

DNCRETEl" 



Tie 6x8-7 






-8'-o" 



FlG. 143.— SECTION B. 




Fig. 144.— section c. 




Fig. 145.— SECTION D. 




?^St^^n0^Vfi^\0i?i0r^ sk'l&fr£&sr&M 



Fig. 146.— section g. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



141 



with the Blake Asphalt paving. This section is not perfect, however. He states 
thatthe earth and dust are pounded in the crevice between the rail and asphalt by 
the wheel flanges, and works its way between the asphalt and concrete at the line 
at the top of the ties, bulging the paving, letting in the moisture and eventually 
destroying the asphalt. 



Slake Asphalt Pavement. Ties 21 ins. C to C. 



Cost per. 

Mile 

Single Track. 

94J 3 ;, tons steel rails (including freight, in- 
spection and hauling) at $87.50 per ton.. $ 3,536.25 

10,800 lbs. angle bars (360 per 30 lbs. each, 
including hauling, etc.) at $2.01 per 100 
lbs 217.08 

1,150 lbs. track bolts (^| ins. x 3^ ins., in- 
cluding freight and hauling) at $3.01 
per 100 lbs 34.62 

6,050 R. R. spikes (5 ins. x T 9 g ins. including 

freight and hauling) at $2.46 per 100 lbs. 148.83 

1^ M nut locks at $6.50 per M 8.12 

3,017 hewn red spruce ties (including haul- 
ing and inspection) at 55 cts. each 1,659.35 



360 bonds (placed complete) at 25 cts. each. 

360 cast iron joint boxes at 50 cts. each 

2080 cu. yds. excavation (trench 8 ft. wide 

16 ins. deep, all hauled away) at 30 cts. 

each . « 

Track laying, iucluding blocking, etc 



90.00 
180.00 



624.00 
1.000.00 



Quantities 

per 

Lineal ft. 



40.000 lbs. 



2.070 



.218 



1.146 



$7,498.25 



Cost 

per 

Lineal ft. 

$0.6697 
0.0411 

0.0066 

0.0282 
0.0015 

0.3143 
0.0171 
0.0341 



0.1181 
0.1893 

$1.4200 



Asphalt Paving 7.5 ins. Wide, 4 ins. Thick. 



Cost per 

per 

Single Track. 

4400 sq. yds. at $2.60 $11,440.00 

14,0S5 cu. ft. concrete (10 per cent cement, 

6 ins. deep between ties) at 15 cts 2,112.75 

21,120 cu. ft. concrete (10 per cent cement, 

6 ins. below ties 8 ft. wide) at 15 cts 3,168.00 

25,700 ft. B.M. lumber (2 ins. x 14 ins. pine) 

retaining asphalt, etc., at $14 , 359.80 

Carpenter work, nails, hauling, etc 75.00 



Cost of paving per sq. yd. $3.90. 



....$17,155.55 



Quantities 

per 
Lineal ft. 

0.833 
2.669 
4.000 
4.867 



Total cost track laying and paving $24,653.6 



Cost 

per 

Lineal ft. 

$2.17 

0.40 

0.60 

0.07 
0.01 



$3.25 
$4.67 



Section D. (Fig. 145)— This section shows the same track construction with 
foundation, etc., but the asphalt is 5 ins. thick (1 in. deeper than in Section C). By 
this means the asphalt is bedded all around the rail, completely encasing it; hence 
the dirt cannot work in and deposit between the asphalt and concrete. This 
construction, however, is expensive, as too much asphalt is used. 



142 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



Blake Asphalt Pavement, 1 in. Below Top of Tie. Ties 31 ins. C to C. 



Cost per 
Mile 
track. Single Track 
Same as Section C $ 7,498.25 

PAVING. 

(7.5 ft. wide, 5 ins. thick.) 

4400 sq. yds. Blake asphalt at $2.90 12,760,00 

11,734 cu. ft. concrete (10 per cent cement, 

5 ins. deep between ties) at 15 cts 1,760.10 

21,120 en. ft. concrete (10 per cent, cement, 

6 ins. deep below ties) at 15 cts 3,168.00 

26,700 ft. B.M. lumber (2 ins. x 14 ins. pine) 

retaining asphalt and concrete at $14. . 359.80 
Carpenter work, hauling, etc 75.00 



Quantities 

per 
Lineal ft. 



Cost 

per 

Lineal ft. 



Cost of paving per sq. yd., $4.12 $18,122.90 



0.833 sq. yd. 


2.417 




0.333 


6.222 cu. ft. 


0.600 


4.867 ft. 


0.070 




0.010 




$3,430 




$4,850 



Total cost of track and paving $25,621.15 

Section G. (Fig. 146)— We will take this section up next, as it bears upon 
the two immediately above. Track construction same as above, but economizes 
upon the asphalt. 

Here we have a concrete foundation, 6 ins. deep, under ties, and carry up the 
concrete above the ties, except for a space averaging 10 ins. wide directly under 
the rails, thus cementing the whole structure together, and giving a weariug 
surface of asphalt paviug 3 ins. deep. (Barber asphalt is only 2% ins.) The rails 
and ties where exposed, should be coated with tar or liquid asphalt just previous 
to laying the pavement, thus making it air and water tight. 

This would be the ideal construction, and its cost will certainly be in its 
favor from the start. 



Blake Asphalt Pavement. Cement Concrete Foundation 
ins. C to C. 

Cost per Quantities 
Mile per 

track. Single Track. Lineal ft. 
Same as Section C $ 7,498.25 

PAVING. 

4400 sq. yds. Blake asphalt (7.5 ft. wide 3 

ius. thick) at $2.25 9,900.00 

36,178 cu. ft. cement concrete (see below) - 

at 15 cts 5,426.70 

25,700 ft. B.M. lumber (2 ins. x 14 ins. pine) 

at $14 359.80 

Carpenter work, nails, hauling, etc 75.00 



Ties 81 

Cost 

per 

Lineal ft. 



Cost per sq. yd., $3.58 $15,761.50 



Total cost track and paving $23,259.75 

CONCRETE. CU. Ft. 

Below ties (5280 ft. x 7 f t. x 0.5 ft.) 

Between ties and 6 ins. from ends (5,280 ft. x 

8 ft. x 0.5 ft.) 

Less cu. ft. in ties (3017 ft. x 2.33^ ft.) 7,040 

Less cu. ft. in space below rail 817 

Above ties (5280 ft. x 6 ft. x 0.14 ft.) 





1.875 




1.027 




0.068 




0.010 




$2,980 




$4,400 


Cu. Ft. 


Cu. Ft. 




18,480 


21,120 




7,857 


13,263 




4,435 



36,178 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY IIAAW BOOR'. 143 



Section E.— This is a 60-lb. steel rail on chair construction with the 
necessary tie rods. Chairs are a little heavier than used formerly and if there 
is any error in these figures the principal one would be the price of the chairs, 
which would be very apt to cost more. 

A 6-in. foundation of concrete below ties is calculated, and the space between 
the ties filled in with concrete; above this the Barber asphalt and stone toothing. 
With this foundation this is the same practical construction as used on portions 
of Stout and Arapahoe Streets, increased to a 60 lb. rail construction to compare 
with other proposed sections. 

This is very expensive, and the chairs are an unmitigated nuisance. They 
should be avoided hereafter. 

Barber Asphalt Paving. Stone Toothing, T Rail on Chairs. Hewn 
Ties 21 ins. C to C. 

Cost per Cost 

Mile per 

track. Quantities Price Single Track Lineal ft. 

60-lb. T rail (including freight in- 
spection and hauling HOtons $37.50 $3,536.25 

Angle bars (300 per 50 1 bs.) including 

'freight. inspection and hauling. 13,000 lbs. 2.01 217.08 

Track bolts (% in. x 3^ ins.) includ- 
ing freight, inspection and 
hauling 1,700 " 3.01 34.62 

I?. E. spikes (4 ins. x f R ins.) 750 to 

the keg, 200 lbs. each, 37M kegs 6,450 " 2.56 165.12 

Nnt locks • l^M 6.50 8.12 

Hewn ties (6 ins. x 8 ins. x 7 ft.) in- 
cluding inspection and hauling. 3,017 .55 1,659.35 

Bonds in place *"«. 3G0 .25 90.00 

Tie rods 1,320 .20 264.00 

Wrought iron chairs (4 ins. high). . 6.031 .60 3,620.40 

Excavations (5280 ft. x 8 ft. wide x ' 

20J^ins.deep 2,672cu.yds. .30 801.60 

Track laying (including blocking) 1,250.00 



$11,646.54 



TAVING. 



Concrete (7 ft - vide, 6 ins. deep) 

under ties, 10 per cent cement.. 18,480 cu. ft. .15 2,772.00 

Concrete (8 ft. wide 6 ins. deep) be- 
tween ties, 10 per cent cement. 14,085 " .15 2,112.75 

Barber asphalt paving, stone tooth- 
ing (&}£ ins. deep) 4,400 sq. yds. 3.15 13,860.00 



Cost of paving per sq. yd., $4.26 $18,744.75 

Total cost of track and paving $30,391.29 $5.?5 

Section F.— This section has the same style of chair and track construc- 
tion as in Section E with a stone block pavement instead of Barber asphalt; and 
includes the foundation under ties. The first figures are an estimate of cost 
based on figures for concrete and paving, and the second arc based on the price 
paid for the paving on Wazee Street by the Board of Works. 



144 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Block Stone Paving, Concrete foundation. T Rail on Chairs. 

Quantities. Price. Cost per Cost 
Mile Liu. ft. 

track. Single Track. 

Same as Sec. E, loss excavation $10,844.94 

Excavation (trench 5,280 ft. x 8 ft. 

wide x 19 ins. deep) 2,477 cu. yds. .30 743.10 



$11,588.04 

PAVING . 

Stone block paving, 7.5 ft. wide, in- 
cluding 1 in. sand under blocks.. 4,400 sq. yds. 2.75 12,100.00 

Concrete 8 ft. wide, 6 ins. deep be- 
tween ties, 10 per cent cement.. . 14,085 cu. yds. .15 2,112.75 

Concrete 7 ft. wide, 6 ins. deep under 

ties, 10 per cent cement 18,480 cu. ft. .15 2,772.00 

Lumber for retaining concrete and 22,000 ft. B.M. 14.00 308.00 

paving 

Carpenter work, nails, etc 60.00 



Cost per sq. yd $3.94 $17,352.75 



Total cost per mile, track and paving $28,940.79 $5.48 

Section Fa. — Block Stone Paving, Concrete Foundation. 

Quantities. Price. Cost per Cost 
Mile Lin. ft. 
tkack. Single Track. 
Same as Section F $11,588.04 

PAVING. 

Stone block paving 7.5 ft. wide (in- 
cluding 1 in. sand and 6 ins. con- 
crete under blocks 4,400 sq. yds. $^.50 15,400.00 

Concrete under ties (7 ft. wide, 6 ins. 

deep) 10 per cent cement 18,480 cu. ft. .15 2,772.00 



Cost per sq. yard $4.13 $18,172.00 



Total cost per mile track, and paving $29,700.04 $5.63 

Summary. 

Founda- Sec. Cost per Cost Cost 

tion. Mile Lin. ft. per 

Single Track. Sq. yd. 
Block stone paving, 70 lb. Shanghai Concrete 

rail & Gravel A $23,393.12 $4.43 $3.40 

Block stone paving, 70-lb. Shanghai 

lail Concrete. B 25,808.47 4.89 3.95 

Blake asphalt paving, 60-lb. Trail.. " C 24,653.80 4.67 3.90 

Blake asphalt paving, 60-lb. T rail.. " D 25.621.15 4.85 4.12 

Blake asphalt paving, 60-11). Trail.. " G 23,259.75 4.40 3.58 
Barber asphalt paving, 60-lb. T rail 

on chairs " E 30,391.29 5.75 4.26 

Block stone paving, 60-lb. T rail on 

chairs " F 28,940.79 5.48 3.95 

Block stone paving. 60-lb. T. rail on 

chairs (contract price) " Fa 29,760.04 5.63 4.13 

For cross country roads the pavement should be left out of the estimate. The 

price of material will depend upon freightage and local costs. If the tics are 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



145 



spaced at a greater distance than 21 ins. between centers, the number of ties per 
mile for the different spacing is given in Table, Page 110. 

The cost of laying a road parallel to country roads varies from 35 cents to 45 
cents per running foot. Excavation costs from 23 cents to 45 cents per cubic 
yard depending upon local conditions. The price of bonds varies from 35 cents 




SECT/Ort OF THIRD AK., 
CABLE T/fACH 

Fig. 147. 




SECTION OFBHOADtVAr 
CABLE T/fACH. 

Fig. 148. 



to 65 cents per joint depending upon the current density in the rail. Bonds can 
be inserted and applied at an additional price of 14 cents to 30 cents per joint. 

The effect of laying asphalt paving against the rail is shown in Fig. 147. 
Fig. 148 shows the methods used in New York in connection with cable tracks. 





Fig. 149.- 



MET/IOO OF/AT/N& 
MILS IN ASPHALT. 



Fig. 150. 



Fig. 149 shows method of paving with asphalt against the rails. Fig. 150 shows 
method of paving with asphalt with granite toothing block against the rails. 

Paving Cost.— The following figures are from Washington, 1892: Trinidad 
asphalt with 7-in. concrete base, $2.25 per sq. yd. ; Trinidad asphalt with 4 ins. 
concrete base, $2.00 per sq. yd.; Asphalt block, $2.00; asphalt surface, $17.00 
cubic yard 

Bituminous base, $3.00 per cu. yd. in place. Hydraulic cement and concrete, 
$5.00 per cu. yard in place. Asphalt surface, $1.02 per sq.yd. Annual average 
for repairs 3 cents per sq. yd. ; resurfacing, $1.50 per sq. yd. 



SECTION IV -POWER STATION. 



Power Station Location. — The factors affecting the proper location for 
the power station are the coot of land, the cost of copper for distribution, the 
cost of coal and the vahie of condensing water. The price that can be given for a 
piece of property in a central location is determined by the way in which this 
location affects the other investments and station economics. 

Take, for example, a 15 mile stretch of road with cars uniformly placed 
requiring 20 amps, per mile average and 40 amps, per mile maximum, and assume 
20 per cent drop in voltage on 7^£ miles of road. With the station centrally 
located the copper will cost about $20,000; if the station is 2 miles from the 
center of distribution the installation cost for copper will be increased $6700„ 
Property in the central location would, therefore, be worth this much more to 
the railway company as better distribution could be obtained from a station on 
that site. 

Where the coal can be delivered directly from the cars to the coal bins of the 
station the cost for handling is the lowest. Where there is any rehandling, the 
price depends upon the distance traversed. To load and move 1 ton 1 mile or 
less costs about 25 cents per ton; V/ 2 miles, 30 cents; 2 miles, 32 cents. These 
figures are taken from average prices paid for hauling over a variety of roads. A 
station with the capacity mentioned above would require, on an average, about 11 
tons of coal per day ; if hauled 1 mile this would cost per year with shrinkage in 
coal weight due to moving, about $1000, or 6 per cent on an investment of $16,666. 

The value of condensing in a street railway plant of the size cited above can 
be roughly estimated at 18 per cent saving in coal. At $2.80 per ton this would be 
$2023 per year or 6 per cent on an investment of $33,700. This station would take 
about 700,000 cu. ft. of water per annum for boiler use. If the water had to be 
bought, at say, $1 per 1000 cu. ft., a site would be worth $11,600 more where free 
water could be obtained. 

Too often stations have been located on property owned by the lailway which 
it would have been a great deal more economical to have given away, and located 
the station with reference to the least operating cost. The saving thus effected 
would, in many cases, pay interest on the investment on both properties. The 
location of the power station near the car house reduces in many ways the labor 
item, and the insurance hazard will not be increased if care be taken in the 
design. Another point to be considered is the liability for damages due to smoke 
nuisance, pollution of streams and external fire hazards. 

FOUNDATIONS. 

In locating the power station building the character of the soil and subsoil 
and its effect upon the cost of proper foundations for building and machinery 
should also be carefully determined. Every endeavor should be made to dis- 
cover the character of soil on which the station foundations will rest. Where 
there are adjacent buildings these can be inspected and data as to the character, 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAATB EOOR'. 147 



depth and weight per square foot of surface, obtained from the builders. Four 
borings should be made on the different sides of the site by using a post auger. 
If four borings show at the same depth the same character of soil, it can be as- 
sumed that there is no great dip to the strata. For those foundations which 
carry large weights, such as those under the chimney, the ground should be 
bored to a depth of 20 to 25 ft. This can be done by two men using a lever with 
a 6-in. or 8-in. auger. In soft soils a pipe must first be driven; a 4- in. pipe is a 
convenient size and a smaller auger can be used to bore the core out of the pipe. 
Different soils have greatly different bearing power and their safe loads are 
changed when the soils are wet. The table following gives the bearing power of 
soils as given by Ira O. Baker. 

Bearing Power of Soils in Tons per Square Foot. 

MINIMUM. MAXIMUM. 

Rock, hard , 25 30 

Rock, soft 5 10 

Clay on thick beds always dry 4 6 

Clay on thick beds moderately dry 2 4 

Clay, soft 1 2 

Gravel and coarse sand well cemented 8 10 

Sand compact and well cemented 4 6 

Sand, clean and dry. 2 4 

Quick sand, alluvial soils, etc 0.5 1 

There are many peculiarities of soils which should be thoroughly understood 
before applying the above table, as there is no more important point of the 
station building than its foundations. 

The following remarks of a general character will serve as a guide to the 
street railway engineer in preliminary estimates. 

Rock, when extending entirely under the building site, makes the best 
"oundation bed. The softer rocks will sustain more weight than the walls resting 
on them can safely carry. Water is usually met with in substrata rock founda- 
tions, due to the seeping over them of the surface drainage; outside drains 
should be thrown around such a site. If the ledge of rock slopes to one side, a tile 
or stone drain may be built from the lowest to the highest point of the founda- 
tion footings and the water drained from the rock in this way. When nearly 
level, a hole should be blasted at the lowest point of the foundations and meas- 
ures taken to dispose of the drainage water. The surface of the rock on which 
the foundations rest should be prepared, and all loose and decayed portions of 
rock in line of the foundation footings should be cut and dressed to a surface. 
If the rock surface is uneven, the surface should be cut in steps or plane sur- 
faces : in no case should a wall rest on a sloping surface. All fissures or depres- 
sions should be carefully cleaned out to the hard rock surface and filled with 
cement to the level of the adjacent step. If deep cavities or fissures appear too 
large to fill, thev may be bridged by arches of brick, stone or cement. In rock it 
is important that the different footings around the foundation of the buildings 
be as nearly on a level as possible. Where the building is to rest partly on rock 
and partly on soil the footings on the soil should be made very wide so the 
pressure per square foot will not be enough to cause an unequal settling of the 
foundations. These conditions of unequal sustaining power of the foundation 
bed should be avoided if possible as it is risky at best. 

Clay. This designation covers soil conditions varying from slate and shale 
to soft, damp material, which will squeeze out in every direction when pressure 
is brought to bear upon it. Clay soils which can be kept dry and compact carry 



148 ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



the usual loads without trouble, but clay as a rule gives more trouble than sand., 
gravel or stone. 

The top footing in this case must be carried below the frost line, which 
varies from 6 ft. in Northern States to 2 ft. below the Mason & Dixon line. 
Freezing affects clay more than other soils, so that the drainage of foundations 
on this character of soil must be taken care of, and when on a slope the founda- 
tions are considered hazardous. If the clay contains coarse gravel or stone its 
retaining power is greatly increased. 

Gravel gives less trouble than any other material for foundation bed if the 
foundations are properly proportioned, and it is not affected by water provided 
the gravel and sand cannot wash away from under the foundation footings. 

Sand, if confined from lateral movement, makes an excellent foundation. If 
no water can move it, it is practically incompressible. Dry, clean river sand sc 
confined has been known to carry 100 tons to the square foot. All foundation 
footings in sand should be carried to the same level, and when the engine and 
boiler foundations are separate from the building structure, the building foot- 
ings should be carried below the bed of any internal f onndation, thus making the 
building wall the retaining wall for the internal foundation stress on the sand. 

Soils Containing Vegetable Matter. No foundation should be laid on soils 
containing vegetable matter or land that has been filled. The original virgin bed 
of the soil should be reached unless the filling is made of clean beach sand, that 
has been made compact by drenching with water as it was filled; and this should 
be treated and retained as required for foundations on sand. 

Mud or Silt can only be used by extending the foundation area on the sur- 
face by spreading the footings on wooden or steel beams, by sinking beams or 
pillars until hard soil is reached, or by driving piles distributed over the founda- 
tion bed so as to take the weight of the structure uniformly. 

Some Data on Soils. — The Capitol at Albany rests on blue clay containing 
60 per cent to 90 per cent alumina, the remainder being fine sand containing 40 
per cent water. The safe load was taken at 2 tons per square foot; a load of 5.9 
tons per square foot produced an upheaval of surrounding earth. 

The Congressional Library at "Washington, D. C, rests on yellow clay mixed 
with sand; 13^£ tons were required to produce settlement and the footing was 
proportioned for 2% tons per square foot. 

Hard indurated clay under the piers of the bridge across the Ohio River at 
Point Pleasant, West "Virginia, carries 2% tons per square foot. 

The Cincinnati Bridge foundation bed is of coarse gravel 12 ft. below water 
and carries 4 tons per square foot. 

The Brooklyn Bridge foundations are 44 ft. below bed of river and rest on 
bed rock and a layer of sand, 2 ft. thick. This material resists a maximum pres- 
sure of 5% tons per square foot. 

Methods of Testing Foundations. — One method suggested is to con- 
struct a platform about 4 ft. square with 4 legs each 6 ins. square, the platform 
being set on the bottom of the foundation trench and carefully leveled. A level 
should be set up so that the levels on each leg of the bench are taken, a level is 
also taken to a bench mark on a stake or some fixed point. A uniform load is 
then gradually placed over the platform until a settling is noticed. From one- 
fifth to one-half of the load that produced the settling of the platform can be 
allowed on the foundations, the proper factor of safety being governed by cir- 
cumstance. 

When the footings for foundations are soft or treacherous, piles are largely 






ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOO A'. 



149 



i.^ed in station construction. The following data is taken from Kidder's "Build- 
ing Construction and Superintendence." 

Piles should always be driven with small ends down, with all bark and 
branches trimmed close. The pile driver should strike the pile squarely on its 
head. The usual weight of hammers are from 1200 to 1300 lbs., the hammer fall- 
ing from 5 to 20 ft., the last blows being given with quick strokes iu succession 
and not over 5 ft. fall. Do not continue to drive piles when they sink only 1% 
ins. under five blows of a 1200 lb. hammer falling 15 ft. 

Bearing Value of Piles. 

Character of Soil. Pile Length Average Penetra- Load in 

in Feet. Diameter. tion. Tons. 

Silt 40 10 6 2J4 

Mud 30 8 2 6 

Soft earth with boulder or logs ... 30 8 \y 2 7 
Moderately firm earth or clay with 

boulder or logs 30 8 19 

Soft earth or clay 30 10 1 9 

Quicksand 30 8 ^ 12 

Firm earth 30 8 J^ 12 

Firm earth into sand or gravel .... 20 8 J4 14 

Firm earth to rock 20 8 20 

Sand 20 8 20 

Gravel.. 15 8 20 

When the penetration is less than that given above for soft soils the safe load 
may be increased. 

Foundation Courses. — The foundation may be either stone, brick or 
concrete as local prices and character of foundation dictates. A lower course of 




Fig. 151. — concrete footing. 



Fig. 152.— concrete foundation. 



concrete having a spreading base, like Fig. 151 gives a good bearing for any 
superstructure, as the concrete, when well tamped, conforms to the contour of 
the earth, and as large stone should be used for the footing courses, concrete 
makes the cheaper foundation. 

Concrete foundations as a whole are largely used in power station construc- 
tion, and where the supporting power of the soil varies, I-beams or rails are 
imbedded in the concrete to bridge the inequalities of bearing surface, Fig. 152. 

The piles should in no case be driven closer than 2 ft. on centers. The usual 
spacing is 2 ft. 6 ins. across the foundation trench, and 3 ft. along the line of wall. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



The capping of piles may be of cement, see Fig. 153, well tamped with concrete. 
The earth should be excavated 1 ft. below the top of piles and 1 ft. outside of 
them, the space around and between them being filled with a rich Portland 
cement deposited in layers. Piles should always be surfaced below the water 
mark, where water stands on the foundation, to prevent decay, and in no case 
should piles be used in dry soil. 

Materials for Foundations.— The materials used in foundation construc- 
tion are lime, cement, sand, broken stone, brick and building stones; these mater- 
ials are specified as to quality and the proportions which will be used in making 
mortar, cements and concretes. 

I/;«c.-Common lime, sometimes called quick lime or caustic lime, is pro- 
duced from limestones by heating to redness or calcination. These vary in compo- 
sition in different parts of the country. Good lime should show the following char- 
acteristics: Entire freedom from cinders and clinkers, and the other impurities 
should not exceed 10 per cent; it should be in hard lumps with little dust; it 




PILES CONCRETE 

Fig. 153.— pile foundation. 



should slack freely in water forming a fairly smooth paste with very little or no 
residue; it should dissolve in rain water. Hydraulic lime should harden under 
water after it has been made in a cake and has commenced to stiffen in air. 

Natural Cements.— Natural cements are made from natural rock composed of 
carbonate of lime, carbonate of magnesia and clay. Care is required in selecting 
the stone, calcining to the proper degree and inspecting after calcination; it is 
then finely ground between mill stones. The natural cements are very quick in 
setting, but have less ultimate strength than the artificial, or Portland; they 
attain their full strength sooner, and are sufficiently strong for ordinary build- 
ing operations; they cost less than Portland and are used almost exclusively for 
cement mortar. They weigh less than Portland, being about two-thirds as heavy. 
The locations w here natural cements are made on a large scale are Eoscndale, 
N. Y., Louisville, Ky., Utica, N. Y., La Salle, 111., Milwaukee, Wis., Maukato, 
Minn., Cement, Ga. and Fort Scott, Kan. 

In Eoscndale cement a light color usually indicates an inferior, underburnt 
rock. Eoscndale varies in weight from 49 to 50 lbs. per cubic foot or GO to 70 lbs. 
per bushel. 

Artificial Cements. — The artificial cements are usually known as Portland, 
and require a homogenous mixture in the proper proportions of carbonate of 
lime, alumina, silica and iron; this mixture is subjected to heat sufficient to pro- 
duce a vitrified, dense and hard clinker and is afterward ground to powder. The 
American Portland cements have been used in the largest engineering works in 
this country. Good Portland cement is slow setting in comparison with the 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 151 



natural cements, and in setting forma a crystalline structure similar to the 
natural zeolites. Portland costs approximately three times as much as Uosendalc, 
but its strength makes its use in stone or brick foundation footings necessary, 
as it carries loads of over 1J^ tons per foot, and should be preferred for these uses 
over any of the natural cements. 

Mortars.— M.ort&TB. are made of lime slacked in a water-tight box; water is 
then added. Different limes take different volumes of water. The water is 
rapidly absorbed, and with a rise in temperature the nltimate volume'bf slacked 
lime is about 3% times the original lime; sand is then mixed with this, the pro- 
portions being about one part of lime to five of sand. Rich mortar contains a 
larger proportion of lime than above. Mortar of good quality slides readily from 
the trowel; if it sticks there is too much sand in its composition. The usual 
practice is to mix the sand with the lime as soon as it is slacked, and let it stand 
until ready for use. Better results are obtained if the sand is not mixed with 
the slacked lime until the mortar is needed. 

Sand. — Sharp sand should show angular formation of granules of various 
sizes. If there is any doubt as to the cleanness, the sand can be tested by putting 
some in a tumbler of water. If there are any impurities present they will rise to 
the top. On squeezing moist sand in the hand the sand should fall loosely down; 
if it retains the impression of the hand it should be rejected, as it contains loam 
which greatly weakens the binding power of the mortar. 

Cement Mortar. — This should be used for all work which is exposed to damp- 
ness or to the weather. The sand and cement are thoroughly mixed dry, and 
water added and mixed until the proper consistency is reached. This mortar 
works better when stiff. For Datural cements it should not exceed 3 parts of 
sand to 1 of cement; for structures bearing heavy weights 2 to 1 should be used; 
Portland cement can be used in the proportion of 4 or 3 to 1, for first class 
mortars. For foundations under water a greater ratio than 2 to 1 should not be 
used. When a cheaper cement will answer, slacked lime is added instead of 
more Band. 

Kidder gives the following estimates: 

Lime Mortar: 1 barrel of lime weighs 270 lbs., a bushel of lime weighs 75 lbs., 
1 barrel of lime equals 3 bushels; 1 cu. yd. of sand will make 1 yd. of 1 to 3 lime 
mortar and will lay about 80 cu. ft. of rough brick work or common rubble. 

Cement Mortar: 1.8 barrels, 540 lbs. of natural cement, and .94 cu. yds. of 
sand will make 1 cu. yd. of 1 to 3 mortar; 2 lbs. of Portland cement and .94 cu. 
yds. will make 1 cu. yd. of 1 to 3 mortar; 1 cu. yd of mortar will lay from 67 to 80 
cu. ft. of brick work or rough rubble, and from 90 to 108 cu. ft. of brick woric with 
%-in. to J^-in. joints. A cubic foot of brick work contains about 18 bricks. 

The following safe crushing strength of mortars per sq. ft. is usually divided 
by 8 for safe loads. 

Portland cement mortar, 1 to 3 3 months, 40 tons 1 year, 65 tons 

Posendale " " " " " " 13 " " " 26 " 

Lime mortar " " " " 8.6 " " " 15 " 

Lime mortar should not be used under piers that are to receive their full load 
within six months. 

Grout is a very thin mixture of cement mortar used to fill interstices in stone 
work, and usually poured on the courses of masonry, or run between stones to be 
bonded. 

Concrete.— This consists of cement mortar to which is added crushed stone. 
Granite and other hard stones make the best aggregates. It is essential that the 



152 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



crushed stone should be free from dirt. The sizes vary from those that will pass 
through a 1-in. ring up to the size of a hens egg. Clean gravel is also used 
largely in some sections. The usual way that the proportioning of parts is ac- 
complished is by the wheelbarrow load where the mixing is done by hand, one 
barrel of cement being taken in two barrow loads. The materials are dumped on 
a water-tight platform ; the sand is first spread and then the cement is laid over 
it; these two materials are thoroughly mixed and on this mixture is dumped the 
broken stone, which is mixed in dry; then water is added, still continuing the 
mixing, until all portions are thoroughly coated. 

Many machines have been devised for mixing cement to save labor. The 
Pittsburgh power station was built largely of concrete using an automatic mixer. 
The proportion of the parts vary with the size of the broken stone used, and the 
crushing strain on the concrete structure. There should always be enough 
cement to fill all voids in the stone. 

Concrete for foundations, bearing only a moderate weight, can be made of 1 
part natural cement, 2 parts sand, and 4 parts gravel or broken stone. Portland 
concrete to take heavy weights should have 2 parts cement, 5 parts sand and 9 
parts broken stone. Where a larger proportion of stone is used, the cement 
should be carefully tested as the building progresses, and close inspection is 
necessary to see that the proportions are carefully maintained. 

The concrete is delivered to the foundation trenches, which may be cut out in 
clay, and the concrete rammed into position; when sand or yielding earth com- 
pose the trenches, wooden cribs have to be constructed against which the con- 
crete is rammed to give the size and shape of the foundation required. The 
layers should not be more than 6 ins. thick, and the concrete should not be 
dropped from a greater height than 4 ft; each layer is to be rammed with a 
wooden, 20-lb. rammer until the top surface shows a flush of water and all inter- 
stices are completely filled. 

General Remarks.— -The strains that Portland cement can take are from 1 to 
5 tons per square foot; natural cement concrete, 1 to 6 tons per square foot. 

Where the proportions are 1 part cement, 3 parts sand, 5 broken stone, size 
not exceeding 2 X 1\& X 3 ins., one barrel of cement will make 22 to 24 cu. ft. of 
concrete. 

Concrete : 1 part of cement, 2}4 of sand, 3 of gravel and 5 of broken fetone, 
yields 1.18 yds. of concrete per barrel of cement. With labor at $2.00 per day, 
mixing and depositing should not exceed $1.00 per cubic yard. The cost of Port- 
land concrete will vary from $6.00 to $8.00 per cubic yard. 

STATION WALLS. 

These may be of brick, stone or concrete, iron and brick, terra cotta with iron 
beams, iron beams with concrete walls, wooden post and siding of novelty or 
shingle. The choice of material depends upon the cost and character of structure 
required. The walls of a station over the engine room and boiler room do not 
have to carry more than the roof weights unless the crane, steam piping or 
office floors are above. The prevalent form of brick station structure is to 
build brick piers or buttresses, the distances between centers being the same as 
between the centers of the roof trusses. Between the piers are thin curtain walls 
of brick, largely taken up by windows. These piers are bonded at the top by 
girders. The thickness of continuous brick walls are often fixed by ordinance; 
nearly all building regulations requiring approximately the following thickness: 
for buildings carrying heavy floor weights, two stories, brick 16 ins., stone 20 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 153 



ins.; three stories, brick 20 iris., stone 24 ins.; four stories, brick 24 ins., stone 
28 ins. 

Station walls of cut stone may be constructed either with a plain face or but- 
tresses, the space between buttresses as a rule being arched for window open- 
ings, aud the surface stone work and facings being left to the taste of the 
architect. Brick, either red or terra cotta or glazed, or concrete can form the 
external walls. The structure is sometimes supported by the buttresses of 
masonry, and in some forms of construction contains within the brick walls, 
columns or pillars, which carry the roof load. This latter construction is used 
where space has to be economized, and where the roof weights to be carried 
would require larger foundation areas than could be well distributed by a masonry 
buttress. 

The building may be an iron or steel skeleton with thin double walls of brick, 
terra cotta or even concrete. In some cases a single brick wall faced on the inside 
with the numerous forms of compositions for ceiling and interior work is used. 

For temporary work corrugated galvanized iron or tin, or galvanized iron 
stamped with brick tiling, having an inside sheathing of wood or asbestos mill- 
board has been found satisfactory. For further protection the space between the 
inner and outer walls, when wooden, can be filled with dry clean cinders or 
mineral wool. 

In wooden structures the walls can be of novelty siding or dipped shingles 
laid over 1-in. spruce boarding. The inside wall can be of adamantine plastering 
laid on metallic or wooden lathes, the spaces between being filled with mineral 
wool or cinders to make a slow burning structure. Another form is to have all 
timber dressed; on the outside are nailed 2-in. hemlock planks dressed on the 
inside; over this the building paper and novelty siding or shingles are nailed. 
Eight feet can be carried between the posts. This character of construction 
reduces the insurance rates on wooden buildings, and makes what is known as 
the " slow burning " construction. 

The weights that the buttresses, pillars or struts have to bear in a power 
station engine room are usually the roof weights, and the moving crane and load. 
The distance between the spans varies from 6 ft. to 20 ft. depending upon the 
character of the roof trussing employed. In the smaller stations it is much more 
economical to use horses or cranes tracked on the floor than to stiengthen the 
roof truss for rigging machinery. 

For strengths of building materials see tables on pages 11 to 15. 

ROOFS. 

Weights and strains thrown on the roof are due to wind pressure and snow. 
The wind pressure allowable depends upon exposure of building; 32 lbs. per square 
foot should not exceed the ultimate strength of the structure. 

Pressure of "Winds on Roof. (TJnwin). 
a = Angle of surface of roof with direction of wind, 
F= Force of wind in pounds per square foot. 
A = Pressure normal to surface of roof. 
B — Pressure perpendicular to direction of wind. 
C = Pressure parallel to direction of wind. 

Angle of roof = a 5° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70° 80° 90° 

A=FX .125 .24 .45 .66 .83 .95 1.00 1.02 1.01 1.00 

B=J*'X .122 .24 .42 .57 .64 .61 .50 .35 .17 .00 

C=FX .01 .04 .15 .33 .53 .73 .85 .96 .99 1.09 



[54 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



Angles of Hoofs as Commonly Used. 

Proportion Angle Length of 

of Rise to Rafter 

Span Deg. Min. to Rise. 

¥i 45 .... 1.4142 

H_ 33 41 1.8028 

2l/3 30 .... 2.0000 

M 26 34 2.2361 

1-5 21 48 2.6926 

1-6 18 26 3.1623 



Velocity and Pressure of Winds. (Hurst.) 

Velocity in Miles Pressure in Lbs. 

Designation. per Hour. per Sq. Ft. 

V. P. 

Scarcely perceptible 1 .005 

Perceptible 2 .020 

Slight breeze 4 .080 

Moderate breeze 8 .320 

Fresh breeze 15 1.125 

Brisk wind 25 3.125 

Strong wind 30 4.50 

High wind 40 8.00 

Storm 50 12.50 

Violent storm 60 18.00 

Hurricane 80 32.00 

Violent hurricane 100 50.00 

Gust observed at Liverpool Observatory in 1868... . 126 80.00 

The weights of the different kinds of roofing are as follows: 

Lbs. per Sq. Ft. 

Cast iron plates 15 

Copper 8 to 1.25 

Felt and asphalt 1 

Felt and gravel 8 to 10 

Iron, corrugated ' 1 to 3.75 

Corrugated sheets, unboarded 8 

Iron galvanized, flat 1 to 3.50 

Sheathing, pine 1 in. thick, yellow 3 to 4 

Shingles on lathes 10 

Spruce, 1 in . thick 2 

Spruce, if plastered below rafters 12 

Sheathing, 1 in. chestnut or maple 4 - 

Slate on lathes 13 

Slate on boards 114 in. thick 16 

Sheet iron ^ 8 in. thick 3 

Sheet iron and lathes 5 

Skylights, glass & in. to ^ in 2.50 to 7 

Sheet lead , 5 to 8 

Tin 7 to 1.25 

Tiles, flat 15 to 20 

Tiles, grooved and fillets 7 to 10 

Tiles, pan 10 

Zinc 1 to 2 

For spans over 75 ft. add 4 lbs. per square foot to the above loads. 

Snow weighs 5 lbs. to 12 lbs. per cubic foot depending upon the humidity of 
the atmosphere; 1 cu. ft. of snow compacted by rain weighs 15 lbs. to 50 lbs. It 
is customary to add 30 lbs. per square foot to the above for snow and wind when 
separate calculations are not made. 

The weight of any load upon a roof is taken as unliormly distributed over the 
surface of the roof. The total weight on each pair of rafters, couple or truss, is 
equal to the sum of the weights of the truss itself, and as much of the roof as is 
carried between two trusses. 



ELECTRIC RAILWA Y JTA.VD BOOK. 



155 



Safe Loads, in Tons of 2,000 Lbs. for Hollow Cylindrical 
Cast Iron Columns. 



3 

.2 as 


0Q_ 

So 

1° 


' LENGTH OP COLUMNS IN FEET 


05 

81 

.2-2 

~£ =5* 

O <u 


£5 

. Abo 
°° a 




8 


10 


13 


14 


16 


18 


20 


23 


34 


• S «n 


"3 



Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


Tons 


^ «£ 


6 


Vi 


26.2 


23.0 


20.1 


17.5 


15.2 


13.2 


11.5 






8.6 


26.95 


6 


M 


37.5 


33.0 


28.8 


25.0 


21.7 


18.9 


16.5 






12.4 


38.59 


6 


Vs 


42.7 


37.6 


32.8 


28.5 


24.7 


21.5 


18.8 






14.1 


43.96 


6 


1 


47.6 


41.9 


36.5 


31.8 


27.6 


24.0 


21.0 






15.7 


49.01 


6 


m 


52.2 


46.0 


40.1 


34.8 


30.2 


26.3 


23.0 


.... 




17.2 


53.76 


7 


H 


47.7 


43.1 


38.5 


34.3 


30.4 


26.9 


23.9 


21.2 


18.9 


14.7 


45.96 


7 


1 


61.1 


55.2 


49.3 


43.8 


38.9 


34.4 


30.6 


27.1 


24.2 


18.9 


58.90 


7 


M 


67.2 


60.8 


54.3 


48.3 


42.8 


37.9 


33.7 


29.9 


26.7 


20.8 


64.77 


8 


Y\ 


57.9 


53.3 


48.6 


44.1 


39.7 


35.8 


32.2 


28.9 


26.1 


17.1 


53.29 


8 


1 


74.6 


68.7 


62.5 


56.7 


51.1 


46.0 


41.4 


37.3 


33.6 


22.0 


68.64 


8 


m 


89.9 


82.8 


75.5 


68.4 


61.7 


55.5 


49.9 


44.9 


40.5 


26.5 


82.71 


9 


% 


68.1 


63.6 


58.9 


54.2 


49.6 


45.2 


41.2 


37.5 


34.1 


19.4 


60.65 


9 


1 


88.0 


82.3 


76.2 


70.0 


64.1 


58.4 


53.2 


48.4 


44.1 


25.1 


78.40 


9 


1H 


106.6 


99.6 


92.2 


84.8 


77.6 


70.8 


64.4 


58.7 


53.4 


30.4 


94.94 


9 


V4 


123.8 


115.7 


107.1 


98.5 


90.1 


82.2 


74.8 


68.1 


62.0 


35.3 


110.26 


9 


m 


139.6 


130.5 


120.8 


111.1 


101.6 


92.7 


84.4 


76.8 


69.9 


39.9 


1.24.36 


10 


1 


101.4 


95.9 


89.8 


83.6 


77.4 


71.5 


65.8 


60 5 


55.5 


28.3 


88.23 


10 


V4 


123.3 


116.5 


109.1 


101.6 


94.1 


86 8 


79.9 


73.4 


67.5 


34.4 


107.23 


10 


1% 


143.7 


135.8 


127.3 


118.5 


109.7 


101.2 


93.2 


85.6 


78.7 


40.1 


124.99 


10 


m 


162.7 


153.8 


144.1 


134.1 


124.2 


114.6 


105.5 


97.0 


89.1 


45.4 


141.65 


11 


1 


114.8 


109.4 


103.5 


97.3 


91.0 


84.8 


80.2 


73.1 


67.7 


31.4 


98.03 


11 


1% 


139.9 


133.3 


126.2 


118.6 


110.9 


103.3 


97.8 


89.4 


82.5 


38.3 


119.46 


11 


163.5 


155.9 


147.5 


138.6 


128.7 


120.8 


114.3 


104.1 


96.4 


44.8 


139.68 


11 


m 


185.7 


177.1 


167.5 


157.5 


147.3 


137.2 


129.8 


118.3 


109.5 


50.9 


158.68 


11 


2 


206.6 


196.9 


186.3 


175.1 


163.8 


152.6 


144.4 


131.5 


121.8 


56.6 


176.44 


12 


1 


128.0 


122.9 


117.2 


111.0 


104.7 


98.4 


92.2 


86.1 


80.4 


34.6 


107.51 


12 


Wa 


156.4 


150,1 


143.1 


135.7 


127.9 


120.2 


112.6 


105.2 


98.2 


42.2 


131.41 


12 


VA 


183.3 


175.9 


167.7 


159.0 


149.9 


140.9 


132.0 


123.3 


115.1 


49.5 


154.10 


12 


m 


208.7 


20O.4 


191.0 


181.1 


170.7 


160.4 


150.3 


140.5 


131.1 


56.4 


175.53 


12 


2 


232.7 


223.4 


213.0 


201.9 


190.4 


178.9 


167.6 


156.6 


146.1 


62.8 


195.75 


13 


1 


141.2 


136.3 


130.7 


124.7 


118.5 


112.1 


105.8 


99.5 


93.5 


37.7 


117.53 


13 


m 
m 

m 


172.8 


166.8 


160.0 


152.7 


145.0 


137.2 


129.4 


121.8 


114.4 


46.1 


143.86 


13 


203.1 


195.5 


187.9 


179.3 


170.3 


161.1 


152.0 


143.1 


134.3 


54.2 


168.98 


13 


231.6 


223.6 


214.5 


204.7 


194.4 


183.9 


173.5 


163.3 


153.3 


61.9 


192.88 


13 


2 


258.9 


249.9 


239.7 


228.7 


217.3 


205.5 


193.9 


182.5 


171.3 


69.1 


215.56 


14 


1 


154.3 


149.6 


144.3 


138.5 


132.3 


125.9 


119.5 


113 1 


106.8 


40.8 


127.60 


14 


i-M 


189.2 


183.4 


176.9 


1(59.7 


162.2 


154.4 


146.5 


138.6 


131.0 


50.1 


156.31 


14 


222.6 


215.8 


208.1 


199.7 


190.8 


181.7 


172.3 


163.1 


154.1 


58.9 


183.67 


14 


254.4 


246.7 


237.9 


228.3 


218.1 


207.6 


197.0 


186.5 176.2 


67.4 


210.00 


14 


2 


284.8 


276.2 


266.4 


255.6 


244.2 


232.4 


220.6 208.8 197.2 


75.4 


235.12 


15 


l 


167.4 


162.9 


157.8 


152.1 


146.0 


139.7 


133.8 


126.8 


120.4 


44.0 


137.28 


15 




205.5 


200.0 


193.7 


186.7 


179.3 


171.5 


163.6 


155.7 


147.9 


54.0 


168.48 


15 


242.1 


235.7 


228.2 


220.0 


211.2 


202.1 


192.8 


183.5 


174.2 


63.6 


198.74 


15 


Wa 


277.2 


269.8 


261.3 


251.9 


241.9 


231.4 


220.7 


210.1 


199.5 


72.9 


227.45 


15 


2 


310.8 


302.5 


293.0 


282.5 


271.2 


259.5 


247.5 


235.5 


223.6 


81.7 


254.90 



i 5 6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Columns for the support of roof trusses are generally of the box girder type 
of steel. Cast-iron columns, where eccentric loading occurs, are not, largely used, 
on account of the internal strains in castings and the variable thickness in walls. 
Cast-iron columns will carry the weights given in the table on page 155, where 
used to support a uniformly distributed load, e. g. pillars for supporting floors or 
internal structures in the station. 

The top and bottom of every iron column should be trimmed off to a smooth 
surface, .the length of the column is the distance between these surfaces. 

Roof Trusses.— Tables for finding stresses in members for roof trusses of 
the different types and pitches as given below and of any span. 

Rule.— To find the stress in any member multiply the coefficient given for 
that member by total dead load carried by truss ( = span in feet x distance be- 

D 




Pigs. 154 to 156.— roof truss diagrams. 



tween trusses in feet x weight per square foot). If the 

wind forces, or other unsymmetrieai loading, the stresse 

be calculated accordingly aud combined with the dead 

below. 

Pitch (Depth to Span.) 



truss is acted upon by 
s in the members must 
load stresses as found 



nber of Truss 


Va 


30° 


H 


* 


Fig. (154) 










Aa 


.675 


.750 


.838 


1.010 


Bb 


.537 


.625 


.726 


.917 


Ca 


.563 


.650 


.750 


.938 


Cc 


.375 


.433 


.500 


.625 


ab 


.208 


.217 


.224 


.232 


be 


.188 


.217 


.250 


.313 


Fig. (155) 










Aa 


.750 


.833 


.930 


1.120 


Bb 


.589 


.666 


.757 


.928 


Cc 


.568 


.666 


.783 


.995 


Da 


,625 


.721 


.833 


1.042 


Dd 


.375 


.433 


.500 


.625 


ab 


.155 


.167 


.180 


.202 


be 


.155 


.167 


.180 


.202 


cd 


.250 


.288 


.333 


.417 


Pig. (156) 










Aa 


.788 


.874 


.978 


1.178 


Bb 


.718 


.812 


.922 


1.131 


Cc 


.649 


.750 


.866 


1.085 


Dd 


.580 


.687 


.810 


1.038 


Ea 


.655 


.758 


.875 


1.094 


Ef 


.562 


.650 


.750 


.938 


Ee 


.375 


.433 


.500 


.625 


ab 


.104 


.108 


.112 


.116 


bf 


.093 


.108 


.125 


.156 


fg 


.208 


.216 


.224 


.232 


RC 


.093 


.108 


.125 


.156 


cd 


.104 


.108 


.112 


.116 


ge 


.1«7 


.'317 


.250 


.313 


de 


.280 


.325 


.375 


.469 


Note.— Heavy 


lines denote comp 


ression and 


ight lines tension 


members 



Loads are considered as concentrated at the joints. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAA'D BOOK 



157 



Figs. 157 show the lattice type of roof truss as designed by the Berlin Iron 
Bridge Co., and Fig. 158 shows the standard roof truss designed by the same 
company. 

It is not within the province of this book to go into the mechanical details 
of such structures, for the considerations upon which the calculations for these 




Fig. 157. — lattice type of roof truss. 



structures are based would occupy too much space, and have been fully developed 
in such books as Kidder's "Building Construction and Superintendence" for 
wooden roofs, Kent's "Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-Book" and a number of 
other technical works bearing on the different parts of the structural designs 
and such data has been selected as will give the railway engineer enough inform- 
ation to lay out what is required. 

One requirement of a power station roof is that it shall be non-condensing. 
Metal roofs have to be lined with some non-conductor of heat; an enclosed air 
space should be left between the outside roofing and the lining so the warm 
air inside will not condense and drip on the machinery. With corrugated iron 
roofs and steel trusses, asbestos roofing board, supported by wire netting, has 
been used with success, especially where the space between the roof and inside 
paper has been closed so as not to admit of outside circulation. In some stations 




STANDARD ROOF TRUSS. 



tar and gravel are used on roofs not exceeding 30 degrees pitch. The construc- 
tion is as follows: To the purlins are nailed 3-in. tongued and grooved plank of 
yellow pine parallel to the trusses, and on this three layers of tar paper are nailed 
and again over this is spread tar or pitch and covered with clean gravel until the 
tar is covered. Over boiler rooms asphalt, which melts at a higher temperature, 
mixed with sand, is used. Papers, such as Paroid or Asbestos Pooling Felts, 
have been used over matched board roofs. 

Fig. 159 shows a construction as applied to a roof of 64 ft. span. The trusses 
are connected by iron purlins of 10-in. channels, which carry three lines of rafters, 
consisting of 4-in. channels parallel to the top chords of the trusses. Upon the 
rafters are laid longitudinal lines of angle iron 14 x 1% ins., spaced 13% in. center 



i 5 8 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



to center. Directly upon these are laid Ludowici tiles, being of such form as to 
interlock with each other and form a watertight joint. Every fourth tile is 
secured to the angle irons by a piece of copper wire passed through the lug in the 
tile and wound around the angle iron. No cement is required in making a water- 

L, 2^'x2u'x \% 




Fig. 159.— section op trussed roof span. 

tight roof, but in exceptional cases the joints may be pointed on the under side 
to make them proof against dust and fine snow. 

The tiles are of hard burned terra-cotta, 9X16 in. in size, or 135 pieces to the 
square. The weight is 750 to 800 lbs. per square. (In measuring roof surfaces 
100 sq. ft. make a " square.") 



STATION FLOORS. 

I-beam girders with concrete or brick arches or some form of tile are largely 
used for station flooring. The conditions are such that in erecting or assembling 
machinery, heavy loads may be placed on these floors, and provision must be made 
that they bear these weights without yielding. The floors are - generally figured 
at 150 to 300 lbs. per sq. ft. and the table below gives the proper spacing for I- 
beams. 

For ordinary station floors the cross-line on the column of figures indicates 
where the deflection on the beam is greater than 3 -J- T of the distance between sup- 
ports, or ^ in. per foot. With such flexure on beams carrying plastered ceilings, 
there is danger of the ceiling cracking. The weight of a floor is taken as that of 
the variable floor load and the load of the flooring structure. 

Fig. 1G0 gives the common methods of connecting floor joists. "Where a num- 
ber of I-beams are used close together, for supporting floor loads, separators should 
be bolted between them to prevent side deflection and buckling. In floor con- 
struction in several stations, concrete girders have been formed having imbedded 
in them twisted rods as tie rods, The distance between the concrete girders which 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



159 





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ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



were 8 ins. wide x 16 ins. deep, in one case was 6 ft. The wooden forms are 
made for the girder in position and in them, in the proper position, are placed the 
tie rods; theu rich concrete is rammed into place, the arch between girders 





Fig. 160.— method op connecting floor joists. 

forming one continuous construction, and being made at the same time as the 
girders. This floor has stood a test up to 400 lbs. per square foot. 

The objection to a concrete floor surface for a station is that the surface Is 




Fig. 161.— fire proof floor: brick. 



continually being worn off by the movment of the feet over it. This raises a dust 
in the station which enters the oiling system and beaiings and leads to trouble 
with the machinery. In one water-power station washing down of the floors had 




FIRE PROOF FLOOR: HOLLOW POTTERY. 



to be resorted to as the hearings commenced to heat shortly after each sweeping 
of the floor. 

To avoid this the floor can be treated with hot paraffin, which is burnt into it 
with a flame so that it vill not be a superficial coating; this prevents the 




Fig. 163.— fire proof floor: hollow pottery. 



erosion 'of the concrete surface. Oils have been tried but they make the floor 
slippery and increase the chance of a flash fire. 

The old method of constructing fire-proof brick floors was to use a single 4-in. 
course of brick with a rise of 3 ins. to 4 ins. and resting on the lower flanges of 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



161 



the. I-beams against brick skcwbacks, Fig. 1G1. The weight of a fire-proof floor 
of this description, exclusive of beams averages about 70 lbs. per square foot. 

For floors designed for heavy loads several courses of brick are used. Where 
wood floorr are to be laid over concrete construction, wooden nailing strips should 
be imbedded in the concrete. There are special burnt clays known as hollow 
pottery or porous earthenware. The form of construction generally used is shown 
in Figs. 1G2 and 163. Tie rods should always be used with arches between I- 
beams as shown. 




JC I ROOM 

Fig. 1G4. — sectional view op patehson station. 



Wooden floors should be of hard non-resinous wood, maple being one of the best. 
The wood should be thoroughly seasoned and laid tight to prevent the accumula- 
tion of oil, which constitutes a Arc hazard. Diamond iron plates, tile and tessellated 



l62 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



floors are used in some stations; with these floors oiling systems which keep all 
oil off the floors should be provided, otherwise they are very slippery. 

In boiler rooms, concrete will not stand the heat where aehes are discharged 
on the floor, or constant shoveling is required in firing. Tron diamond plates 
make a better surface than brick or flagging laid in concrete. 

TYPICAL CENTRAL STATIONS. 

Fig. 164 gives the cross-section of a station at Paterson, N. J. The span of 
the roof truss is 92 ft,, the walls are brick, the buttress slopes from the ground 




Fig. 165.— st. loots & eelleville station. 



floor where it is 16 ins. wide and flush with the wall. "Where the roof truss bears 
from the door to bottom of roof, the truss at the wall is 23 ft. 6 ins. The thick- 
ness of the wall is 16 ins. ; inside buttress, 8 ins. ; the spans are 18 ft. 6 ins. apart; 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



163 



the width of buttress 3 ft.; the walls 011 the side of the buttress, 2 ft. 8 ins.; win- 
dow opening, 10 ft. 3 ins. 

The 10-ton crane track is supported by a blue stone capping on buttress as 
shown. The foundation is of concrete and the trimmings of blue stone. 




*"«*/« Concrete 



End deration 




Section A A through , 

Fig. 166.— st. louis & Belleville station. 



Figs. 1G5 and 166 show the construction of the St. Louis & Belleville Electric 
Railway station, containing two Corliss engines, 625 hp. each, direct-connected 



i6 4 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



io twd generators, 425 kw. each, and four boilers in two batteries with an output 
of 1000 hp. it will be noticed that the foundations under the station extend the 
whole area of the station. The structure is selected as being typical of modern 
construction for small stations. 

FIRE INSURANCE. 

The charges for insurance are based on the fire hazard presented by the sta- 
tions construction. As this is a fixed charge against the plant per annum every 
precaution should be taken in construction to reduce the rate to the lowest possi- 
ble figure. Fire-proof construction throughout brings the lowest rate. This 
applies to buildings in which all parts that carry weights or resist strain, andalso> 
all stairs and elevator enclosures and their contents are made of entirely incom- 
bustible material, and in which all metallic structural members are protected 
against the effects of fire by coverings of a material which must be entirely incom- 
bustible and a poor heat conductor. The materials which shall be considered as 
fulfilling the conditions of fire-proof covering are: first, brick; second, hollow 
tiles of burnt clay applied to the metal in a bed of mortar and constructed in 
such a manner that there shall be two air spaces of at least % in. each adjacent to> 
the metal surface to be covered; third, porous terra-cotta which shall be at least 
2 ins. thick, and shall also be applied directly to the metal in a bed of mortar;; 
fourth, two layers of plastering on metal lath. 

Wooden stations, where erected within 18 ins. of the line between the lot on 
which they stand and the adjoining property, should have brick walls on the side- 
next to the adjoining property. 

Insurance Rules for Standard Electric Eight and Power Stations. 

— Walls: brick or stone, at least 8 ins. in thickness, or iron. Height: one story,, 
without story or space below. Area : not over 5000 sq. ft. of ground area between 
standard fire walls. Roof: metal, with metal trusses and supports. Floor: brick,, 
cement, stone or earth. Wooden platforms may be used about machines.. 
Cornice: brick stone or metal. Eaves: not less than 15 ft. from ground. Finish:: 
no combustible finish or finish leaving concealed spaces. Division walls, if any,, 
to be of brick, or stone with standard fire doors or shutters. Partitions about 
offices, storerooms or elsewhere to be of non-combustible material. Boiler, except 
in standard station, to be outside, or cut off by standard fire wall with standard 
fire doors and shutters. Wall to be 8 ins. for one-story station, and 4 ins. to be 
added for each additional story; wall to extend through and at least 3 ft. above 
roof. Eoof of boiler house should have proper ventilator. Stack: brick, or if 
iron, to be outside and on brick foundation. Wire tower, if any, to be brick or 
stone with same kind of roof as station proper. Stairs, if any, to be properly 
enclosed when deemed necessary. Elevators, if any, to be in brick tower or with 
self-closing hatches. Heating to be by steam, hot water or hot air by blower 
system; piping for same to be free from woodwork and supported by iron 
hangers. Stoves may be used in office. Lighting to be by gas, brackets so ar- 
ranged as not to allow flame to come in contact with woodwork; or by electricity, 
wiring to be in accordance with rules. Occupancy to be only for legitimate uses 
of the station itself. Exposure: unexposed to other hazards within 50 ft. ; or if 
exposed to have approved fire walls on exposed sides. 

Sprinklers are sometimes required in an engine room; these should be lo- 
cated so that in no case can the dynamo or switchboard be wet. It is very doubt- 
ful whether they are useful in the engine room ; in the boiler room they might be 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 165 



valuable, although in many boiler rooms the temperature rises high enough at 
times to cause them to operate and be troublesome. 

Where stations are erected adjacent to hazardous buildings, pipes have been 
run parallel and near to the eaves of the roof, drilled with holes and connected to 
the water supply so the side of the building near the hazard can be drenched with 
water in case of fire. 

Wooden floors in a station always raise the insurance rate, and in most cases, 
fire-proof flooring will be a good investment; it is to be remembered that after a 
rate is placed on a station property it is very hard to reduce it, wheieas wiih 
proper fire precautions embodied in the original design a low rate can be secured, 
or the station can afford to carry its own insurance, and following the usually wise 
precautions advised by the fire underwriters, can save a large sum per annum. 
The matter of fire pumps and tanks required vary in different localities, and the 
underwriters should be consulted to get their specific requirements in each case 
of contemplated construction. 

GENERAL STATION ARRANGEMENTS. 

There are general arrangements regarding levels of the different parts of the 
station which should be adhered to if possible, in order to get the best results from 
the necessary apparatus in the power station. Where the boilers deliver their 
steam to a header above them, in order to get dry steam it is advisable not to drop 
the steam pipe system below the header any more than possible. This brings 
the boiler foundation naturally below that of the engines. If the exhaust from 
the engines be taken to a condenser, the condenser should be low enough to take 
the condensed water by gravity. This brings the level of the heaters and con- 
denser below the exhaust of the engine. Again in surface condensers or heaters 
where the hot water has to be fed to the boiler again by pumps, in order to 
deliver this hot water, the pump should be located below the source of water. 
It is thus evident that the levels of the internal station foundations should be 
carefully arranged to give the best results in both steam and water circulation. 

INTERNAL FOUNDATIONS. 

The foundations required by boilers, engines and generators may be built 
internally, independent of the foundation structure, or the whole building founda- 
tion can be extended from wall to wall, forming a monolith type of foundation. 
This type of station foundation is largely used where the character of the ground 
is not such as to warrant the required pressure per square foot to sustain the 
internal structures. Under each head below will be given the general methods 
used in foundation construction for boilers, engines and generators. 

The location of the boilers is determined by the ease of handling coal 
and ash disposal and the ventilation of the boiler room, and they should be 
so arranged as to require the least lengths and surface of steam pipe from them 
to reach the engines. The foundations for each type of boiler, its dimensions and 
character are usually given by the manufacturer; the dimensions given in this 
Hand Book should be used only iu laying out and locating. It is customary 
for the boiler manufacturer to supply with their bids, plans and settings for the 
boilers estimated on. The weights per square foot should be obtained for the 
boiler to be erected and foundation made amply large, so that the boiler weight 
will not cause a settling. The foundation for boilers usually is not given suffi- 
cient attention: cracks in boiler walls reduce the efficiency of the boiler and 
stack due to air leaks. 



166 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOR*. 



Where the ground is of such character as not to take the boiler load under 
the foundation footings as required, piling can be resorted to, or a concrete 
monolith can be made, extending the length and width of the room occupied by 
the boilers. Structural iron can be buried in this mass but should be located 
away from the heating effects of the fire. As concrete is seriously weakened by 
heat, the boiler wall should be raised at least 12 ins. above the concrete bed and 
constructed of brick; on this the boiler walls are built. Boiler settings are 
taken up in the case of the different boilers described. In this concrete bed can 
be formed the ash pits and air ducts necessary. 

THE BOILER. 

Determination of Capacity, — In railway plants the boiler has to have 
sufficient capacity to make up for all the losses in the eteam and electric trans- 
mission and transforming systems. There are a number of factors that have to 
be considered in fixing the proper boiler capacity. If the contour of the road 
and the schedules are such as to bring intermittent overloads on the plant, as 
may arise when the city is located at a lower level than the surrounding country 
which the railway serves, a periodic overload will be brought upon the station 
depending upon the schedule followed by the cars. Another periodic over- 
load may occur where the schedule is so fixed in a road that a number of 
equipments are climbing grades at the same moment. Under the section on 
" The Equipment " will be found the necessary power that has to be furnished 
for a given weight of equipment, speed, grade, etc. The line transmission losses 
will be determined by the length of feeders to supply the various sections and the 
conductivity of the ground return. Data for this determination will be found 
under "The Line.'" These losses have to be added to the power required for 
moving the cars under maximum load conditions. 

The steam consumption of the engine will vary with the different types and 
loads which will be found under the heading of the " Steam Engine." The 
auxiliary appliances, such as pumps, condensers, blowers, steam heating appli- 
ances and steam pipe condensation also require steam from the boilers, and 
allowance must be made for them. The addition of all these factors, when based 
on the hp-hour, will give the mean steaming capacity of the boilers required. 

In railway work, another condition which often arises, is where specially 
congested traffic occurs such as at ball grounds, parks and other places of 
amusement. This causes temporarily a large demand. In some cities the traffic 
ou a Sunday or holiday doubles the number of equipments on the schedule. 
Then again the character of the business carried on in a certain district will 
impress itself upon the load curves of the station. In industrial towns extra 
traffic will be required to carry the workmen both at 7 a. m. and 6 p. m., and 
under normal conditions the traffic is heavier at these hours than any other period 
of the day. If the cars are heated electrically this is too important a factor to be 
neglected in the boiler installation, as it has amounted to 20 per cent on level 
roads of the total output. Snow plows and sweepers, and snow on the track also 
bring an additional demand on the boiler plant. 

The number of cars operated changes largely the character of the steam 
demand on the boilers. (See Data for Engine Sizes.) The larger the road the 
more nearly the load diagram averages a straight line except at the two peaks at 
7 a. m. and 6 p. m. On roads with moderate grades the demand is averaged when 
the equipments are not so located on the schedule that they are climbing the 
grades simultaneously. Heavy grades accentuate momentary demands. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 167 



The other points that reflect upon the capacity of the boilers required for a: 
given service are the matters of draft, temperature of the feed water and steaming 
quality of the coal to be used. There are physical conditions to be met in the 
steam supply in railway work which are of importance. Among them are the 
sudden variation of load demand on the boiler and its capability of producing a 
large amount of dry steam. In the specifications for the steam delivery it is 
important to know the length of time and extent of this demand. This sudden 
demand will also tend to produce foaming in the boilers which will mechanically 
carry over water to the piping system. 

Outside the boiler the steam can be dried by superheating coils placed in the 
furnace, steam separators in the steam main, and throttling at the engine, so 
that the steam in expanding will take up the superfluous moisture. But these 
are simply auxiliaries to take care of the steam in case of improper boiler actions. 

It is inadvisable to force too small a boiler plant to meet these overloads as it 
will cost more in depreciation than the interest on the cost of a sufficient boiler 
capacity in the first installation. The units should be divided up for the required 
steam output in such a way that under the most adverse conditions, under the 
combination of the heaviest load, bad weather and poor coal and with one unit 
of the boiler plant being laid off for cleaning or repairs, the station can still 
operate without hazardous forcing of the boilers. It is hardly advisable even in 
the smallest plants to consider less than three boiler units, two of which are cap- 
able under normal conditions of maintaining the station load at full potential. 
It is often advisable in boiler specifications, instead of detailing the size of boiler 
units required, to specify what the boiler plant must deliver in pounds of dry 
steam per hour with a moisture not exceeding 1 per cent for the maximum over- 
load that will fall on the station, and allowing the boiler manufacturer to divide 
this steam delivery into the most economical boiler units that he can supply. 
Some of the different types of boilers have certain capacities in which their pro- 
portions are most favorable, whereas by increasing or diminishing the size of that 
type the results are not as satisfactory. 

The fire-tube type of boiler is limited in its dimensions and output by the 
tensile strength of iron employed. Where boiler space is limited a larger output 
can be obtained from the water-tube boilers, and the maximum output for a given 
floor space can be obtained from the vertical type of boiler. 

Having fixed the number of pounds of steam required at the given pressure, by 
referring to the Table of Properties of Steam (pages 19 and 20), which gives the 
factors of evaporation, there can be found the number of pounds to be evapo- 
rated from and at 212 degs. Fahr. By multiplying this figure by 965.7, the number 
of heat units per hour to be delivered by the boiler will be found. Dividing 
the equivalent pounds evaporated per hour by 34J^ gives the boiler horse-power. 

The common heat unit is the British Thermal Unit, known as B. T. U., and 
is that quantity of heat which is required to raise the temperature of one pound of 
cold water one degree Fahrenheit. The boiler horse-power is the evaporation of 
34J^lbs. of waterfrom and at 212degs. Fahr., or its equivalent; this is equal to the 
conversion in the boiler of 33,317 B. T. U. per hour. This is often used for the 
rating of the capacity of a boiler, and has been defined by the boiler test com- 
mittee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Code of 1898, as fol- 
lows: " A boiler rated at any stated capacity should develop that capacity when 
using the best coal ordinarily sold in the market where the boiler is located, 
when fired by an ordinary fireman, without forcing the fires, while exhibiting 
good economy; and further, the boiler should develop at least one-third more 
than the stated capacity when using the same fuel and operated by the same 
fireman, tho full draft being employed, and the fires being crowded; the available 



168 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



draft at the boiler, unless otherwise understood, being not less than J^ in. water 
column." 

General Boiler Proportions.— It is essential in any boiler that sufficient 
provision be made to burn the required amount of coal. This includes the area 
of the grate surface, the proportions of the stack and the size of flues. The de- 
termination of these details involves the quality of coal, kind of furnace, rate of 
combustion and skill of the fireman. 

The pounds of coal which will be required per hour can be obtained by divid- 
ing the equivalent of evaporation from and at 212 degs. Fahr. per hour, in pounds, 
by the weight of water that may be evaporated from and at 212 degs. by 1 lb. of 
coal. The very best grade of Western bituminous coal, low in ash, in a proper 
furnace has evaporated 12 lbs. of water per lb. of coal, the boiler being propor- 
tioned and designed to absorb 75 per cent of all the heat generated in the fur- 
nace. This has fallen as low as 5 lbs., or less, of water per pound of coal with a 
poorgrade of Western bituminous coal and poor furnace conditions for complete 
combustion. In a boiler having insufficient heating surface, the author has 
obtained as low results as 4.1 lbs of water per pound of coal, 20 per cent ash, 
burned under boilers with grates unsuited to the coal a"nd poor draft. 

COAL. 

Steaming Qualities of Coal.— In this connection the values of the differ- 
ent characters of coal that can be obtained for a given plant should be understood 
in order that the grate surface and draft may be arranged to give the maximum 
results in the combustion of this coal. Coal consists of moisture, ash and com- 
bustible. The moisture may be surface moisture, due to exposure, or may be 
inherent moisture, which exists in comparatively dry coal and is only expelled 
on heating to a temperature of 240 degs. Fahr. The surface moisture can be 
evaporated by exposure to dry air or storing in dry places. The quantity of the 
natural moisture should be less than 1 per cent in anthracite but is as high as 14 per 
cent in some Illinois coal. It depreciates the heating value of coal to heat it for 
drying, especially where there is iron pyrites present in the coal ; coal dried by 
artificial methods will again absorb moisture on being exposed for a long time 
to the atmosphere. Where moist coal is used in a boiler, additional capacity 
has to be added to the grate surface in order to develop enough heat to raise this 
moisture to the temperature of the flue gases or uptake, and, as a rule, the 
thermal value of the coal is reduced by this amount. 

Where the furnace is properly adapted for the coal to be burned, the ash in 
the coal comes from two sources; one, the non-combustible portion, consisting 
of the non-combustible minerals formed in the original vegetable growths, the 
other, clays, slates or iron pyrites, which may appear in seams through the coal 
deposits. The ash element in the coal can be greatly reduced in quantity by 
carefully mining and sorting the coal at the breakers. Coals high in ash require 
that the fires be handled more frequently in the furnace, and for a given com- 
bustion of coal larger grate areas should be used. Some of the low grade coals 
require the building of a furnace external to the boilers in order to obtain suffi- 
cient area. 

The value of a coal is determined by its combustible matter, and some stations 
have bought coal on condition that only the combustible matter should be paid 
for, subtracting from the weight of coal that of the unconsumed ash. Coals high 
in sulphur cause trouble in the furnace by the formation of clinkers on the grate 
bars, the sulphur combining with silicate ; and earths in the ash forma fusible slag 
or glass, which interferes with the air supply and diminishes the coal burning 
capacity of the grate surface. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK'. 



169 



Coals are classified according to their general character into anthracite, semi- 
anthracite, semi-bituminous and bituminous. Anthracites are those coals which 
contain less than 7J^ per cent volatile matter in che combustible, being low in 
moisture. The smaller sized coals go under the name of chestnut, pea, rice, 
buckwheat, barley and screenings; and, generally speaking, the smaller the size 
<of coal the greater per cent of ash it contains. The analysis from one mine gives 
the following ratios: Egg screen, 2J^ in.-l% in. 88.49 free carbon, 5.66 ash; stove 
12£ to 1J4 83.67 f. c, 10.17 a.; chestnut, V/± ins.-% in. 80.72 f. c, 11. 07 a.; pea, 
%i iu.-y z in. 79.05 f. c, 14.G6 a.; buckwheat, y % in-14 in. 76.92 f. c, 16.62 a. The 
semi-anthracite and semi-bituminous coals contain 12J^ per cent to 25 percent 
volatile matter in the combustible, usually run low in moisture, ash and sulphur, 
and have high heating value per pound of combustible. These form the best 
steaming coals in the United States, and can be burned at a higher rate on a 
;grate surface without clinker. 

Bituminous coals contain 25 per cent to 50 per cent volatile matter, and vary 
-considerably with the coal-bearing areas in the United States, west of the Alle- 
ghany Mts. In a general way the volatile matter increases as they go westward 
and northward of the Alleghany Mts. The percentage of moisture also increases 
as they go westward ranging from 2 per cent near Pittsburg to 14 per cent in^ 
.some of the Illinois coals. 

From a chemical analysis of coal its heating value may be calculated within 
a limit of error of 2 per cent by the application of DeLong's Formula which 
follows. Here C stands for carbon, H for hydrogen, O for oxygen, and S for 
sulphur in the coal. The heat units per pound = 

.01 T 14,600 C -f 62,000 ( H — 2_) 4. 4000 S 1 

The proximate analysis of coal is also largely used, giving the volatile matter, 
fixed carbon and ash in the coal. The probable heating value can be figured 
within an error of 3 per cent by the use of the following table: 

APPROXIMATE HEATING VALUE OF THE COMBUSTIBLE 
PORTION OF COAI- 



Composition. 


Heating Value per lb. 


Equivalent Water 
Evaporated from and 


Fixed Carbon. 


Volatile Matter. 


Heat Units. 


at 212 degs. per 
lb. of Combustible. 


97 
94 
90 


3 
6 
10 


14,940 
15,210 
15,480 


15.47 
15.76 
16.03 


S7 
80 
72 


13 
20 

28 


15,660 
15.840 
15,660 


16.21 
16.40 
16.21 


68 
63 
60 


32 
37 
40 


15,480 
15,120 
14,760 


16.03 
15 . 65 
15.28 


57 
55 
53 
51 


43 
45 
47 
49 


14,220 
13.860 
13,320 
12,420 


14.73 
14.35 
13.79 

12.86 



i7o 



ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



The practical way that operators of central stations can exactly determine 
this matter for themselves, under their own conditions, is to secure sufficient coal 
for several days' run and burn this coal under average practical conditions, thus 
finding the output in watt.s for the weight of coal or the cost of coal per kw 
output. 

In changing from one coal to another, especially in the case of the different 
sizes of pea coal or from hard to soft coal, the grate or furnace may not be prop- 
erly constructed to utilize to the best advantage the heat units in the new coal. 
The unconsumed carbon in the ash, the temperature of the uptake, the smoke 
issuing from the chimney and the draft should all be taken into consideration 
when testing a new coal in order that the test be carried on under conditions 
giving most accurate results. The fireman is often puzzled at first to get the best 
results from a change in the grade of coal. Unless these points are carefully 
watched in a coal test of this kind, a coal which has capabilities of producing 
greater output for the same cost may not have a fair trial; and this is especially 
so in changing from anthracite to bituminous coal, as the furnace for one is 
unsuitable for the other, these two coals requiring considerable difference in fur- 
nace construction. 

Below is a table giving heating values of some well-known coals in heat units 
per pound of combustible and the equivalent, evaporation from and at 212 degs. 
Fahr. 

HEATING VALUES AND EQUIVALENT EVAPORATION OF 
VARIOUS KINDS OF COAL. 



Anthracite, Pa 

Semi-anthracite, Loyalsock and Bernice, Pa. 
Semi-bituminous, Broad Top, Clearfield, Cam 

bria, and Somerset, Pa.; Cumberland, Md. 

New River, W, Va., and Pocahontas, Va 

Close average 

Bituminous, Connellsville, Pa , 

Youghiogheny, Pa 

Jefferson, Pa 

Pittsburg, Pa 

Brier Hill, Ohio 

Upper Freeport Seam, Pa. & O 

Vanderpool, Ky , 

Middle Kittanning Seam, Pa 

Thacker, W. Va 

Jackson Co., O 

Hocking Valley, O 

Big Muddy, 111 

Streator, 111 

Mt. Ollive, 111 

Lignites, la., "Wyoming, Utah, Oregon 



Heat Units 


evaporation 


per pound 


from and at 


combustible. 


212°. 


14,000 


15.42 


15,500 


10.05 


15,700 min. 




15,800 mas. 




15,750 aver. 


16.30 


15,300 


15.84 


15,000 


15.53 


15,200 




14,800 


15.32 


14,300 




14,800 


15.32 


14,400 




14,500 


15.01 


15,200 


15.74 


14,600 


15.11 


14,200 


14.70 


14,700 


15,22 


14,300 


14.80 


13,800 


14.29 


11,000 


11.39 


to 


to 


12,900 


13.35 



With a boiler properly designed in all its proportions it is found that the 
maximum economy is obtained when the boiler is driven at an equivalent rate 
of evaporation of three pounds of water from and at 212 degs. per hour per 
square foot of heating surface. When the evaporation falls below this rate, the 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



171 



radiation and other boiler losses rapidly grow in the percentage of the output as 
they are in a large degree constants. 

As a rule, the economy falls with a rapid rate of driving the boiler, yet among 
the different boiiers, changes in the economy for the different rates of evapora- 
tion even with the same kind of coal, will not follow the same curve between the 
water evaporated per square foot of heating surface and the pounds of water 
evaporated per pound of coal. It may, however, be expected that the evaporation 
per pound of coal will be approximately 15 per cent less when the evaporation is 
forced up to 6 lbs. of water per square foot of heating surface than when it is at 
the average rate of maximum economy of 3 lbs. per square foot of heating surface. 
But the above general rule must be used with considerable allowance. A Babcock 
& Wilcox boiler in the power station of the Hestonville, Mantua & Fairmount 
Park R. R., Philadelphia, Pa., shows an evaporation of 6.34 lbs. of water per 
square foot of heating surface, and the water evaporated per pound of combusti- 
ble was 10.97; on the Staten Island Electric R. R. Co.. New Brighton, Staten 
Island, the same type of boiler had an evaporation of 2.G6 lbs. of water per square 
foot of heating surface with 11.78 lbs. of water per pound of combustible. The 
ratio of heating surface to grate surface in the first case was 46.87, and in the 
second, 60.28. 

The grate surface of a boiler can be roughly assumed to be % sq. ft. per hp- 
hour. The table given herewith of several types of boilers shows the grate sur- 
face nsed by different makers per hp-hour; it will be noticed that the larger the 
boiler unit, the smaller the surface required to produce a hp-hour. The heating 
surface figure is given as 11.5 sq. ft. per hp-hour. 



GRATE SURFACE PER HORSE-POWER HOUR. 





Type op Boilek. 




Hobsb-power of Boiler. 


HEINE. 


BABCOCK. & 

WILCOX. 


CLONBROCK. 




Grate Surface 
per hp-hour. 


Grate Surface 
per hp-hour. 


Grate Surface 
per hp-hour. 


150 
200 
250 
800 

860 

400 

600 

1000 


.1S6 

.185 
.176 
.182 

.164 


.244 
.222 
.204 


.32 
.25 
.24 
.213 

.'1925' 

.183 

.171 



The ratio ol the healing surface to the grate surface varies largely in boilers 
of different types. Reports of tests on some thirty Babcock & Wilcox boilers show 
a variation in ratio of from 62 to 37: 1 of the heating surface to the grate surface. 
The Stirling boiler shows a variation of 76:1 on a 600 hp. boiler, 44.7: 1 on a 
250 hp. boiler, and 37: 1 on a 125 hp. boiler; the Climax varies from 51 to 33:1 
ratio. 

For further data and methods of conducting boiler tests see pages 77 to 85. 



172 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



TYPES OF BOILERS. 

The Fire-Tube Boiler.-This boiler is manufactured largely throughout 
the country by boiler manufacturers, the shell ranging from 72 ins. to 54 ins. in 
diameter. The table of dimensions below gives the practical, standard pro- 
portions for one of these boilers. 

Following is a report of a test of horizontal return tubular boiler for New 
Bedford & Fair Haven Traction Co., New Bedford Mass. Test made by H L 
Butler, M. E., of Vm. Sellers & Co., Philadelphia. 

Dimensions of Boilers on which test was made. 

Diameter of Shell ^ . 

Length of Shell and Tubes V. '.'.'.'.'. iVf /«««!' 

Number of Tubes lia • LVT &„ 

Area of Heating Surface '.'.' 1877 «« «« ?V 

" " Grate Surface 1877 -$ 8 .MJ* 



w through Tubes k« « " 

Ratio of Heating Surface to Grate Suiface. ..'.'.' «w> tn t 

" 41 Grate Surface to Tnbe Area raYL\ 

Stack 48ins. Dia. 90 f t. high above Grates l 

Boilers set in Pairs. One Boiler tested, the other banked. 



Report of Test. 

Manner of Start and Stop ■&««*,,•■ 

Kind of Run V Vw^™ DR 

Duration ....:.... Continuous 

Quality of Coal used, " Pocahontas," bituminous * run of mine nourb 

Coal Consumed (11 hours) AKKa ,, 

(per hoof) ::::;: : : :;;;;:.v.v:::.v.v '. m% K" 

per square foot of Grate per hour " " 11 5 jba 

II Ashes not considered, non-combustible reduced" to) 
Percentage of Ash < powder, weighing not more than 3 lbs. for whole run t 00 
( Everything practically consumed. ,'f 

Percentage of Moisture in Coal « « c ' „ „ . 

Combustible used in (11 hrs) & nVft 

m " '• (per hour) *.'.".'.'.'. S :<w i « 

Water Evaporated (11 hours) tooSr « <* 

;; " (per hour) ...::::::::::::: ffi « 

" per square foot of Heating Surface . . 252 " 

per pound Commercial Coal -m' 46 «. 

" " Combustible '.'.'.'.'."" 12*28 " 

t, •, ' -d , " '' " from and at 212 degs .'.'.' '.'.'.'.'.' 13 23 " 

Boiler Pressure (average gage) -,'™ , t 

Temperature of Water before entering Heater'.'.'.'.'.'. qs Vw a 

" Feed Water before entering Boiler. . .'.'.'.'. 180 93 " 

" " Escaping Gases, Maximum 402 " 

" " " Minimum " oon " 

Percentage of Moisture in Steam '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.' '1.3 per cent 

The heating surface in different types of this boiler, varies somewhat with 
the setting; but the test by H. L. Butler on this type of boiler, manufactured 
by the Harrisburg Foundry & Machine works, with the Weitmeyer furnace which 
consists essentially of very carefully proportioned parts of grate, flue areas and 
drafts, gives the results shown in the table above. 

The value of the special setting in this boiler is in carrying the draft from the 
back of the boiler setting, passing under an apron in the combustion chamber 
and under the bridge wall, to the coal, in this way raising the initial temperature 
of the draft and improving the conditions of combustion. Fig. 168 shows the 
setting for the horizontal tubular boiler as designed by the Hartford Steam In- 
spection & Insurance Company, 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



173 




FlO. 168— HARTFORD STEAM INSPECTION AND INSURANCE COMPANY'S SETTDTe. 



174 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK, 



The table below can be used for installing this type of boiler, which may be 
need in the smaller stations. 

STANDARD HORIZONTAL TUBULAR STEAM BOILER. 



TABLE OF SIZES, PROPORTIONS, ETC. 



Diameter 


Len £th 


Gage 


Gage 


Number 


Diameter 


Length 


Sq.Ft. 
of Heat- 
ing Sur- 
face. 


Nominal 


of 


of 


of 


of 


of 


of 


of 


Horse 


Shell. 


Shell. 


Shell. 


Head. 


Tubes. 


Tubes. 


Tubes. 


Power. 


Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 




Ins. 


Ft. 






r ,2 


19 4 


3-8 


1-2 


80 


4 


18 


1,500 


100 


66 


18 4 


3-8 


1-2 


74 


M 


17 


1,350 


90 


60 


18 3 


3-8 


1-2 


78 


3 


17 


1,200 


80 


60 


17 3 


3-8 


1-2 


76 


3 


16 


1,125 


75 


60 


16 3 


38 


1-2 


77 


8 


15 


1,050 


70 


60 


16 3 


3-8 


1-2 


70 


3 


15 


975 


65 


60 


16 3 


3-8 


1-2 


64 


3 


15 


900* 


60 


51 


17 3 


5-16 


7-16 


60 


3 


16 


900 


50 


54 


17 3 


5-16 


7-16 


56 


3 


16 


825 


55 


54 


16 3 


5-16 


7-16 


52 


3 


15 


750 


50 


54 


16 3 


5-16 


7-16 


46 


3 


15 


675 


45 


54 


16 3 


5-1G 


7-16 


40 


3 


15 


*00 


40 


4S 


17 2 


5-16 


7-16 


50 


3 


16 


750 


50 


48 


16 2 


5-16 


7-16 


48 


3 


15 


675 


45 



These drawings sbow the projecting front setting, which is preferable to 
the flush front, for 'it co3ts less for repairs and no more to install. In building 
a double wall to the boiler setting, bricks from the outer wall should project and 
just touch the inner one; this allows the inner wall to expand without fracturing 
the retaining wall. The outer wall should be 12 ins., both sides and rear, in 
every case, and the distance between the boiler and inner rear wall, 24 ins. The 
boiler walla arc tied together by rods passing from wall to wall across the setting 
and secured to the top and bottom of ribbed or cast-iron plates as shown in the 
engraving. In no case should, lime mortar be used in any brick work or in 
masonry that touches the iron, for the heat will produce a chemical action be- 
tween the lime andiron which will severely corrode the latter and weaken it. 

The boiler is ordinarily mounted upon the settting on iron plates set on the 
side walls resting on cast-iron brackets or lugs riveted to the sides of the boiler; 
the back lug does not rest directly on the plate but on iron rolls which are 
inserted between the back lug and plate. Where there are more than four lugs 
all lugs should have rollers except the front lugs which rest directly on the iron 
plate. The rear end of the boiler is ordinarily set 1 in. lower than the front 
end. 

In order to reduce the high tensile strength and large volume of water con- 
tained in the horizontal tubular boilers, a number of forms have been developed 
during the past twenty years. These boilers are designed to increase the coal 
steaming capacity, the circulation of water and to confine the deposit from the 
water, both mineral and suspended impurities, to locations where they will not 
i»e acted ?a by intense heat and readily blown out when cleaning or repairing. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOR'. 



175 



MEASUREMENTS FOR THE SETTING OF HORIZONTAL 
TUBULAR BOILERS. 











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10 


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56 


116 


28 


24 


52 


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62 


62 


64 


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70 


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24 


58 


118 


28 


24 


52 


10 


3 


64 


64 


66 


16 


72 


10 


24 


60 


120 


28 


24 


52 


10 


3 


66 


66 


68 


16 


74 


10 


24 


G2 


122 


28 


24 


52 


10 


3 


68 


63 


70 


13 


7(5 


10 


24 


C4 


124 


2S 


24 


52 


10 


3 


70 


70 


W 


16 


78 


10 


24 


66 


126 


28 


24 


52 


10 


3 


72 


72 



"Water-Tube Boilers: General Construction. — The points that are 
gained by this form of construction are as. follows : a mud drum to receive all 
impurities, a large water surface for the disengagement of the steam from the 
water, and thorough circulation of the water throughout the boiler, so as to 
maintain all parts at one temperature as nearly as possible. 

For lessening danger the water surface is divided into sections so arranged 
that should any one part give out no general explosion would occur. The con- 
struction is so arranged tbat it will bring as few joints as possible exposed to 
the direct action of the fire, reducing the liability of internal strains thrown on 
the boiler by unequal expansion. The heating surfaces are located as nearly as 
possible at right angles to thp currents of heated gases so as to break up the 
currents and extract as much available heat from them as possible. 

The designers of this type of boiler also leave ample openings so the watei 
tribes can be cleaned both externally and internally. 

The Babcock & Wilcox Boiler.— This type of boiler is shown in Fig. 169. 

The boiler is composed of sections made up of 4-in. wrought iron tubes ex- 
panded into headers, and connected into a steam and water drum by 4-in. tubes 
expanded into upper ends of headers, and into wrought-steel cross boxes on 
under side of drum. 

The mud drum, placed at the lowest point of the structure, is connected by 
4-in. nipples to the bottom ends of the rear headers. The tube and nipple con- 
nections between all parts are made by expanded joints. 



x 7 6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOORT. 



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StU Si SI ©»o*ot 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



177 



The boiler is suspended at front and rear from wrought iron supporting 
frames, entirely independent of the setting, to allow for contraction and expan- 
sion without straining either the boiler or the brickwork, and to allow of repairs 
to, or renewal of, the latter without disturbing the boiler or its connections. 

Steam is taken from a dry pipe perforated on top side and connected into a 
flanged steam opening on top of drum. When two or more steam drums are used 
on one boiler, the drums are connected by a balance pipe upon which the safety 
valves are mounted, and a cross pipe for main steam valve. 







Fig. 169— babcock & wilcox boiler. 



The hand holes are closed on the outside by a cap which is held in position 
by a forged steel clamp closing the hand-hole opening from the inside and 
secured by a bolt. 

The mud drum is 12 ins, in diameter and of proper length to be connected 
with all of the sections in the boiler by means of nipples expanded into seats. It 
is tapped for blow-off connections on its rear side, and furnished with hand-holes 
for cleaning. 

The space occupied by a boiler of 250 hp. is shown in Fig. 169, and the sizes 
of a boiler of the W. I. F. type from 106 hp. to 24S hp. are given in the table 
on page 176. These dimensions should only be used for approximately locating 
these boilers; a space should be left of at least 19 ft. in front of the boiler so the 
tubes can be withdrawn in case of repairs. 

The table on the following page gives a test on two Babcock & Wilcox boilers 
taken from their catalogue on railway plants. 



178 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOR'. 



OWNER OP PLANT WHERE TEST 
WAS MADE. 



Engineer conducting test , , . 

Kind of coal 

Date 

Duration, hours 

Coal burned per sq. ft. of grate per hour 

Water evaporated per sq. ft. of heating surface 

per hour from and at 212 degs 

Water evaporated from and at 212 degs. per 

pound of coal 

Water evaporated per pound combustible from 

and at 212 degs 

Percent of refuse in coal , 

Draft 

Temperature of flne gases 

Per cent of moisture in steam 

Ratio of heating surface to grate 



Hestonville, 
Mantua & Fair- 
mount Pk.R.R. 
Phila., Pa. 



J. J. DeKinder 

Henrietta, Pa. 

Mar. 29, 1895 

9.50 

28.92 

6.34 

10.28 

10.97 
6.32 

.87 
750° 

.12 
46.87 



Staten Island 
Elec. R. R. Co. 

New Brighton, 
Staten Island. 



W. N\ Sheaff 

Victor, Pa. 

May, 28, 1897 

10 

15.17 

2.66 

10.70 

11.78 
9.13 
.48 
485° 

"66!28* 




FlG. 170— STIRLING WATER TUBE BOILER. 



ELECTRIC KAIL WA Y It AND BOOK. 



170 



Stirling Water-Tube Safety Boiler,— The boiler consists, briefly, of three 
upper or steam drums, and one lower or mud drum, all connected together by 
means of tubes, which are bent slightly, so as to allow them to enter the drums 
normal to their surfaces. See Fig. 170. All the upper or steam drums are connected 
by steam circulating tubes, but the front and middle drums only are connected 
by water circulating tubes. The tubes used are 3J4 i n £. in diameter, and are 
made of lap-welded, mild steel. 

The circulation of the hot water is between the two forward drums and the 
lower mud drum, the feed water being introduced into the third drum. See Fig. 



Feed 



Delivery 




1 Blow off 

Fig. 171 — circulation in Stirling boiler. 



171 for path of circulating water. The equalizer pipes connecting the drums 
introduce steam into the middle drum, which is used as a heater for the numerous 
pipe sections. In order to produce dry steam the end of the steam pipe terminates 
in a T inside the middle drum to which are secured pipes, near the top of the 
drum and paralleling it, in which are cut slots in order to throttle the steam, so 



TABLE OF STIRLING BOILERS. 



Type. 


Height. 


Depth. 


. Width for 
Each HP. 


Class A 


18' - 9" 


16' - 0" 


.056' 


B 


12' - 0" 


14' - 0" 


.087' 


E 


15' - 2" 


16' - 3" 


.065' 


F 


20 - 7" 


1C - 9" 


.043' 


G 


20' - 51/" 


19' - 7" 


.056' 


H 


18' - 3" 


17' - 6" 


.051' 


I 


21' - 3" 


19' - 6" 


.056' 


K 


21' -10" 


17' - 7" 


.04 ' 


L 


22' - 4" 


13' - 3" 


.036' 



iSo 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY BAND BOOK'. 



that dry steam will be produced for sudden steam demands; this is especially 
used for railway work where the steam demands will be frequently of this nature. 
In setting this boiler, it is sustained independently of the brickwork surrounding 
it. The three upper steam drums are supported by wrought iron beams resting 
on wrought iron columns, while the mud drum is suspended and left free to 
allow for contraction and expansion. The dimensions of the Stirling boiler are 
given in the table on page 179. 

The Stirling boiler is built to meet the varying requirements of height, width 
and depth and the different types lettered as in the table. Some tests made on 
these boilers are given below. 

TESTS ON STIRLING BOILERS. 



Location. 


Lehigh Valley 

Trac. Co., 
Allentown, Pa. 


Union Ry. 
Co., Provi- 
dence, R. I. 


Lindell Ry. 

Co., 
St. Louis, Mo. 


Engineer 


P. Hansen 
600 
10 
191.8 

8.47 

11.27 

9.91 
.3 

':m" 
"'i.'s*' 

Buckwheat 


Thos. Evans 
250 
9.7 
66 

10.57 

11.61 

14.8 
.75 
1.75 
308 
6 

Cumberland 


W. H. Bryan 




300 




9 


Temperature of feed 


47 


Evaporation per lb. coal from 
and at 212 desrs 


7.82 


Evaporation per lb. combustible 

from and at 212 degrees 

Coal consumed per square foot 


8.92 


Draft 


.77 


Moisture in steam per cent 


.14 
448 


Per cent developed above rating. 


15 


Kind of fuel 


Illinois Lump 





The Morrin Climax "Water-Tube Boiler is manufactured by the Clon- 
brock Steam Boiler Company. Fig. 172 shows the general construction. It 
consists of a vertical cylinder and loop-like tubes, which form the principal 
heating surface, extending the entire length of the boiler. The main cylinder 
shell, A, is constructed similarly to any cylindrical boiler shell, and is made 
perfectly steam tight as well as strong enough to resist internal pressure. It 
is provided on top with, a manhole plate. The extremities of the loop-like 
tubes extend and are expanded into the cylinder, A, forming a steam tight com 
nection; these tubes re-enter the cylinder about IS ins. above their initial 
entrance. As the boiler increases in size, the water and steam spaces increase 
in the same ratio. 

In some boilers the feed water has been introduced through a spiral pipe 
located above the loop tubes, and used as a water heater for the boiler. The fire 
box is annular in form, and enclosed in a casing of iron, which is bolted together 
in segmental sections and lined with fire brick. Three or more fire doors are 
provided for the boiler depending upon its size. According to the data given by 
the Clonbrock Steam Boiler Company, the heating surface of its boilers 
evaporates 6 lbs. of water per square foot of beating surface per hour with a rate 
of combustion oi 12^ lbs. of coal per square foot of grate per hour. The table 
herewith gives the sizes of these boilers and the spaces they occupy. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y JLAND BOOK. 



181 




Fig. 172 — climax water tube boiler. 



182 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



DIMENSIONS OF CIIMAX BOILERS. 



HP. 


Diameter. 


Height. 


Grate Surface. 


Heating Surface. 


100 


8' 


14' 2" 


34 eq. ft. 


1025 sq. ft. 


125 


9' 


17' 6" 


42 " 


1280 " 


150 


10' 


18' 


48 " 


1675 " 


200 


10' 3" 


19' 10" 


50 " 


2000 " 


250 


10' 11" 


21' 6" 


60 " 


2500 " 


300 


11' 2" 


23' 1" 


64 " 


3000 •« 


350 


11' 6" 


27' 2" 


69 " 


3475 •« 


400 


12' 


27' 6" 


77 " 


3650 " 


500 


12' S" 


31' AVi" 


89 " 


4550 " 


600 


14' 


33' 6" 


110 " 


5600 " 


800 


15' 


36' 10" 


128 " 


7000 « 


1000 


17' 


42' 8' 


171 " 


9200 » 



Abendroth & Root Boilers. — The construction of this boiler provides for 
the circulation of the heated gases, not only among the tubes, but around the 
overhead steam and water drums; the heated gases also circulate around the 
cross steam drum, maintaining the temperature of the steam. The general con. 
struction of this boiler is shown in Fig. 173. 

The setting is peculiar to this boiler. The entire weight on the front ends of 
the tubes and drums rests on a swung beam ; the weight is supported from under? 
ncath and the beam is supported by rods attached to the top of the front setting 
of the boiler. The tubes forming thelhcating surface are connected together at 
the ends by a IT-pipe, which joins theends of two adjacent tubes. Each vertical 
set of tubes starts from a header, and each pair of vertical tubes enters a 
separate steam header on top and these various steam headers enter one equal- 
izing header, as shown in Fig. 173. 

General Information.— Boiler setting plans, specially designed for the 
boiler to be installed, are usually furnished by the boiler manufacturer; and 
these should be adhered to closely, as any deviation from this design may 
seriously interfere with the guaranteed efficiency. 

When the boiler has been completely set, and the lime mortar, and fire-clay 
luting has hardened so that a knife blade will not penetrate it more than ^ in., 
and not sooner than 12 hours after the masons have finished, the boiler should be 
slowly filled with cold water up to the high water gage; then a slow fire of shav- 
ings and wood may be built on the grate surface, covering not more than one- 
quarter of the grate surface. This 6hould be kept going until the boiler and 
setting are warmed up; the safety valve or header, should be wide open during 
this firing. "When steam issues from the boiler, the openings may be closed and 
the steam pressure gradually raised. A great many boiler settings have been 
ruined by heating them up to quickly; 48 hours should be required for a 200-hp. 
water-tube boiler to reach a temperature of 212 degs. Fahr. 

Pyrometers for measuring flue temperatures also aid in the proper handling 
of the dampers and draft, but this temperature of uptake cannot be taken as a 
criterion of firing economy; for with a slow fire, the flue temperature and effi- 
ciency may both fall together. Where steam blowers are used, these may reduce 
the temperature of the uptake, but, due to the additional heat required to raise 
the temperature of the draft moisture, the temperature may be lower in the up- 
take, while the heat units lost passing up the chimney may be increased. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAJSTD BOOK. 



183 



Grates are made stationary, consisting usually of V-shaped cast-iron bars; 
the air space between the bars is generally about 25 per cent of the grate 
area, but this is lcos with screenings and coal smaller than pea. The bars 
are usually placed parallel to the furnace sides so the slicing bar and poker can 
readily clean between the bars. These grate bars are supported on transverse 
beams, which are secured to the sides of the furnace. There are a number of 
forms of shaking and dumping grates to reduce the time required to clean the 
fires, and assist in disengaging the ash from the burning fire bed. Their con- 
struction embodies a pivoted section of a grate bar, movable by a handle project- 




FlG. 173— ABENDROTH & BOOT BOILER. 

ing from the boiler; in some forms they are arranged so that by further pulling 
out this handle, the grates are tipped sufficiently to dump the fire. The bc3t 
height for grates is 30 ins. above the floor level. Where hot air is used for draft 
or in down draft furnaces, these grate bars are hollow and water kept circulating 
through them to keep them from yielding or melting under the increased 
temperature. 



MECHANICAL STOKERS AND TRAVELING GRATES. 

Here the grate bars are not made continuous and solid, but are carried for- 
ward by proper mechanism away from the fire door, where coal is automatically 
fed with a variable depth on the traveling grate from a hopper. The speed of 
driving this grate is under control ; the coal should be completely burned before 



io4 



ELECTRIC RAILWA V HAND BOOK. 



it reaches the end of its journey through the furnace. Such a grate is practically 
self cleaning with a coal that does not slag badly. Mechanical stokers do not 
handle well either a very hard variety of anthracite nor a bituminous which cakes 
and melts badly; but with the exception of these two classes of coal, the 
mechanical stoker has proven a coal and labor saving device in a number of 
railway plants. In some of the types of mechanical stokers, the rate of feeding 
the coal is automatically controlled by the steam pressure of the boiler. 

Record of Six Tests to Determine the Comparative Economy of the 
Honey Mechanical Stoker and Hand Firing on Hartford Return- 
Tubular Boilers, 60 ins. x 20 ft. Burning Cumberland Coal with 
Natural Draft. Rating of Boiler at 12.5 Square Feet. 105 HP. 

Note. — The same man fired on all six tests. First three tests, hand fired ; last 
three tests, stoker. 

HAND TIRED. 





Temp, of 
Feed 
Water 
Degs. 
Fahr. 




Total 


Total 


Evapora- 


Evapora- 


HP. de- 


Duration 




Coal plus 


Water 


tion per 
lb. dry 


tion per 


veloped 


of 




Wood at 


Evapor- 


lb. dry 


above 


Test. 


Lbs. 


40%. 


ated. 


Coal, 


Coal from 


rating of 


Hours. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


actual. 


& at 212°. 


Boiler. 










Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Per Cent 


123.5 


145.7 


107.5 


134,459 


1,256,249 


9.34 


10.36 


5.84 


132.0 


143.2 


104.6 


135,338 


1,270,758 


9.39 


10.44 


13.52 


64.25 


152.2 


66.1 


31,214 


310,966 


10.02 


11.00 


68.00 



MECHANICAL, STOKER FIRED. 



65.5 


145.4 


63.1 


28,121 


288,781 


10.81 


11.89 


54.65 


64.5 


146.0 


68.0 


29,794 


303,887 


11.06 


12.25 


66.68 


65.5 


145.2 


65.2 


29,000 


320,034 


11.35 


12.54 


84.26 



The American Stoker Company's mechanical stoker burns effectively both 
bituminous and anthracite coal. The mechanism is simple and easily operated 
and under the combustion principles used in its construction, it attains a more 
economical use of coal than by hand firing. The gases leaving the chimney are 
totally consumed, leaving no free carbon. 

In tests made in Cleveland, Ohio, with mechanical furnaces, the poorest of 
the cheap coals consumed was 4.93 lbs. per hp-hour. The economy of the cheap 
coai mechanically fired over that for the high priced coal, hand fired, shows an 
earning power of capital investment equal to 30 per cent. Data of tests on slack 
coal hand fired, and like coal mechanically fired show the following results : the 
economy favored mechanical firing 20 per cent plus the factors of lessened labor, 
cost in fire room and smokelessness. 



MANAGEMENT OF BOILERS. 

Firing.— In firing hard coal the grate bars should be such as to allow the 
least possible amount of unburnt carbon or coals to drop through before they 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK'. 1S5 



are fully consumed, and yet sufficient draft area to consume the coal. The most 
economical firing, where buckwheat, pea or rice coal is handled and where the 
coal is not very high in ash, is to fire uniformly with a bed of coals not deeper 
than 3 ins. 

The skill of the fireman is shown by his ability to maintain the whole fire 
surface at a uniform color or temperature; dark spots or thin fire in spots indi- 
cate that he has not the control of the shovel necessary to distribute the coal 
exactly where required for uniform combustion. A poor firema'n will show bad 
corners where ash is allowed to accumulate, in this way reducing the available 
combustion surface of the furnace. Dark spots indicate poor combustion or too 
thick a fire, and open spots will decrease the draft possible to maintain. It 
requires less skill to fire a heavy fire ranging from 5 ins. to 6 ins. thick, but the 
draft will be throttled and not sufficient air can pass through the fire bed to obtain 
total combustion, and the gases will pass off as CO instead of C0 2 , not com- 
bining with the last molecule of oxygen which increases the temperature of 
combustion considerably. 

It requires less labor and attention to maintain thick fires than thin ones, 
but the coal cost is larger for the same amount of water evaporated under the 
same boiler. It also should be borne in mind that a high draft gage does not 
indicate the best firing conditions, for the more the fire on the furnace throttles 
the draft, the higher it is possible for the draft gage to show, but the volume of 
air passing may not be sufficient for complete combustion. A thin fire will re-- 
quire less slicing than a thick one, and there will be found less unconsumed 
carbon in the ash as a rule. Cleaning the fires ought not to be done oftener than 
necessary to maintain the best firing conditions, and the fire should be jockied 
into condition to meet increasing loads on the station, and generally cleaned 
after heavy loads. 

From experience in testing and inspection of power stations it i*s found that 
there is no point in the station plant where more money can be saved than in 
the proper burning of coal. A poor fireman can waste many times his salary per 
year by lack of intelligent attention to handling the fire, Merit systems have 
been established in some plants, which rebate to the fireman a percentage of his 
savings in coal costs. 

Soft coal firing is generally done by first firing near the door on the dead- 
plate and allowing the heat of the fire to gradually coke the coal, expelling 
from it the volatile part of the combustible. This is coked here and gradually 
shoved back to make room for new coal, and when it reaches the end of the grate 
it is almost entirely consumed. Lumps larger than 4 ins. in diameter should 
be broken up in order that this coking process may be properly carried on. 

Soft coal fires reach their maximum temperature at a more distant point in 
the draft than hard coal fires. It is necessary for the surfaces, over which the 
gases pass to be of higher temperature, in order that the unconsumed carbon 
may be raised to sufficient temperature to combine with the oxygen and not pass 
out in the form of smoke. 

The furnace arrangements should be such that the high temperature gases will 
not impinge against portions of the boiler un suited to withstand them. The 
smoke passing out of the chimney from a soft coal fire is a criterion of the effi- 
ciency of its combustion. 

There are a number of arrangements for the fireman, by which he can determine 
the completeness of combustion. One is the Gas Composimeter, which indicates 
the percentage of CO carried off with the gases in the flue, and registers automat- 



iS6 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



ically the amount of this gas present. The draft and dampers can be regulated 
to keep the carbon dioxide as high as possible, and aids in the correct firing of 
the boiler. 

Care of Boilers. — The following rules are compiled from those issued by 
various Boiler Insurance Companies in this country and Europe. 

1. Safety Valves. Great care should be exercised to see that these valves 
are ample in size and in working order. Overloading or neglect frequently leads 
to the most disastrous results. Safety valves should be tried at least once every 
day to see that they will act freely. 

2. Pressure Gage. The steam gage should stand at zero when the pressure 
is off, and it should show the same pressure as the safety valve when that is 
blowing off. If not, then one is wrong and the gage should be tested by one 
known to be correct. 

3. Water Level. The first duty of an engineer before starting, or at the 
beginning of his watch, is to see that the water is at the proper height. Do not 
rely on glass gages, floats or water alarms, but try the gage cocks. If they do 
not agree with water gage, learn the cause and correct it. 

4. Gage Cocks and Water Gages must be kept clean. Water gages should be 
blown out frequently, and the glasses and passages to gage kept clean. The 
Manchester (Eng.) Boiler Association attributes more accidents to inattention to 
water gages, than to all other causes put together. 

5. Feed Pump or Injector. These should be kept in perfect order, and be of 
ample size, No make of pump can be expected to be continually reliable without 
regular and careful attention. It is always safe to have two means of feeding a 
boiler. Check valves and self-acting feed valves should be frequently examined 
and cleaned." Satisfy yourself frequently that the valve is acting when the feed 
pump is at work. 

6. Low Water. In case of low water, immediately cover the fire with ashes 
(wet if possible) or any earth that may be at hand. If nothing else is handy use 
fresh coal. Draw fire as soon as it can be done without increasing the heat. 
Neither turn on the feed, start or stop engine, nor lift safety valves until fires 
are out, and the boiler cooled down. 

7. Blisters and Cracks. These are liable to occur in the best plate iron. When 
the first indication appears there must be no delay in having it carefully exam- 
ined and properly cared for. 

8. Fusible Plugs, when used, must be examined when the boiler is cleaned 
and carefully scraped clean on both the water and fire sides, or they are liable 
not to act. 

9. Firing. Eire evenly and regularly, a little at a time. Thin firing must be 
nsed where the draft is poor. Take care to keep grates evenly covered, and allow 
no air-holes in the fire. Do not clean fires oftener than necessary. With 
bituminous coal, a " coking fire," i. e., firing in front and shoving back when 
coked, gives best results, if properly managed. 

10. Cleaning. All heating surfaces must be kept clean outside and in, or 
there will be a serious waste of fuel. The frequency of cleaning will depend on 
the nature of fuel and water. As a rule, never allow over T Vnu scale or soot 
to collect on surfaces between cleanings. Hand-holes should be frequently re- 
moved and surfaces examined, particularly in the case of a new boiler, until 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 187 



proper intervals have been established by experience. In water tube boilers, 
for inspection remove the hand-holes at both ends of the tubes, and by holding 
a lamp at one end and looking in at the other, the condition of the surface can 
be fully seen. Push the scraper through the tube to remove sediment, or if the 
scale is hard, use the clipping scraper made for that purpose. Water through 
a hose will facilitate the operation. In replacing hand-hole caps, clean the 
surfaces without scratching or bruising, smear with oil and screw up tight. 
Examine mud-drum and remove the sediment. 

The exterior of tubes can be kept clean by the use of blowing pipe and 
hose through openings provided for that purpose. In using smoky fuel, it is 
best to occasionally brush the surfaces when steam is off. 

11. Hot Feed-Water. Cold water should never be fed into any boiler when 
it can be avoided, but when necessary it should be caused to mix with the 
heated water before coming in contact with any portion of the boiler. 

12. Foaming. When foaming occurs in a boiler, checking the outflow of 
steam will usually stop it. If caused by dirty water, blowing down and pump- 
ing up will generally cure it. In cases of violent foaming check the draft and 
fires. 

Water tube boilers should never foam with good water, unless the water is 
carried too high. If found to prime, lower the water line. 

13. Air Leaks. Be sure that all openings for admission of air to boiler 
or flues, except through the fire, are carefully stopped. This is frequently an 
unsuspected cause of serious waste. 

14. Blowing- Off. If feed water is muddy, or salt, blow off a portion fre- 
quently, according to the condition of the water. Empty the boiler every week 
or two and fill up afresh. When surface blow-cocks are used, they should be 
often opened for a few minutes at a time. Make sure no water is escaping from 
the blow-off cock when it is supposed to be closed. Blow-off cocks and check 
valves should be examined every time the boiler is cleaned. 

13. Leaks. When leaks are discovered they should be repaired as soon as 
possible. 

16. Emptying. Never empty the boiler while the brickwork is hot. 

17. Filling Up. Never pump cold water into a hot boiler. Many times leaks 
and, in shell boilers, serious weakness, and sometimes explosions are the result 
of such an action. 

18. Dampness. Take care that no water comes in contact with the exterior 
of the boiler from any cause, as it tends to corrode and weaken the boiler. 
Beware of all dampness in seatings or coverings. 

19. Galvanic Action. Examine frequently parts in contact with copper or 
brass, where water is present, for signs of corrosion. If water is salt or acid, 
some metallic zinc placed, in the boiler will usually prevent corrosion, but it will 
need attention and renewal from time to time. 

20. Rapid Firing. In boilers with thick plates or seams exposed to the fire, 
steam should be raised slowly, and rapid or intense firing avoided. With thin 
water tubes, however, and adequate water circulation, no damage can come from 
that cause. 

21. Standing Unused. If a boiler is not required for some time, empty and 
dry it thoroughly. If this is impracticable, fill it quite full of water, and put in 



i S3 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



a quantity of common washing soda. External parts exposed to dampness 
should receive a coating of linseed oil. 

22. General Cleanliness. All things about the boiler room should be kept 
clean and in good order. Negligence tends to waste and decay. 

BOILER WATER. 

The character of water obtainable for steam making is too important a matter 
ai station location and operation to be overlooked, both in regard to the cor- 
rosion of the boiler and to the scale forming a barrier between the heating surface 
and the water, reducing the efficiency of the boiler. 

The following waters are available for boiler uses : 

Rain water collected in the open country is usually nearly pure, but in the 
city it is objectionable because containing many impurities. 

Surface water is usually well adapted for boiler use except that it is usually 
turbid. This turbidity can be removed by settling tanks or niters. It contains 
a small amount of dissolved solids and is low in carbonic acid. 

Subsoil water obtained from springs and wells is clear, usually low in 
mechanically suspended matter but high in solids in solution. In periods of 
drought the soluble matter in subsoil water increases rapidly and water that 
will not give a troublesome scale ordinarily will cause trouble during a drought. 

Artesian well or deep water varies greatly in its character, even in a given 
locality. It is apt to be rich in dissolved solids. Iron compounds and sodium 
chloride are often present in such considerable quantities as to make the water 
unsuitable for boiler use. 

Waters of very high purity are liable to corrode the boiler badly, pure water 
having a corrosive action on the iron, either due to the carbonic acid or oxygen. 

Waters taken from marshes and where brought in contact with masses of 
organic matter are liable to contain acids, which when introduced into the boiler 
corrode it, due to the presence of this organic matter in the water. This water 
may be neutral to iron at normal temperatures, but on raising the temperature of 
the water they may become active agents. Water of this character can be tested 
by heating with iron filings or clean suspended iron plates, and the precipitate 
can be noticed; but it is to be remembered that a boiler that has scale on it 
already does not present an active iron surface to this organic matter. 

Corrosion in the boiler due to free acids may be overcome by neutralizing 
acids with an alkali such as caustic soda or soda ash. Corrosion due to the de- 
composition of magnesium salt can be benefited by almost any of the methods 
adaptable to prevent scale. Corrosion due to dissolved oxygen can be materially 
reduced by heating the feed-water before introducing into the boiler. The mag- 
nesium and calcium carbonates can be held in solution by carbonic acid precipi- 
tated when that acid is removed or neutralized. This may be accomplished by 
heating the water or exposing it in thin layers to the action of the air; or the 
neutralizing of carbonic acid may be brought about by the addition of slack-lime 
or calcium hydroxide, which converts the carbonic acid into an insoluble car- 
bonate precipitating both itself and carbonates in solution. 

The precipitation of calcium sulphate is more difficult. This is soluble in 
water to the extent of 100 grains to a gallon, and is much less soluble at boiling 
point. This precipitation can be accomplished Dy heat alone, but it must be 
under decided pressure. Calcium sulphate is the most objectionable ingredient, 
as it forms a hard scale. One remedy is to use organic matters in the boiler 
which act by interfering with the crystallization of the sulphate, and thus 



ELECTRIC RAIL W A Y HAND BOOK, 189 



render the deposit in the boiler more easy to be removed. But the modern tend- 
ency is to use a direct precipitating agent for calcium sulphate, such as trisodium 
phosphate and sodium fluoride; these substances convert calcium and magnesium 
compounds into insoluble, flocculent precipitates, yielding also highly soluble and 
non-corrosive sodium salts. 

Crude oil, kerosene, soda and tannic acid (many of the boiler compounds 
contain in greater or less quantities these chemicals) are used for removing scale 
from boilers or making a precipitate of a muddy character, so that it can be blown 
off by the regular cleaning of the boiler. 

The engineer may make the following tests in order to determine roughly the 
character of water he has to deal with : Take a large, tall, clear glass vessel filled 
with the water to be tested; add to it, while stirring, a few drops of ammonia 
until the water is distinctly alkaline— this can be tested by litmus paper— next 
add a little phosphate of soda, the action of which is to change lime or magnesia 
into a phosphate which forms a deposit at the bottom of the glass. The water can 
then be filtered through a paper filter, leaving the precipitate in the filter, which 
can be weighed. This gives a relative idea of the quantity of sediment and scale- 
making material in the water. 

Water, which will turn litmus paper red before boiling, contains acid; and, 
if the blue color can be restored by heating, the water contains carbonic acid. 

If water has a foul odor and gives a black precipitate with acetate of lead it 
contains sulphur in various combinations. 

The hardness of water can be determined in the following way ; Dissolve 
castile soap in a glass of water and then stir into the water to be tested a few 
teaspoonfuls of this solution; the matter deposited will show the comparative 
amount of scale-making material contained in the feed water. 

The following chemical tests will indicate the character of the impurities in 
the water, by causing a precipitate : 

Carbonic acid is indicated by byrata water. 

Sulphates are indicated by chloride of barium. 

Chlorides are indicated by nitrate of silver. 

Lime salts are indicated by oxalate of ammonia. 

Organic matter is indicated by chloride of mercury. 

Heaters and Purifiers.— As many of the impurities are removed by heat- 
ing water, water heaters act as purifiers. Magnesium and carbonates are thrown 
down out of the heated water in the form of scale on the heater surface. In the 
open heater the water is spread out in open pans and the exhaust steam comes 
in direct contact with the agitated water; the shell as well as the pans is gener- 
ally made of cast iron, as this is not as liable to corrosion as steel and rolled iron. 
There are a number of forms of this type of heater, involving the spraying of the 
water through which the exhaust or live steam is driven, and the water is allowed 
to settle in pans or troughs, where the precipitate of the impurities which will 
not stay in solution at these temperatures is thrown down. The heated water is 
held in a reservoir until taken from it by a pump into the boiler. 

In the closed type of heaters, the cold water is conveyed through a nest of 
pipes, around the outside of which the exhaust steam circulates. In some cases 
the steam passes through the nest of pipes surrounded by the feed water to be 
heated. 

The dimensions per horse-power for feed water heaters were rated as follows 
at a meeting of the feed water heater manufacturers : 

It was decided that a heater should be rated in horse-power for each % sq. ft. 



I go 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



of tube heating surface in the heater. The horse-power of the boilers at normal 
load was taken as the size of the heater, but heaters larger than required give 
additional capacity to the boilers to stand sudden overloads. 

One of the principal points of construction is, that sufficient flexibility be given 
the tubes so that leaks will not start, due to their expansion and contraction 
with changes in temperature. They should not be contracted in the steam areas 
so as to create a back pressure on the engine; this can be ascertained by taking 
cards on the engine, exhausting through the heater and then exhausted directly 
to air. The temperature to which a heater raises the feed water is with exhaust 
steam less than 212 degs., and the temperature should be taken while the heater 
is delivering its full supply of water to the boilers. 



PERCENTAGE OF SAVING IN FUEL BY HEATING FEED- 
WATER. STEAM AT 70 £BS. GAGE PRESSURE. 



<T3 


TEMPERATURE TO WHICH FEED IS HEATED. 




100° 


110° 


120° 


130° 


140° 


150° 


160° 


170° 


180° 


190° 


200° 


210° 


220° 


250° 


300° 


35° 
40° 
45° 


5.53 
5.12 
4.71 


6.38 
5.97 
5.57 


7.24 
6.84 
6.44 


8.09 
7.69 
7.30 


8.95 
8.56 
8.16 


9.89 
9.42 
9.03 


10.66 
10.28 
9.90 


11.52 
11.14 
10.76 


i2.38 
12.00 
11.62 


13.24 

12.87 
12.49 


14.09 
13.73 
13.36 


14.95 
14.59 
14.22 


15.81 
15.45 
15.09 


19.40 
18.89 
18.37 


29.34 
28.78 
28 22 


50° 
55° 
60° 


4.30 
3.89 
3.47 


5.16 
4.75 
4.34 


6.03 
5.63 
5.21 


6.89 
6.49 
6.08 


7.76 
7.37 
6.96 


8.64 

8.24 
7.84 


9.51 
9.11 
8.72 


10.38 
9.99 
9.60 


11.24 
10.85 
10.47 


12.11 
11.73 
11.34 


12.98 
12.60 
12.22 


13.85 
13.48 
13.10 


14.72 
14.35 
13.98 


17.87 
18.38 
16.86 


27.67 
27.12 
26.56 


. 65° 

70° 
75° 


3.05 
2.62 
2.19 


3.92 

3.50 
3.07 


4.80 
4.38 
3.96 


5.67 
5.26 

4.84 


6.56 
6.15 
5.73 


7.44 
7.03 
6.62 


8.32 
7.92 
7.51 


9.20 
8.80 
8.40 


10.08 
9.68 
9.28 


10.96 
10.57 
10.17 


11.84 
11.45 
11.06 


12.72 
12.34 
12.95 


13.60 
13.22 

12.84 


16.35 
15.84 
15.33 


26.02 
25.47 
24.92 


80° 
85° 
90° 


1.76 
1.30 
0.89 


2.65 
2.22 

1.78 


3.54 
3.11 

2.68 


4.42 

4.00 
3.58 


5.32 
4.90 
4.48 


6.21 
5.80 
5.38 


7.11 
6.70 

6.28 


8.00 
7.59 
7.18 


8.88 
8.48 
8.07 


9.78 
9.38 
8.98 


10.67 

10.28 
9.88 


11.57 
11.18 

10.78 


12.46 
12.07 
11.68 


14.82 
14.32 
13.81 


24.37 

23.82 
23.27 


95° 
100° 


0.45 
0.00 


1.34 
0.90 


2.25 
1.81 


3.15 
2.71 


4.05 
3.62 


4.96 
4.53 


5.86 
5.44 


6.77 
6.35 


7.66 
7.25 


8.57 
8.16 


9.47 
9.07 


10.38 
9.98 


11.29 
10.88 


13.31 

12.80 


22.73 

22.18 



The heater should be placed between the pump and the boiler, so cold water 
can be handled by the pump. Hot water gives trouble in a number of places by 
eating and wearing the working parts of the pumps, so that they leak and the 
heater in this case has to stand full boiler pressure. 

Economizers —Here the flue gases pass around cast-iron pipes, containing 
the feed water, and the temperature of the water can be brought up to boiler 
water temperatuie. This form of heater removes the scale-making solvents from 
the water more effectively than heaters deriving their heat from steam. The 
construction usually employed consists of a battery of vertical cast-iron pipes 
connected with headers, which are large enough for both water circulation, and 
containing deposit from the water. The economizer is built into the flue, which is 
enlarged to accommodate it; a by -pass is also provided so the gases can be passed 
directly to the chimney, so that cleaning and repairing can be made without 
shutting down. 

The use of economizers increases the actual steaming capacity of the boiler 
and tends to hold the steam pressures constant. With varying steam demands 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAA'D BOOK. 



191 



they can improve the efficiency of the boiler plant from 10 per cent to 18 per cent 
depending npon local conditions. Where placed in a plant already installed, they 
reduce the effectiveness of the chimney draft, and may from this cause decrease 
the available heating value of the coal burnt; but with artificial draft they can 
be operated with undoubted economy. The soot and ashes should be cleaned 
by automatic scrapers from the tubes about one hour in twenty-four, depending 
upon the character of smoke passing through the economizer. 

The table herewith gives the results of tests on nine plants using mechanical 
drafts and economizers. 



TESTS OF ECONOMIZER AND MECHANICAL DRAFT PLANTS, 

SHOWING INITIAL AND FINAL TEMPERATURES OF 

FLUE GASES AND FEED WATER IN DEGS. FAHR. 







•5 <d 


b£<D 





S . 


bC-M 


pi -2 


SI 

So 


^ 


u c 2 
a S 




c a 
•r a) 




12 


<o 

30 O 








0- 


5H 


H 


H 


go 


3 
ft 


1 


610 


340 


110 


287 


177 


16.7 


2 


505 


212 


84 


276 


192 


17.1 


3 


550 


205 


185 


305 


120 


11.7 


4 


522 


320 


155 


300 


145 


13.8 


5 


505 


320 


190 


300 


110 


10.7 


6 


465 


250 


180 


295 


115 


11.2 


7 


490 


290 


165 


280 


115 


11.0 


8 


495 


190 


155 


320 


165 


_ 15.5 


9 


595 


299 


130 


311 


181 


• 16.8 



Boiler Feeding Methods.— There are several methods employed for feed- 
ing boilers, one by directly forcing water into the boiler by city water pressure, 
where the pressure is high enough to overcome the boiler pressure ; others by 
injectors or high-pressure pumps, either steam driven, belted or electric driven. 
The relative economy of the different methods of feeding boilers is given in the 
following table. 

This relation does not show the true operating economy in pumps as usually 
employed in street railway work ; for here the pumps, where steam driven, are 
run at a slow speed much under their maximum capacity to make up for steam 
consumption in the boiler, and they take as high as 160 lbs. of steam por 
hp-hour, under this method of feeding; and makes the showing of belt and elec- 
tric driven pumps 20 per cent to 36 per cent more efficient than steam driven 
pumps. With triple cylinder pumps, provided with by-passes so one or two 
cylinders can be thrown out of service to vary the water supply to the boilers, 35 
per cent to 45 per cent greater efficiency is secured over ihc steam driven pump, 
doing the same duty. 

The amount of water required by a battery of boilers is usually taken as 3.6 
gals, of water per hp hour, or nearly y 2 cu. ft. of water per hp-hour. Two inde- 
pendent methods are required to feed the boiler, the general arrangement is to 
use the injector and steam driven pumps. For boiler plants of over 600-hp capacity 
two pumps are generally installed, each capable of taking care of the whole bat- 
tery. The pumps should be arranged, if possible, to take water from two sources 



192 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



of supply; it is advisable to arrange a storage capacity to carry the boiler for 
twenty-four hours in case of breakdown, where the city water system is de- 
pended on. 

RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS METHODS OF SUPPLY- 
ING FEED WATER TO BOILERS. 



Temp, of feed water as delivered to the pump 
or to the injector, 60° F. Rate of evapo- 
ration of boilei-, 10 lbs. of water per lb. 
of coal from and at 212 degs. F. 


Relative amount of coal 

required per unit of time, 

the amount for a direct 

acting pomp, feeding 

water at 60°, without a 

heater being taken as 

unity. 


Saving of fuel over the 

amount required when 

the boiler is fed by a 

direct acting pump 

without heater. 


Direct acting pump feeding water at 60 degs. without 
a heater 


1.000 
.985 

.938 

.879 

.868 
.838 

.819 


.0 


Injector feeding water at 150 degs., without a heater. 

Injector feeding through a heater in which the water 

is heated from 150 to 5200 degs 


1.5 per cent 
6.2 " " 


Direct acting pump feeding water through a heater 
m which it is heated from 60 to 200 degs 


12.1 " " 


Geared pump run from the engine, feeding water 
through a heater, in which it is heated from 60 
to 200 degs 


13.2 " " 


Geared pump run from motor, rheostatic control 

Geared pump, 3 cylinders with by-passes for regula- 
tion 


16.2 " •* 

18.3 " " 







FEED-WATER PUMPS AND INJECTORS. 

The location of the pump where there is a natural head of water is one of 
convenience and shortest length of supply and delivery pipes, but where the 
pump has to take water from a well the suction pipe should be as short as 
possible. In horizontal runs of pipe the pipe should dip toward the supply end 
at least T \ in. in a foot to prevent an air trap, which will affect the properworking 
of the pump, and the foot valve and strainer on the end of the suction pipe 
beneath the water should be so large that the accumulation of trash will not 
throttle the suction of the pump. 

When the pump is required to handle hot water, the water must be delivered 
to the pump by gravity. Hot water pumps give more trouble than those for cold 
water, and their depreciation is as much as 40 per cent greater in handling ordi- 
nary boiler waters, while with waters containing sulphur, they are a continual 
source of annoyance. Cold water should be forced into the heating apparatus 
where possible. 

Injectors. — The injector is capable of feeding water into a boiler, if the 
water is under 100 degs. in temperature. The injector consists of a tubular brass 
casting having three openings: the first one, A, in Fig. 174, is for the delivery of 
dry steam from the boiler; the second opening, fi, is the inlet for the water to be 
fed; the third one, /, opening towards the boiler, is the one through which the 
feed water is to be forced by the steam. The injector operates upon the prin- 
ciple that a cunent of steam at high velocity will produce by suction a vacuum 
which draws the air from above the water in the supply pipe B\ when the water 
rises it is forced through the nozzle D: the steam meeting the water from the 



ELECTRIC KAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



193 



supply pipe carries tire water with, it, on account of the energy of impact and 
condensation into the boiler lifting the check valve, //, to gain admission. The . 
water is therefore injected into the boiler hot. 

The injector is usually installed in railway plants 
as an alternative method for feeding the boilers where 
pumps or other methods are used; but its economy is so 
poor as a method of feeding the boilers that it is not used 
in regular service. 

Injectors may be placed either in a horizontal or 
vertical position. They work best where the suction is 
not over 20 ft., and should be located as near the boiler 
as possible. It is the usual practice to supply an injector 
for each boiler or pair of boilers. Injectors work more 
effectively at low steam pressures than at high, but 
should be adjustable to work at varying steam pressures. 

Steani Pumps.— A piston speed of 100 ft. per minute 
is the ordinary practice for a direct acting pump, but 
in a boiler feeding under heavy pressures, especially 
where hot water has to be pumped, a slower speed is 
advisable. The table herewith gives the sizes and 
capacity of pumps from 2 ins. to 12 ins. ; this is the 
theoretical maximum amount that can be pumped, but 
on account of slippage and the leakage of the valves, the 
actual amount of water pumped will be less than that 
given in the table : 




THEORETICAL CAPACITY OF STEAM PUMPS: SPEED X>P 
PISTON OK PLUNGER 100 FT. PER MINUTE. 



Diameter of Pump 


Gallons discharged 


Diameter of Pump 


Gallons 


or Plunger in 


per Minute. 


or Plunger in 


discharged per 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Minute. 


2 


16.33 


5 


102.0 


a 


20.67 
23.52 


5^ 


112.0 
123.0 


m 


30.88 


m 


135.0 


3 


36.75 


6 


147 


m 


43.18 


9* 


172 


y/z 


50.02 




2C0 


m 


57.42 


VA 


229 


4 


65.34 


8 


261 




73.70 


8K3 


295 


82.7 


9 


330 


4-M 


9:2.14 


W% 


368 






10 


408 






10J4 


430 






11 


44 






13 


587 



In a duplex pump the number of gallons delivered per minute is found by 
multiplying the displacement of one plunger by twice the number of strokes. 



194 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



The direct-acting steam pump i3 one in which the steam cylinder and water 
cylinder are ccntrallyin line with each other so that the water plunger and steam 
piston are connected to the same piston rod. This form of pump gives the least 
first coot and occupies less space, but is perhaps the most wasteful and extrava- 
gant form, for the reason that the steam follows at full pressure throughout the 
stroke, getting none of the economies due to using the steam expansively. The 
duplex steam pump consists of two steam pumps of equal dimensions, placed 
side by side, and so arranged that the piston of each pump has a controlling 
movement of the slide valve of the opposite steam cylinder. This allows one 
piston to proceed to the end of the stroke and gradually come to a state of rest, 
while during the latter part of this movement, the opposite piston moves forward 
in its stroke and also gradually comes to a state of rest; but in moving forward 
and before reaching the end of the stroke, the slide valve contro'.ling the first 
piston is reversed, and in consequence the first piston returns to its original 
position. These movements continue uniformly as long as steam is supplied to 
the pistons. 

When the boiler pressure is from 65 lbs. to 100 lbs., a gain of from 20 to 35 per 
cent can be made over direct acting cylinders by compounding. But for pumps 
handling the amount of water necessary for railway plants of 1000 horse-power 
and under, the economy would not be of sufficient import to warrant the 
additional expense of a compound pumping apparatus, as the total amount of 
steam required for feeding the boilers is about ^\ z of the output of the boiler. 

The table on the opposite page gives sizes of suction and delivery pipe for 
piston speeds of 100 ft. per minute. 

FRICTION OF WATER IN PIPES. 

Friction loss in pounds per square inch for each 100 feet of different-sized clean 
iron pipe discharging a given quantity of water per minute. 



Gallons 








Inside Diameter 


of Pipe. 








per 
Minute. 


IMin. 


lHiii. 


2 in. 


2^ in. 


3 in. 


4 in. 


5 in. 


6 in. 


8 in. 


10 in. 


12 in. 


20 
25 

30 
35 
40 

45 

5a 

75 
100 
125 
150 
175 
200 
250 
300 
350 
400 
450 
5 r 
750 


4.07 
6.40 
9.15 
12.4 
16.1 
20.2 
21.9 
56.1 


1.66 
2.62 
3.75 
5.05 
6.52 
8.15 
10.0 
22.4 
39.0 


.42 
' ' '.91 


















.21 


.10 










































1.60 


































2.44 
5.32 
9.46 
14.9 
21.2 
28.1 
37.5 


.81 
1.80 
3.20 
4.S9 
7.00 
9.46 
12.47 
19.66 
28.06 


.35 

.74 

1.31 

1.99 

2.85 

3.85 

5.03 

7.76 

11.2 

15.2 

19.5 

25.0 

.30.8 


.09 

' ' '.33 

' ' '.69 

' 1.22 
l.b9 

2.66 
3.65 
4.73 
6.01 

7.43 


0.03 
0.06 
0.10 
0.16 
0.23 
0.32 
0.42 
0.65 
0.94 
1.28 
1.68 
2.10 
2.70 
5.40 


















.05 













.10 

' ' '.17 
.26 
.37 
.50 
.65 
.81 
.96 
2.21 




























.07 
.09 
.12 
.16 
.20 
.25 
.53 


.03 
.04 
.05 
.06 
.07 
.09 
.18 


.01 
















.02 




















.03 










.04 










■ .08 

















ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



195 



DIAMETERS SUITABLE FOR SUCTION AND DELIVERY PIPES 

FOR DUPLEX DIRECT- ACTING PUMPS : PISTON 

SPEED 100 FT. PER MINUTE. 



Water-Cylinder. 


Suction-Pipe. 


Delivery-Pipe. 


Diam- 
eter. 


Area. 


Diam- 
eter. 


Area. 


Velocity of 
Flow at 
100 Feet. 


Diam- 
1 eter. 


Area. 


Velocity 
of Flow 

at 100 ft. 


Inches. 
4 
5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

12 

14 


12.57 
19.64 

28.27 
' 38.48 

50.27 
C3.62 

78.54 
113.09 
153.93 


Inches. 
3 
4 

5 
G 

6 
8 

8 

10 
12 


7.07 
12.57 

19.64 
28.27 

28.27 
50.27 

50.27 
78.51 
113.09 


Feet. 
178 
156 

143 
136 

180 
126 

156 
144 
136 


Inches. 
2 
3 

4 
5 

5 
6 

7 
8 
10 


3.14 
7.07 

12.57 
19.64 

19.64 
28.27 

38.48 
50.27 
78.54. 


Feet. 
. 400 
277 

224 
196' 

256 
225 

204 
224 

196 



THEORETICAL HORSE-POWER REQUIRED TO RAISE WATER 
TO DIFFERENT HEIGHTS. 



Gallons 

per 
Minute 


60 

feet 


75 
feet 


90 

feet 


100 
feet 


125 

feet 


150 
feet 


175 
feet 


200 
feet 


250 
feet 


300 

feet 


350 
feet 


400 
feet 


25 
30 
35 


.37 
.45 
.52 


.47 
.56 
.66 


.56 
.67 
.79 


.62 
.75 

.87 


.78 

.94 

1.08 


.94 
1.12 
1.31 


1.09 
1.31 
1.53 


1.25 
1.50 
1.75 


1.56 

1.87 
2.19 


1.87 
2.25 
2.62 


2.19 
2.62 
3.06 


2.50 
3.00 
3.50 


40 
45 
50 


.60 
.67 
.75 


.75 

.84 
.94 


.90 
1.01 
1.12 


1.00 
1.12 
1.25 


1.25 
1.41 
1.56 


1.50 
1.69 

1.87 


1.75 
1.97 
2.19 


2.00 
2.25 
2.50 


2.50 
2.81 
3.12 


3.00 
3.37 
3.75 


3.50 
3.94 
4.37 


4.00 
4.50 
5.00 


60 
75 
90 


.90 
1.13 

1.35 


1.13 
1.40 
1.68 


1.35 
1,69 
2.02 


1.50 
1.87 
2.25 


1.87 
2.34 
2.81 


2.25 
2.81 
3.37 


2.62 
3.28 
3.94 


3.00 
3.75 
4.50 


3.75 

4.69 
5.62 


4.50 
5.62 
6.75 


5.25 
6.56 
7.87 


6.00 
7.50 
9.00 


100 
125 
150 


1.50 
1.87 
2.25 


1.87 
2.34 
2.81 


2.25 
2.81 
3.37 


2.50 
3.12 
3.75 


3.12 
3.91 
4.69 


3.75 
4.69 
5.63 


4.37 
5.47 
6.56 


5.00 
6.25 
7.50 


6.25 

7.81 
9.37 


7.50 
9.37 
11.25 


8.75 
10.94 
13.13 


10.00 
12.50 
15.00 


175 
200 
250 


2.62 
3.00 
3.75 


3.28 
3.75 

4.69 


3.94 
4.50 
5.62 


4.37 
5.00 
6.25 


5.47 
6.25 

7.31 


6.56 
7.50 
9.37 


7.66 
8.75 
10.94 


8.75 
10.00 
12.50 


10.94 
12.50 
15.72 


13.12 
15.00 
18.75 


15.31 
17.50 

21.87 


17.50 
20.00 
25.00 


300 

350 
400 
500 


4.50 
5.25 
6.00 
7.50 


5. 02 
6.56 
7.50 
9.37 


6.75 

7.87 
9.00 
11.25 


7.50 
8.75 
10.00 
12.50 


9.37 

10.94 
12.50 
15.62 


11.25 
13.12 
15.00 

18.75 


13.12 
15.31 

17.50 
21.87 


15.00 
17.50 
20.00 
25.00 


18.75 
21.87 
25.00 
31.25 


22.50 
26.25 
30.00 
37.50 


26.25 

30.62 
35.00 
43.75 


30.00 
35.00 
40.00 
50.00 



196 ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



The preceding table gives the actual water-horse-power. When selecting 
motors or pumps, allowance must be made for pipe friction and loss in the pump, 
gears belts, etc. One foot head equals .43 pound pressure to the square inch. 

Electrically Driven Pumps. — These are driven by being geared or belted 
to a motor, the speed of which is controlled by a regulating rheostat. The duplex 
or triplex pumps, with heavy flywheels, give the best service, and have the 
highest economy of all methods of boiler feeding. 

CHIMNEYS AND DRAFT. 

In order to produce the rate of combustion necessary in the grate of the 
boiler, air has to be forced or drawn through the fire at a greater speed than that 
caused by local differences of temperatures. The chimney may be used alone 
or forced or induced draft be employed. 

One pound of coal requires from 12 lbs. to 16 lbs. of air for its combustion. 
Anthracites require the least and bituminous more in proportion to their volatile 
constituents. For the best results in combustion an excess of air, over that 
required chemically, is desirable, varying from 18 lbs. to 24 lbs. of air depending 
upon the character of coal. 

The introduction of this surplus air reduces the possible heat units attainable 
from 6 per cent to 12 per cent of the heating value of every pound of coal, since 
this surplus air has to be drawn through the fire and heated from 60° to 500° 
Fahrenheit. 

The draught in a chimney is produced by the difference in weight of the 
hot gases in the chimney and the cold air outside, and can be considered as an 
unbalanced inverted siphon with the heavy cold air on one leg attempting to 
restore the equilibrium by forcing air through the grate fires, flue and chimney. 
A draught is usually measured in inches of water, that is, with a U-tube partly 
filled with water, one end connected to the draught to be measured and the other 
end open; the difference of water level will give the draught pressure in inches. 
One inch difference in water level means 0.577 ounces per sq. in. 

The chimney should be located so as to give the least length of flue from 
boiler to chimney, preferably in the middle of a battery of boilers. The foun- 
dations should be carefully proportioned and independent of any building 
foundations; and no connections of the breeching to the chimney should be 
made until the chimney is completely erected and settled down on its foun- 
dations. 

Construction of Brick Chimneys.— The total weight of a brick chimney 
must be greater than the total wind pressure against it. Every square foot 
exposed of a square chimney should be designed to withstand a maximum wind 
pressure of 56 lbs. per sq. ft. A hexagonal chimney reduces this to 42 lbs.; an 
octagonal, 36 to 34 lbs. and a circular, 30.8 lbs. The circular is the best form for 
a chimney as it makes the best flue and is economical in material. Roughly 
the diameter at the base of a chimney should be ^ of its height. The following 
table gives the height and sizes for chimneys for different horse-power of boilers, 
baocd on an assumed evaporation of 7 lbs. of water per pound of coal, or an 
equivalent evaporation of 5 lbs. of coal per hp-hour. 

The ratio of the cross section of a chimney to the grate area is usually taken 
as 8 to 1. J. J. De Kinder found that 75 ft. was the best height for free burning 
bituminous coals, 115 for Blow burning bituminous coals and 125 to 150 ft. for 
fine anthracite coals. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



197 



CHIMNEY DIMENSIONS WITH CORRESPONDING HORSE- 
POWERS. 



Area 


C . 






Square 


s 2 


Feet. 


G* 




P 


3.14 


24 


3.G9 


26 


4.28 


28 


4.91 


30 


5.59 


32 


6.31 


34 


7.07 


36 


8.73 


40 


10.56 


44 


12.57 


48 


15.90 


54 


19.63 


60 


23.76 


66 


23.27 


72 


38.48 


84 


50.27 


96 


63.62 


108 


78.54 


120 



HEIGHTS IX FEET. 



80 


85 


90 


95 100 


110 


120 130 


140 


150 


175 



200 



COMMERCIAL HORSE rOWER. 



164 

185 

20s 

257 
310 
370 
468 
577 
697 



215 

267 
323 
3P4 
484 
600 
725 
862 
1173 



279 
337 

400 
507 
627 

758 

902 

1229 

15S4 

205S 



I I 



413 

526 

650 

784 

932 

1270 

1660 

2102 

2596 



672 
815 
909 
1819 

1725 
2181 

2693 



1044 
1422 
1859 
2352 

2904 



2511 
3100 



Allowance must be made where flues are longer than 50 ft., and height added 
to the chimney to make up for the loss in heat of the draft and friction. The 
table following gives the loss in effectiveness of chimney draught in percent, 
which is due to long flues. 



REDUCTION OF CHIMNEY DRAFT BY LONG FLUES. 

Total length of flues in feet.. 50 100 200 400 600 800 1000 2000 
Chimney draught in per cent 1C0 93 79 C6 58 52 48 35 
Local conditions, such as adjacent hills, atmosphere ladened with moisture, 
elevation above the sea level, etc., reduce the theoretical draught; and ample 
allowances should be made so that the chimney will be able to completely burn 
the combustible under the worst conditions, both of coal and weather, It is well 
to bear in mind that without proper draft all other boiler economies are futile. 

Iron Stacks. — These are formed of plate iron, lap or butt riveted, and made 
np in sections of convenient size. They may be made self-supporting with a 
flaring base, or maybe guyed two-thirds of the way up with four or more guy 
rods or chains. They are usually lined with fire brick part of the way up. 

Breeching and Flues.— The connecting flues between the boiler and 
chimney are preferably round, as that form prcscnt3 the easiest passage for the 
gases at the lowest first cost. All bends should be made with an easy curve. All 
joints should be riveted and scaled with luting, means being provided for 
cleaning. Where two flues enter the main flue opposite each other, there should 
be a baffle plate interposed in the main flue between the openings to prevent back 
drafts. The covering of flues with insulating covering that will resist the tem- 
perature will increase the effectiveness of the chimney. 



ig8 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



Dampers. — Pivoted gates are introduced into the flue so the draft can be 
controlled, depending upon the steam required from the boiler, and the main 
damper can be regulated automatically by the steam pressure, so that when the 
pressure falls the dampers open to produce greater draft. 

Mechanical Draft.— As the chimney is limited in capacity by its dimen- 
sions and weather conditions, mechanical methods of producing the flow of air 
through the furnace have been adopted in a number of railway plants, with 
economy in first cost over an equivalent chimney, and giving greater and more 
readily controlled draft. By this means the boiler can respond readily to ad- 
ditional demands, and the rate of combustion on the grate can be carried beyond 
that possible to be obtained from natural draft only. 

Induced Draft.— A steam jet may blow up the stack, inducing a draft. 
This method, while being the most economical in installation, consumes from 
8 to 20 per cent of the steam made by the boiler to produce the required draft. 
The steam introduced into the hot gases reduces their volume and effectiveness, 
and such an arrangement is so noisy that very few power stations are so located 
as to be able to use it. 

In mechanically induced draft systems a fan is introduced between the 
boilers and the stack, which draws the air through the fire and boiler, and ejects 
it from the chimney. The fan can be operated by an electric motor or an engine, 
whose speed can be controlled in order to vary the rate of combustion in the 
furnace to meet the required steam demand. By having a controllable air 
supply, complete combustion and consequently greater evaporative results from 
the coal can be obtained at a cost of 1 per cent to 4 per cent of steam from the 
boiler. 

Forced Draft or Plenum. Method. — This may be accomplished in two 
ways : first, by making the ashpit practically air-tight, and forcing into it suf- 
ficient air for combustion; or second, a method only practicable in steamships, by 
making the fire room air-tight, maintaining sufficient air pressure in this room 
to produce the required draft. The first method, which is applicable to street 
railway boiler rooms, does not give the results in practice of the induced draft, 
and subjects the fireman, where hand firing is done, to considerable heat on 
opening the fire doors. The test carried out on the steamer, H. M. S. Polyphemus, 
gives comparative results between the forced and induced method as follows: 

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS AT PORTSMOUTH DOCK YARD 
WITH BOIEERS OF H. M. S. POLYPHEMUS. 





to 

o 

.2 

1 

P 


al 

03 pj 

»& 

33 

u a! 

03 £ 

II 

< £ 

Pi 


Temper- 
ature. 


H 

~ o 

OS fl. 

O . 

o 


h 

** o 

04 

o ■-> 
Eh 


Lbs Water 
Evaporated 


o p, . 

O . <D 

*3ttS 

<b a • 

h3 «oo 


Lbs. Water 
Evaporated 
per hour per 
Sq. Ft. Grate 


3 

53 


2 

A 

a 


13 
4> 


0J 

P. 
o 

a 
< 


per lb. Coal. 


s* 


'3 . 

< 


o 


"3 . 
•4 




< 


or* 


Induced 
Forced 


9G 
96 


74.2 
77.3 


62° 

51° 


69.9° 
49.8° 


80,600 
94,500 


777,044 
759,338 


9.64 
8.03 


11.13 
9.3 


40.4 
47.3 


389.6 

381 


450.4 
444. 


426. 
395. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY BAND BOOK, 199 



THE STEAM ENGINE. 

The steam engine, to successfully maintain potential on a street railway 
system at maximum economy, must possess features which, fit it particularly for 
that work. Increasing the number of car equipments averages out the character- 
istics of the individual equipment, as the character of service changes with the 
number of equipments. The engine will be considered with regard to its eco- 
nomical performance, regulation and maintenance in connection with the follow- 
ing demands: 20-car road, 35-car road, 60-car road, 150-car road, and 300-car road 
and over. 

"With 20 cars the variations are large and rapid, and an engine, which will not 
respond readily to an increased load, drops the potential on the sy3tem, and 
retards the acceleration or speed of all cars operating, thus decreasing the possible 
external efficiency. It will be seen that the slower the initial speed of the engine, 
the larger the volume of steam that is taken at each stroke in order to give the same 
horse-power. In the CorKss type of engine for small roads, the load can vary 
much more rapidly than the governor can control the steam, and this rapid vari- 
ation throws strains throughout the engine in the interchange of power between 
the flywheel and piston. The greater the inertia of the flywheel, the longer will 
be the period required for the governor to respond to the changing demands. 

The first cost of a slow-speed engine, where direct-connected to the generator, 
is higher than that of aii equivalent high-speed engine. The economy of the 
Corliss type of en-ine has often been judged for railway work from its full load 
efficiency, whereas carrying efficiently loads of one-half to three-quarters full 
load is required for this class of power station service. Consequently the adapta- 
bility of engines to the different character of loads found in the various railway 
stations must be carefully considered, in order to determine what class of engine 
will give the best average economy. 

In determining this for a new road where the equipment is fixed, the con- 
stants for the equipment should be determined for grades, speeds and loads. 
Where mixed equipments are used, the data should be based on the largest 
equipment where the traffic ever requires their use over the entire system. In 
determining the current and potential required and the size of the unit for a new 
railway, the following points have to be borne in mind: The operation of the 
equipment under large line drops requires a greater current delivery, as its speed 
falls off on account of loss in potential on the line; allowance must be made in 
the size of the operating unit to make good all these losses without exceeding 
the allowable overload on the unit. Hence in collecting data for the purpose of 
accurately proportioning the engine and generator to the load, the current re- 
quired by the equipment under maximum and mean transmission losses should 
be determined. 

The greater the number of cars, the nearer the average load becomes a con- 
stant load, varying only with the number of cars in operation. Approximate 
results can be determined by referring to the curves in Fig. 175, which have been 
based on tests of roads operating equipments of two Wcstinghouse 12- A motors, 
with a 28 ft. car body and K-10 controller, the total equipment weighing 22,000 lbs. 

Effect of Grades on Engine Eoads.— The physical conditions of the road 
are reflected immediately on the engine demands. Curves given herewith, Fig. 
175, show the relation of the maximum and mean demands on the engine for roads 
of from one car to fifty, and for three characters of roads, one possessing heavy 
grades, one moderate grades and one on level road. 



2oo ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




Q JO 20 dO 40 SO 

NUMBER OF CARS OPERATING 

FTG-. 175. — CURRENT PER CAR UNDER DIFFERENT CONDITIONS. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



The effect of moderate grades below 3 per cent is to increase the starting 
current on the equipment, but the effect of the stored energy in the equipment in 
climbing such a grade is not fulty recovered on tho drifting of the equipment 
returning on this grade. The effect of a grade, averaging approximately between 
3 per cent and 4]/> per cent, will reduce the ratio between average and maximum 
current demands but increases the maximum demands, due to starting and carrying 
the equipment up the grade. In grades above 4]^ per cent the maximum and 
average demands per equipment are both increased. 



MO 



300 



^200 



LOO 



m 




VA 



1 1 1 ! i 1 1 1 li 




S 



xz 



20 



■ 



1*0 60 

MINUTES 



/00 /SO 

NORMAL LOAD AT 6 O'CLOCK 

Fig. 176.— curve showing variation of demand on station. 



/W) 



In order to determine the effect of the grade on the required output of the 
power station, the profile of the road is required, from which is determined 
the time from the schedule when the equipments require their maximum demand 
on the power station. It is very important in improvements in a power station 
for roads with 2C cars and under, or in a new station of the same capacity to 
have the average daily schedule carried by one engine, and to have this engine 
rated at maximum efficiency at about five-eighthg to three-quarters of its maxi- 
mum load. For roads in operation, the proper unit for maximum efficiency can 
be determined by the main ammeter readings. For fixed schedule on a 20-car 
road and under there will be found on taking minute readings, a cycle of changes 
which are periodic in character, depending upon the profile of the road and the 
coincidence of equipments requiring the maximum demand at the same time. 
This is especially marked in a single track road with turnouts. 

Maximum Engine Efficiency.— Supposing a report from several daily 
observations, taken under different track and weather conditions, or estimated 
from the profile of the road and known equipment demands, showed a variation. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



like that in Fig. 170, it is easy to see that here the maximum load obtained is 
420 hp, the mean average load is 295 hp. For one unit to carry this service con- 
tinually, the point of maximum efficiency of the engine should be 300 hp, and 
the maximum capacity of the engine 530 hp, including an overload possibility of 
25 per cent, and the circuit-breaker set for this number of amperes. The ad- 
ditional load, caused by passengers at 7 a. m. and 6 p. m. and for days of special 
demand, will be much more profitably carried by an auxiliary unit than to operate 
two engines for thj Avhole day, increasing the depreciation of the plant while 
neither engine would be using steam economically in the cylinder, and the friction 
losses would be doubled. 



60 




\ 












1 






/ 


5000 




\ 






. 














/ 










\ 
\ 














J* 






o 
i 44 






\ 










5H 




3000 


re W 

u 

a. 

I 10 

in 

1 








\ 














— 








\ 


\ 














2000 




! 

I 

1 




















— ~ 












%?>> 
^<«* 


3*£ v, 


• P Br 




;; 


y 


1000 
















t -£^£R hour 






21 







































10 60 CO "JO £0 00 100 110 120 130 110 169 

Fig. 177.— steam consumption- fok different xoads on engine. 



In one test made by the author on a 32-car road, operating two Corliss 
engines, the operation required 62.3 lbs. of steam per kw-hour and both engines 
had a mean load of % full load; with one engine carrying the whole load, the 
steam consumption fell to 42 lbs. per kw-hour. The commercial value of this 
change to a single engine effected a saving in coal and oil sufficient to pay for 
all the power station labor. 

Varying of Efficiency with Load. — When the load on an engine is 
reduced much below the rating, the friction per cent increases and also the 
cylinder condensation. The aggregate looses are shown in Fig. 177, as given by 
Prof. R. C. Carpenter, on a single non-condensing engine, 14 ins. x 16 ins., 120 lbs. 
steam pressure, 210 revolutions per minute. 

While, in the 20-car to 30-car road, the number of equipments averages out the 
rapid maximums, the speed of the engine should still be moderate. With from 
35 to 60 cars the question of the type of engine is varied by the characteristics of 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOIC. 



203 



the road, as both, high speed and moderate speed engines have shown about the 
same gross economy. The gross economy includes the cost of production, as 
well as fixed charges against the power station property ; this is treated as a 
factory selling its product (current) at a coot which will cover every expense of 
operation, maintenance, depreciation, interest, taxes and insurance, and that 
proportion of executive expenses that the coat of the station bears to the whole 
property cost. "With more than GO cars the conditions of load become one where 
the engines can be worked at a slightly varying load from 80 per cent to 60 per 
cent of full load; and with their maximum efficiency between these points. 
Every means taken to increase the economy of the plant should be reflected in 
the operating costs per kw output in power plants of this size. 

Records of the performances of different types of engines under railway 
loads have been obtained from the average of fifty-six tests taken on the basis of 
a four-hour and twenty-hour run, which are the average periods of service for all 
day operation and overload periods, and are tabulated below. 



Non-Condensing Engines. 


Lbs. of Coal 

per Indicated 

HP-Hour. 


Tons (2,000 lbs.) per 
HP per year. 




Day, 20hrs. 


Day, 4 hrs. 


Simple, High Speed, Slide Valve, average. . 
" " " " " best 


4.71 
4.52 
3.46 
3.00 
4.09 
3.91 

3.18 
2.22 
2.41 
1.S0 


17.19 

16.49 
12.62 
10.95 
14.92 
14.27 

11.60 
8.10 
8.79 
6.57 


3.44 
3.30 
2.52 




2.19 




2,98 


" " best 


2.85 


Condensing Engines. 


2.32 




1.62 




1.76 


" best 


1.31 







The tests on the engines show the value of the condensing type to a plant, 
but in the comparison between the Corliss and compound-condensing engine the 
loads on the Corliss tested were more favorable to economy than the loads on the 
compound-condensing moderate-speed engine; and, if the question of interest on 
first cost, oil and attendance were included in the aggregate expense of operation, 
the outcome will be in favor of the compound-condensing moderate-speed 
engine. 

The tandem-compound, from the results of observation, gives the best results 
in stations under the 35-equipment class, bolh condensing and non-condensin°-, 
and the cross-compound for stations of the larger classes show good economy 
under operating conditions. 

The elements of the economy of the Corliss valve gear have been introduced 
in moderate speed engines, giving this type of engine an additional economic 
value in railway work. One station has shown under mixed load 300 watt-hours 
output per lb. of coal under constant operation, using this type of engine. 

The general classification of engines in regard to use of steam in cylinders is 
based on the number of expansions through which the steam passes in the engine. 
In the simple engine there is only one expansion; this may be of the high-speed 



204 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAiVD BOOK. 



or low-speed Corliss type. The compound engine uses steam expansively tkrough 
two cylinders, which may be arranged in tandem, or the engine may he cross- 
compound, having one high and one low pressure cylinder on separate cranks 
90degs. apart, or the three cylinder compound engine where the first expansion 
takes place in the high pressure cylinder and the second expansions in two low 
r presoure cylinders. The double tandem compound eugine consists of two tandem 
compound engines, coupled to the same shaft 90 degs. apart. 

The cost of an engine for any given power increases with the number of 
cylinders and expansion stages, but the economy of engines, with approximately 
constant load, increases with the number of expansions, providing the steam 
pressure is raised for the proper economy of steam through these expansions. 
So, in estimating the most profitable engine to procure for a given condition, the 
following values have to be balanced against each other; the interest on first 
cost, depreciation, cost of oil and attendance. The engine should be so selected 
that, with the road under consideration, it would bring the lowest interest charges 
on the cost of the boiler plant, and the least cost on coal and water consumption, 
the coal being the largest item, bearing about one- third to two-thirds of the total 
cost of power production. Only with very cheap coal and water and variable 
duty, will the simple high-speed engine show an economy of operation. 

Division of Units. — The power station requires a duplicate set of engines, 
and in 20-car roads and under the stand by investment is large. The advisable 
division is usually as follows, the sizes of engines being selected to fit the gene- 
rators as manufactured for railway work: 

200 Horse-power Maximum 2- 200 

300 " " " 2-300 

400 " " " 3-200 

500 " " " 3- 250 or 4-175 

600 " *•' " 3-300 

800 " " " 3- 400 or 4-300 

1000 " " " 3- 500 " 4-350 

1200 " " " 3- 600 " 4-400 or 5-300 

1500 " " " 3- 750 " 4-500 

2000 " " " 3-1000 " 4-750 

In a road requiring more than 2000 horse-power, the division is limited by the 
size of the units which the market supplies; by combining, however, several sizes 
of units the greater factor of overload can be purchased for the least cost. There 
are several advantages in having a "system of power units all of the same type, as 
they operate together and the engineer can experiment on them to determine how 
to get the best results in operation, but in long roads with few cars a small unit 
can often be used during the end and beginning of the schedule of each day, with 
a saving that will warrant the expenditure for this smaller unit. 

Mechanical Strains.— The mechanical construction of an engine must give 
ample strength to the parts in order to withstand straining on overloads, and 
when the circuit-breaker opens. Engines built for factory service, especially of 
the slow-speed type, do not require the strength of parts of the railway engine, 
and to use that type of engine for railway work has led to a high rate of depreci- 
ation thereof. All parts subject to reciprocating strains have to be strengthened, 
and the engine is classed under the heavy duty type. Where a great section of 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 205 



metal is-put in the frame of the engine, the piston-rod, connecting-rod, shaft and 
crank bearings are increased in size, and the flywheels should be constructed on 
different principles from those employed for factory loads. 

Rotary and Piston Speeds.— The table on page 208 gives the revolution per 
minute and piston speeds of a number of types of engine, direct-connected to 
generators for railway and lighting work. 

The following table gives the average approved revolutions per minute for 
railway engines : 

500 kw 135 r. p. m. 

1000 kw ICO r. p. m. 

2000 kw and up 75 to 70 r. p. m. 

DIMENSION OF ENGINE PARTS. 

Clearances allowable with high-speed engines, with valves providing relief 
for entrained water vary with the size of the engine. The clearance volume bears 
no fixed relation to the total steam volume in the different engines for railway 
work, varying from y§ ins. to % ins. in the diSerent sizes and types of engines. 
The clearance on the crank end is greater to take up the wear on every working 
joint between the piston and crank-pin; this allowance is generally T * s in. for 
each joint. There are several methods for cutting down clearances, which have 
to be filled with steam at every stroke without doing useful work. One is to have 
the valves raised off their seats to allow relief for entrained water. Engines of 
this type have operated with 3 per cent clearance without trouble. Another 
method is to introduce pop valves, opening into the clearance spaces to relieve 
the entrained water. Still another method is a diaphragm placed so that it will 
be broken open when the pressure reaches 100 per cent over the maximum steam 
pressure. 

Cylinder Walls. — In railway engines the bursting stress on the cast-iron 
cylinder walls should not exceed 2500 lbs. 

Cylinder Heads.— The thickness of the cylinder heads vary with the diameter 
of the piston. 10 ins. diameter averages on a basis of 100 lbs. unbalanced 
pressure .68 ins. ; 30 ins. diameter, 1.48 in.; 50 ins. diameter, 2.30 ins. An old rule 
is to make the cylinder head 1J4 times the thickness of the walls. Webbed heads 
should give equivalent strengths. 

Cylinder Head Bolts— -No bolt smaller than % in. should be used in cylinder 
heads. They should be spaced at a distance of about four or five times the thickness 
of the flange, and the strain on them should not exceed 5,000 lbs. per sq. in. for 
steel and 4,500 lbs. for wrought iron. The nut should engage threads to a greater 
depth than the diameter of the bolt under thread. 

Piston Head. — The general rule is that the thickness of the piston head is 
equal to j/ length of stroke x the diameter of the piston. Piston packings 
should be made approximately 1 per ceut larger than the diameter of the cylinder 
and sprung into place. A section of ring is usually -fa of the diameter of the 
cylinder plus y%, and for width y% in. is added to the thickness. 

The fit of the piston rod into piston is usually made by a combination of a 
straight and taper surface, the taper being about 3 ins. to a foot, which is drawn 
up to a shoulder by a nut. The strain on the bottom of this nut should not 
exceed 7,000 lbs. per sq. inch for steel and 5,500 for wrought iron. 



2o6 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 



Diameter of Piston Rods.— The average diameters of piston rods for railway en- 



gines should be at least 



diameter of cylinder 
65 



X y Maximum working pressure+15. 

Piston Rod Guides.— The pressure on the lubricating surfaces of piston rod 
guides should not exceed 350 lbs. Thurston gives the following value: The 
product of the relative velocity of the two surfaces in feet per minute of the guide 
multiplied by the maximum intensity of pressure should not be greater than 
60,000. 

Connecting Rod. — The ratio of the connecting rod length to stroke varies 
from 2:1 to 2><>:1. Some of the more modern engines for railway work show 
slightly less than a 2 to 1 ratio, but this increases rapidly the wear on cross-head 
guides and friction surfaces; and with small clearances railway experiences 
certainly dictate longer connecting rods, even at a sacrifice of floor space in 
horizontal, and head room in vertical engines. 

Crank Pin.— The pressure on a crank pin should not exceed 500 lbs. per sq. 
in. projected area or its length of bearing surface by diameter of pin. The crank 
pin is preferably made part of the crank arm or disc. In station engines the 
crank pin should be an integral part of the crank arm. 

Engine Shaft.— With direct-connected units special conditions arise which 
throw strains on this shaft not encountered in belt driving. As an armature 
gradually falls out of alignment, due to the wear on the main shaft, the magnetic 
field is disturbed and an unbalanced pull occurs due to the smaller clearance on 
the lower part of the armature; this for an % in. difference in a 200-kw machine 
throws an additional pressure on the bearings of 21,400 lbs. approximately. Often 
when the bearings commence to heat in a direct-driven unit that has previously run 
smoothly, this is the place to look for the trouble. This can be found electrically 
by taking off the brush connecting cables with brushes down and fields excited 



SIZE OF STEEI, SHAFTS FOR DIRECT-CONNECTED UNITS. 



Kw Output 
575 Volts. 


Rev. 


Size of 
Shaft. 
Inches. 


Rev. 


Size of 
Shaft. 
Inches. 


Rev. 


Size of 
Shaft. 
Inches. 


100 
150 


275 
200 


5^ 
9 










200 
300 


200 
150 


10^ 

14 


150 
120 


15 


100 


16 


400 
500 


150 

120 


16 

18 


120 

100 


18 

18 


1C0 
90 


18 
18 


650 

800 


90 
120 


20 
22 


100 


22 


80 


22 


1000 
1200 


80 
80 


25 
27 










1600 

2000 
2400 


75 
75 
75 


27 
30 
30 











and the generator running; if the field is distorted, due to unbalanced magnetic 
circuit, and the field winding is in good condition, a voltmeter will show higher 
voltage between those brushes bridging pole pieces which are too close to the 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 207 



armature. Boxes for shafts of direct-connected units should all be adjustable bo 
that the generator can be re-aligned to make up for wear thereon. The propor- 
tions of the shaft depend on whether the generator is overhung or provided with 
outboard bearings; both methods of connection have been used and given satis- 
faction on railway loads. The overhung armature requires less floor space than 
that with outboard bearing. "With a belted engine the outboard bearing is usually 
used. There is a tendency for a shaft beyond the engine to be deflected on 
account of the pressure on the crank pin. The sizes of steel shafts given on page 
205 are advised for generators of 575 volts. 

Engine Bearings. — Engine practice shows weight of bearings for direct- 
driven units as high as 400 lbs. per sq. in. of effective bearing surface; the belt- 
driving engine, 151 to 375 lbs. per sq. in. The length of the bearings on overhung 
armatures is 2J4 times the shaft diameter and 1% times the shaft diameter with 
outboard bearing. Automatic, forced oil circulation has a great value in carrying 
away the heat from these friction surfaces; some engine makers introduce pipes 
into the pillow block casting through which water can be circulated in order to 
reduce the temperature. The character of shaft metal and the boxes in which 
they run should produce a glass surface and one on which the lubricant can 
reduce the friction coefficient to the lowest point. 

Fly Wheels.— Armatures do not give sufficient centrifugal force to steady the 
engine and the drag of the armature through the field tends to make it behave as 
a brake wheel. An additional flywheel is necessary. While there is no case 
known of the bursting of a solid flywheel run on a high-speed engine, those on 
slow-speed engines have been wrecked, due to several causes. Where governor 
balls have been used for regulation in railway loads, the collar is continually 
working up and down over a narrow band with the result that at some time, if 
this point is not given particular attention, the governor will stick when the load 
goes off, and the engine will commence to race, or the safety stop may be out of 
order. A slack governor belt will let the engine run ahead of its rated speed. 
On examinations of flywheel explosions, where proper care has been taken of the 
engine, the failure has been due to two causes : one, the structural weakness of 
the flywheel and the other its location. The structural weakness occurs where a 
rim speed of 5000 ft. per minute and under and no greater strain on the rim 
section than G0C0 lbs. per sq. inch is allowed. In the segmental form of casting, 
used where the spokes are cast directly to the rim, the fractures found on investi- 
gation show a very coarse grain at the fiacture between the spoke and the rim. 
This would be due to shrinkages taking place between the rim and spoke, produc- 
ing a character of metal here which has less than the calculated tensile strength. 
Built-up wheels should have the spoke and rim of separate castings, if possible 
for slow rotative speeds, or the rim maybe built up of sheet iron; wire-wound 
flywheels have been used with success. 

The wheel pit has often been made with small clearances between the wheel 
and the masonry of the foundation, and in two cases the driven pulley fractured 
first, the parts were drawn into the wheel pit and jammed under the flywheel and 
the engine wrecked. 

The maximum diameter of flywheels of cast-iron allowable for railway work 
should not exceed the following figures for 5000 ft. peripheral velocity; 

80 -Rev. per minute 83.25 ft. in circumference 26.5 ft. in diameter. 

100 '• " 55.5 •* k ' 17.7 " 

150 " " 41.67 " " 13.3 " " 

200 " " 31.25 " " 9.9 " 

250 " " 22.73 " " 7.2 " *« 



208 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



209 



ENGINE TESTING. 

Eriction Eosses.— Friction tests can be made on an engine, direct or belt- 
connected to the generator, as follows: 

To test the bearing friction disconnect the connecting-rod from the crank-pin 
and secure it out of the way of the rotating crank. With a belted generator, the 
generator can I e forced back on the belt-tightener guides and the belt supported 
away from the pulley. If there is a spare unit, this generator can be started up 
by connecting in parallel with the spare unit, when it is standing still; then start 
up the spare unit, and the generator will follow as a motor in speed with it. 

The current and volts required to run this generator free as a motor at full 
speed can be determined ; then the motor can be belted up to the fly-wheel of the 
engine and readings again taken, when the full speed of the flywheel has been 
reached. The difference in watts between the two readings will be the additional 
friction on the motor bearings due to belt tension, the belt losses and the 
friction of engine bearings. 

The next test will require the valve chest being opened and the valves lifted 
from their seat, and the connecting-rod re-connected; then the watts required to 
run the engine at full speed this way will include all engine frictions except valve 
friction; subtracting the motor losses from the watts obtained will give the gross 
engine and transmission friction. 

With a direct-connected generator the manufacturers usually can supply the 
figures for the current required to run the generator free, and this subtracted 
from the watts read in the above tests will give the bearing and engine frictions. 

Prof. Thurston gives the following division of friction in a straight line 
engine, 6 ins. x 12 ins. balanced valve, No. 1, and 6 ins. x 12 ins. unbalanced 
valve, No. 2. 



Main bearings 

Piston and rod 

Crank-pin 

Cross-head and Wrist-pin. 

Valve and rod 

Eccentric strap 



Total. 



47.0 


35.4 


32.9 


25.0 


6.8 


5.1 


5.4 


4.1 


2.5 


26.4 


5.4 


4.0 



100.0 



100.0 



In a compound condensing test, from 1 to 102.6 hp. gave friction horse-power 
varying from 14.92 to 17.42. The friction of belt-driven engines increases faster 
than direct-driven engines due to the belt tension reacting on engine bearings, 
but it is usual to call the friction load constant. In some slow-speed engines the 
friction has been found to fall slightly with increasing loads'and this may also be 
noticed in some direct-driven compound generators, in which the field pull tends 
to raise the armatures from, the engine bearings. 

Engine Indicators.— The indicator is an apparatus for graphically record- 
ing the action of steam in the cylinder of the engine. It i operation is as follows : 
Cylinder A, Pig. 178, on which can be secured the paper for the record is so 
connected to the reciprocating parts of the engine, that it follows exactly the 
movement, of the piston in the cylinder to and fro. A pencil, or stylus, C, is 
arranged on the end of a lever, which is actuated in a straight line by the pressure 



2IO 



ELECTRIC RAILWA V HAND BOOK. 



of the steam in the cylinder of the engine. The movement of this piston is con- 
trolled by a calibrated spring, 2?, which moves the stylus, C, in proportion to the 
steam pressure of piston, D. The steam is admitted to the bottom of piston D 
through the inlet, E, which is connected to the steam pipes from the ends of the 
engine cylinder. These two pipes meet in a three way cock, which can introduce 
steam from either end of the cylinder to the bottom of indicator piston, or can 
close both steam entrances and open the bottom of the indicator cylinder to 
atmosphere. The piping should not be smaller than % ins. in order that there be 
no throttling between the indicator and the steam in the engine cylinder. 

Analysis of the Indicator Card. — At A, Fig. 179, Avill be found in a dotted 
line a loop projecting above the steam line; this indicates that the exhaust valve 
closes too soon, and the steam, entrapped in the cylinder on compression into the 
clearance spaces, exceeds the initial pressure. At B is indicated a clean cut-off. 




SECTION OF INDICATOR. 



E will be a compromise for high speed simple engines, while C probably shows 
too small steam pipe connection between engine and boiler. A wavy line like /?, 
will indicate two things: either an imperfect valve or friction in the indicator 
interfering with its correct action. 

From the indicator card the mean effective pressure exerted on the piston as 
it sweeps through the cylinder can be computed. 

In Fig. 180, the atmospheric line A B is a line drawn by the pencil of the 
indicator when the connection with the engine is closed, and both sides of the 
indicator piston are opened to the atmosphere. The clearance line C A is a 
reference line, whose distance from the end of the diagram A K bears the same 
ratio to K B as the clearance and waste-room volume bears to the total volume 
which is swept through by the piston. C D is the line of boiler pressure drawn 
parallel to the atmospheric line A B at the same pressure scale as the diagram. 
The steam line E Eis drawn at the the time when the piston is subject to the full 
initial pressure. Following is the expansion curve, E to t7, point of release, G, 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



exhaust line G II, back pressure line, II I, and point of exhaust closure, /. The 
compression line I J, shows rising pressure, due to the compression of the steam 
remaining in the cylinder after the exhaust valve has closed. J E shows rise of 
pressure, due to admission of steam to the cylinder by the opening of the steam 
valve. 

The mean effective pressure is represented in Fig. 180 by the mean height of 
the line E E G II above // //. To determine its value from the diagram, divide 
the length KB into ten equal parts and from the center of these divisions, erect 
ordinates, as shown in Fig. 180, perpendicular to line KB. If the length of these 
ordinatcs which arc enclosed between the sides of the diagram are measured by 
the steam pressure scale for the indicator spring used, and these lengths added 
together and divided by their number, the result will be the mean effective press- 
ure. This is illustrated in the calculation on the diagram. The area can also be 
found by a planimeter or other means, and dividing the area by the length KB 
will give mean height. 

Having determined the mean effective pressure, the horse-power of engines 
can be determined by use of table and formula on page 215. 

Ideal curves for different types of engines are given in Figs. 181 to 189. 



fio- 
7i- 



I? 
r 2S-I 



l c 








e 


F D 
















HE.E=4**9'<>*. 


53:8 






> 




• 






17.« 
III 

Si 




\ 








Vi i*""""- 


w 












^ 


h K 


T^?L 












K> ^ 




Ilfc_ 


1 


S.1 


■ 


! 5 


1 c< ▼ 

, .1 1.1 

1 — ' 1 ■ . 1 


i-% 



Fig. 180.— method of calculating mean effective pressure. 

Combined diagrams of Compound Engines. — The only way of making a cor- 
rect combined diagram from the indicator-diagrams of the several cylinders in a 
compound engine is to set off all the diagrams on the same horizontal scale of 
volumes, adding the clearances to the cylinder capacities proper. When this is 
done, the successive diagrams fall exactly into their right places relatively to 
one another, and would compare properly with any theoretical expansion curve. 
(Prof. A. B. VT. Kennedy, Proc. Inst. M. E., Oct. 188G.) 

Fig. 100 shows a combined diagram of a quadruple-expansion engine, drawn 
according to the usual method, that is the diagrams are first reduced in length to 
relative scales that correspond with the relative piston displacement of the three 
cylinders. Then the diagrams are placed at such distances from the clearance 
line of the proposed combined diagram as to correctly represent the clearance in 
each cylinder. 

Clearance. — The clearance of an engine may be measured by filling with 
vaseline, the space between the piston and cylinder heal when the engine i 3 on 
centers and the volume of vaseline required to fill the space measured. This vol- 




FlG. 181.— FRICTION INDICATION 
SIMPLE VALVE ENGINE. 




Fig. 182.— full load indication 

SIMPLE VALVE ENGINE. 




Fig. 183. — indication of friction 

FOUR VALVE ENGINE. 





Fig. 184. — full load of four 
valve engine. 



Fig. 185.— high pressure card for 
four. valve compound engine. 




Fig. 186.— low pressure cakd for 
four valve compound engine. 




Fig. 187. — graduated load 
indication. 




Fig. 188. — maximum and minimum 
indication. 




Fig. 189 — corliss condensing engine indication. 



214 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK 



unie divided by the volume swept through by the piston per stroke, equals the 
per cent of clearance. In case the clearance can not be measured in this way, it 
may be roughly drawn from an indicator card by the following process. Draw a 
straight line, chad, across the compression curve, first having drawn OX, Fig. 




Fig. 190.— combining multiple expansion engine diagrams. 
191, parallel to the atmospheric line and 14.7 lbs. below. Measure from a the 
distance, a d equal to c />, and draw Y O perpendicular to O A' through d; then 
will TB divided by A T be the percentage of clearance. The clearance may also 
be found from the expansion line by constructing a rectangle e/hg, and drawing 




X 5 T 

Fig. 191.— method op obtaining clearance lines from diagram. 
a diagonal g/io intersect the line O X. This will give the point, O, and by erect- 
ing a perpendicular to O X we obtain a clearance line O V. 

Both these methods for finding the clearance require that the expansion and 
compression curves be hyperbolas. Prof. Carpenter (Po7ver, Sept. 1893) says that 
with good diagrams the methods are usually very accurate, and give results 
which check satisfactorily. -■■_>/, 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



215 



HORSE-POWER 
Hp. per lb. M. E. 



PER POUND MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE. 

P. = Area in eg. in. X piston speed 
33,U00 



Diam. of 






Cylinder, 




Speed of Piston in Feet per Minnte. 


ins. 


100 


240 300 400 450 500 550 600 650 750 


4 


.038 


.091 


.114 


.152 


.171 


.19 


.209 


.2281 


.247 


.285 


4^ 


.048 


.115 


.144 


.192 


.216 


.24 


.264 


.288 


.312 


.360 


5 


.06 


.144 


.18 


.24 


.27 


.30 


.33 


.36 


.39 


.450 


5H 


.072 


.173 


.216 


.288 


.324 


.36 


.396 


.432 


.468 


.540 


6 


.086 


.205 


.256 


.342 


.385 


.428 


.471 


.513 


.555 


.641 


6^3 


.102 


.245 


.307 


.409 


.464 


.512 


.563 


.614 


.698 


.800 


7 


.116 


.279 


.348 


.466 


.524 


.583 


.641 


.699 


.756 


.874 


iy% 


.134 


.321 


.401 


.534 


.602 


.669 


.735 


.802 


.869 


1.002 


8 


.152 


.365 


.456 


.608 


.785 


.761 


.837 


.912 


.989 


1.121 


8^ 


.172 


.413 


.516 


.688 


.774 


.86 


.946 


1.032 


1.118 


1.290 


9 


.192 


.462 


.577 


.770 


.866 


.963 


1.059 


1.154 


1.251 


1.444 


9^ 


.215 


.515 


.644 


.859 


.966 


1.074 


1.181 


1.288 


1.395 


1.610 


10 


.238 


.571 


.714 


.952 


1.071 


1.190 


1.309 


1.428 


1.547 


1.785 


11 


.288 


.691 


.864 


1.152 


1.296 


1.44 


1.584 


1.728 


1.872 


2.160 


12 


.342 


.820 


1.025 


1.366 


1.540 


1.708 


1.880 


2.050 


2.222 


2.564 


13 


.402 


.964 


1.206 


1.608 


1.809 


2.01 


2.211 


2.412 


2613 


3.015 


14 


.466 


1.119 


1.398 


1.864 


2.097 


2.331 


2.564 


2.797 


3.029 


3.495 


15 


.535 


1.285 


1.606 


2.131 


2.409 


2.677 


2.945 


3.212 


3.479 


4.004 


16 


.609 


1.461 


1.827 


2.436 


2.741 


3.045 


3.349 


3.654 


3.958 


4.567 


17 


.685 


1.643 


2.054 


2.739 


3.081 


3.424 


3.766 


4.108 


4.450 


5.135 


18 


.771 


1.849 


2.312 


3.083 


3.468 


3.854 


4.239 


4.624 


5.009 


5.780 


19 


.859 


2.061 


2.577 


3.436 


3.865 


4.295 


4.724 


5.154 


5.583 


6.442 


20 


.952 


2.292 


2.855 


3.807 


4.285 


4.759 


5.234 


5.731 


6.186 


7.138 


21 


1.049 


2.518 


3.148 


4.197 


4.722 


5.247 


5.771 


6.296 


6.820 


7.869 


22 


1.152 


2.764 


8.455 


4.607 


5.183 


5.759 


6.334 


6.911 


7.486 


8.638 


23 


1.259 


3.021 


3.776 


5.035 


5.664 


6.294 


6.923 


7.552 


8.181 


9.44 


24 


1.370 


3.289 


4.111 


5.482 


6.167 


6.853 


7.538 


8.223 


8.908 


10.279 


25 


1.487 


3.569 


4.461 


5.948 


6.692 


7.436 


8.179 


8.923 


9.566 


11.053 


26 


1.609 


3.861 


4.826 


6.435 


7.239 


8.044 


8.848 


9.652 


10.456 


12.065 


27 


1.733 


4.159 


5.199 


6.932 


7.799 


8.666 


9.532 


10.399 


11.265 


12.998 


28 


1.865 


4.477 


5.596 


7.462 


8.395 


9.328 


10.261 


11.193 


12.125 


13.991 


29 


2.002 


4.805 


6.006 


8.008 


9.009 


10.01 


11.011 


12.012 


13.013 


15.015 


30 


2.142 


5.141 


6.426 


8.568 


9.639 


10.71 


11.781 


12.852 


13.923 


16.065 


31 


2.288 


5.486 


6.805 


9.144 


10.287 


11.43 


12.573 


13.716 


14.866 


17.145 


32 


2.436 


5.846 


7.308 


9.744 


10.962 


12.18 


13.398 


14.616 


15.834 


18.270 


33 


2.590 


6.216 


7.770 


10.360 


11.655 


12.959 


14.245 


15.54 


16.835 


19.425 


34 


2.746 


6.59 


8.238 


10.984 


12.357 


13.73 


15.103 


16.476 


17.849 


20.595 


35 


2.914 


6.993 


8.742 


11.656 


13.113 


14.57 


16.027 


17.484 


18.941 


21 855 


36 


3.084 


7.401 


9.252 


12.336 


13.878 


15.42 


16.962 


18.504 


20.046 


23.130 


37 


3.253 


7.819 


9.774 


13.032 


14.861 


16.29 


17.919 


19.548 


21.177 


24.435 


38 


3.436 


8.246 


10.308 


13.744 


15.462 


17.18 


18.898 


20.616 


22.334 


25.770 


39 


3.620 


8.648 


10.86 


14.48 


16.29 


18.1 


19.91 


21.62 


23.53 


27.150 


40 


3.808 


9.139 


11.424 


15.232 


17.136 


19.04 


20.944 


22.848 


24.752 


28.560 


41 


4.002 


9.604 


12.006 


16.008 


18.009 


20.00 


22.011 


24.012 


26.013 


30.015 


42 


4.198 


10.065 


12.594 


16.792 


18.901 


20.99 


23.089 


25.188 


27.287 


SI. 485 


43 


4.40 


10 56 


13.20 


17.6 


19.8 


22.00 


24.2 


26.4 


28.6 


33.00 


44' 


4.606 


11.046 


13.818 


18.424 


20.727 


23.03 


25.333 


27.636 


29.939 


34.545 


45 


4.818 


11.503 


11.454 


19.272 


21.681 


24.09 


26.399 


28.908 


31.317 


36.135 


46 


5.043 


12.086 


15.128 


20.144 


22.662 


25.18 


27.698 


30.216 


32.754 


37.770 


47 


5.256 


12.614 


15.768 


21.024 


23.652 


26.28 


28.908 


31.536 


34.164 


39.420 


48 


5.482 


12.846 


16.446 


21.928 


24.669 


27.41 


30.151 


33.152 


35 633 


41.115 


49 


5.714 


12.913 


17.142 


22.856 


25.713 


28.57 


31.427 


34.284 


37.141 


42.855 


50 


5.950 


14.28 


17.85 


23.8 


26.775 


29.75 


32.725 


35.7 


38.675 


44.625 


51 


6.180 


14.832 


18.54 


24.76 


27.855 


30.95 


34.045 


37.08 


40.205 


46.425 


52 


6.432 


15.437 


19.296 


25.728 


28.944 


32.16 


35.376 


38.592 


41.808 


48.240 


53 


6.684 


16.041 


20.052 


26.736 


30.078 


32.42 


36.762 


40.104 


43.446 


50.130 


54 


0.940 


16.656 


20-82 


27.76 


31.23 


33.7 


38.17 


41.64 


45.11 


52.05 


55 


7.198 


17.275 


21.594 


28.792 


32.391 


35.99 


39.589 


43.188 


46 787 


53.985 


56 


7.462 


17.909 


22.386 


29.848 


33.579 


37.31 


41.041 


44.772 


48.503 


55.965 


57 


7.732 


18.557 


23.196 


30.928 


34.794 


38.66 


42.526 


46.392 


50.258 


57.99 


58 


8.006 


19.214 


24.018 


32.024 


36.027 


40.03 


44.033 


48.036 


52.039 


60.045 


59 


8.284 


19.902 


24.852 


33.136 


37.278 


41.42 


45.562 


49.704 


53.846 


62.13 


60 


8.356 


20.558 


2.5.698 


34.264 


38.547 


42.83 


47.113 


51.396 


55.679 


64.245 



2l6 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



TRUE RATIO OF EXPANSION AS AFFECTED BY CUT-OFF 
AND CLEARANCE. 



O J 

•2.2 
e ft 


PER CENT OP CLEARANCE. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


I* 








PER CENT OF CUT-OFF. 









1 

2 



4^ 

5 
5^ 

6 

61,. 

7 

7;.., 

8' 



10 

10^ 

11 

11^ 

12 

13 

14 
15 
16 

17 
13 
19 
£0 



1.000 

.789 
.663 
.567 

.495 
.439 
.394 
.358 

.327 
.279 
.243 
.215 

.192 
.174 
.158 
.145 

.134 
.125 
.116 
.109 

.102 
.096 
.091 



.0 C 2 
.078 
.074 
.068 

.062 
.057 
.053 

.049 
.046 
.043 

.UlO 



1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.C00 


1.000 


1.000 


.796 


.794 


.792 


.790 


.787 


.785 


.783 


.781 


.660 


.657 


.654 


.650 


.646 


.643 


.640 


.636 


.563 


.559 


.555 


.550 


.515 


.541 


.537 


.533 


.490 


.485 


.480 


.475 


.470 


.465 


.460 


.455 


.433 


.428 


.423 


.417 


.411 


.406 


.400 


.395 


.388 


.382 


.376 


.370 


.364 


.358 


.352 


.346 


.351 


.345 


.338 


.332 


.325 


.319 


.313 


.306 


.320 


.313 


.307 


.300 


.293 


.287 


.280 


.273 


.271 


.265 


.257 


.250 


.243 


.236 


.228 


.221 


.235 


.227 


.220 


.212 


.205 


.197 


.190 


.182 


.207 


.199 


.191 


.183 


.175 


.168 


.160 


.152 


.184 


.176 


.168 


.160 


.152 


.144 


.136 


.128 


.165 


.157 


.149 


.141 


.132 


.125 


.116 


.108 


.150 


.142 


.133 


.125 


.116 


.108 


.100 


.092 


.137 


.128 


.120 


.112 


.103 


.095, 


.086 


.078 


.126 


.117 


.109 


.100 


.091 


.083 


.074 


.066 


.116 


.107 


.099 


.090 


.081 


.073 


.064 


.055 


.108 


.099 


.090 


.081 


.072 


.064 


.055 


.046 


.100 


.091 


.082 


.074 


.065 


.056 


.047. 


.038 


.093 


.084 


.076 


.067 


.058 


.049 : 


.010 


.031 


.087 


.078 


.070 


.060 


.052 


.043 


.034 


.025 


.082 


.073 


.064 


.055 


.046 


.037 


.028 




.077 


.068 


.059 


.050 


.041 


.032 


.023 




.073 


.064 


.055 


.045 


.036 


.027 






.009 


.060 


.050 


.041 


;032 


.0.3 






.065 


.056 


.047 


.037 


.028 








: .058 


.049 


.040 


.031 


.021 








.053 


.044 


.034 


.025 








■•.j... 


.048 


.039 


.029 


:o2o 








...... 


.044 


.034 


.025 










..j... 


.040 


.031 


.021 










. . i . . . 


.037 


.027 












..... 


.034 


.024 














.031 


.021 















ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



217 



COMPRESSION OF STEAM IN THE CYLINDERS. 

Best Periods op Compression; Clearance 7 per cent. 






TOTAL BACK PRESSURE, IN PERCENTAGES OF TOTAL INITIAL PRESSURE. 


pj m a 






m 


5 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 35 


p*o 














1 


0^5 




£ 


PERIODS OF COMPRESSION, IN PARTS OF THE STROKE. 


10% 

15 


65% 

58 


57%" 


44%" 


32%" 










52 


40 


29 


23% 
22 








20 


52 


47 


37 


27 








25 


47 
42 


42 
39 


34 
32 


26 
25 


21 
20 


17% 
16 






30 


14% 


12% 


35 


39 


35 


29 


23 


19 


15 


13 


11 


40 


36 


32 


27 


21 


18 


14 


13 


11 


45 


33 


30 


25 


20 


17 


14 


12 


10 


50 


30 


27 


23 


18 


16 


13 


12 


10 


55 


27 


24 


21 


17 


15 


13 


11 


9 


60 


24 


22 


19 


15 


14 


12 


11 


9 


65 


22 


20 


17 


15 


14 


12 


10 


8 


70 


19 


17 


16 


14 


14 


12 


10 


8 


75 


17 


16 


14 


13 


12 


11 


9 


8 



STEAM CONSUMPTION DISTRIBUTION AND VARIOUS 
EFFICIENCIES OF AVERAGE ENGINES FROM 
300 TO 500 H. P. 







Dry Steam 


Con- 






t «o . 








OQ 


Sumption, 


Lbs. 




>> . 




, . 


SqO 




<u 


per 1 H. P. 


hour. 


.2 
"0 -w 

IS 

Wo 


S 2 . 
.2 "0+= 


§00 

O ofL, 
-tf.2 . 




Engine Class. 


•tf . 


. 






o„- 

1 




11 


g * "5, 

'p 




"5 §3 
I 


fcJCO 

so 


•.SH ° 

(3 d M 

W3 


2 &$ 
^■3 


05 


NON-CONDENSING. 




















Throttling, small 


80 


17.83 


27.17 


45 


14.29 


39.7 


5.67 


85. 


4.82 


Simple, Dep. Valve 


100 


10.08 


16.92 


33 


15.77 


48.75 


7.C5 


94 


7.19 


Compound Dep. Valve. 


130 


14.30 


9.70 


24 


17.62 


59.6 


10.50 


- 92 


9.66 


Simple Indep. Valve.... 


100 


16.08 


11.92 


28 


15.77 


59.5 


9.05 


92 


8.32 


Compo'nd Indep. Valve 


130 


14.30 


7.70 


22 


17.02 


65. 


11.44 


90 


9.28 


CONDENSING. 




















Simple Dep. Valve 

Compound Dep. Valve. 

Triple Dep. Valve 

Simple Indep. Valve.... 
Compo'nd Indep. Valve 


100 


8.81 


1«.19 


27 


26.50 


32.65 


8.65 


91 


7.87 


130 


8.27 


11.73 


20 


28.14 


41.35 


11.63 


90 


10.48 


160 


7.85 


9.15 


17 


29.44 


46.2 


13.61 


90 


12.25 


100 


8.81 


13.19 


22 


26.50 


40.05 


10.61 


88 


9.35 


130 


8.27 


9.73 


18 


28.14 


4 'i.95 


12.91 


87 


11.23 


Triple Indep. Valve 


160 


7.85 


7.15 


15 


29.44 


52.4 


15.43 


8V 


13.43 


Comp. or Triple Indep. 




















Valve, very large 


170 


7.74 


5.26 


13 


29.85 


59.5 


17.77 


92 


16.35 



Kotc : The condenser pressure is assumed at 2 lbs. absolute. 



218 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



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220 



ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



REQUISITE WEIGHT OF STEAM PER 1 HP-HOUR AND 
THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF STANDARD ENGINES. 



<d" 


Non-Condens ing 


Condensing Engines. 
Lbs. Absolute Pressure in Condenser. 


1 


Engines, Air 




Pressure, 14.7 lbs. 
Absolute. 




8 












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75 


12.51 


20.45 


26.8 


8.eo 


23.6 


9.98 


21.6 


11.07 


20.1 


12.00 


18.9 


12.ro 


80 


12.95 


19.75 


27.2 


8.46 


24.07 


9.77 


22.07 


10.82 


20.55 


11.73 


19.38 


12.56 


85 


13.40 


19.05 


27.55 


8.35 


24.44 


9.62 


22.5 


10.60 


21.00 


11.47 


19.8 


12.27 


90 


13.86 


18.40 


27.95 


8.22 


24.84 


9.45 


22.9 


10.40 


21.4 


11.23 


20.22 


12.01 


95 


14.29 


17.83 


28.3 


8.11 


25.20 


9.32 


23.3 


10.21 


21.8 


11.03 


20.62 


11.75 


100 


14.68 


17.32 


28.65 


8.U0 


25.60 


9.19 


23.62 


10.06 


22.2 


10.81 


21.00 


11.53 


105 


15.06 


16.89 


28.97 


7.91 


25.90 


9.04 


23.98 


9.91 


22.5 


10.65 


21.35 


11.33 


110 


15.40 


16.48 


29.3 


7.81 


26.22 


8.91 


24.3 


9.76 


22.85 10.48 


21.70 


11.14 


115 


15.77 


16.08 


29.55 


7.73 


26.50 


8.81 


24.6 


9.64 


23.15 10.32 


2^.00 


10.98 


125 


16.45 


15.40 


30.13 


7.57 


27.10 


8.60 


25.2 


9.39 


23.75 


10.05 


22.6 


10.66 


135 


17.05 


14.81 


30.01 


7.45 


27.6 


8.44 


25.8 


9.16 


24.3 


9.82 


23.18 


10.38 


145 


17.62 


14.30 


31.1 


7.32 


28.14 


8.27 


26.25 


8.98 


24.85 


9.57 


23.70 


10.14 


155 


18.14 


13.89 


31.5 


7.20 


28.6 


8.10 


26.7 


8.82 


25.3 


9.40 


24.20 


9 92 


165 


18.61 


13.51 


31.95 


7.10 


29.0 


7.99 


27.2 


8.64 


25.8 


9.20 


24.63 


9.72 


175 


19.10 


13.12 


32.35 


7.00 


29.44 


7.85 


27.6 


8.51 


26.2 


9.04 


25.1 


9.53 


185 


19.55 


12.82 


32.7 


6.92 


29.85 


7.74 


28.0 


8.37 


26.6 


8.90 


25.55 


9.36 


200 


20.15 


12.42 


33.22 


6.60 


30.35 


7.61 


28.53 


8.20 


27 2 

,~ 1 .At 


8.69 


26.1 


9.15 



STEAM PIPING. 

The proper arrangement of piping in a station is such an important matter 
that the relative location of boilers and engines is largely considered with regard 
to their steam connections. In general, the live steam velocity should not exceed 
6000 ft. to 8000 ft. per minute, the lower velocity being used with slow-speed en- 
gines; and 3 per cent drop may be allowed at the end of the steam main furthest 
from the boiler in a single line of pipe. 

The method of calculating the proper size of steam pipe is to first estimate 
the effective length by adding to its actual length the number of globe valves, 
automatic relief valves, separators and T's where the direction of steam flow is 
changed, and multiply the sum by 5. Then add together all the right angle 
elbows, and multiply their sum by 3)4, and add the number of Y's and T's through 
which the steam passes without turning, multiplying this sum by 1.6. The sum 
of these products thus found multiplied by the actual internal diameter of the 
pipe in inches, and the result in feet added to the actual length of pipe line will 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y BAND BOOK. 



221 



give the effective length. The diameter must be assumed and can be checked 
from the table, on this page. 

By obtaining the foot run of pipe, as above, and the pounds of steam per hour 
at each position required on a single header system, and the pressure losses 
assigned to these different _parts of the, piping system, we. can calculate the 
size of pipe. The pounds of steam per hour multiplied by the square root of 
the dividend obtained by dividing the effective length of pipe in feet by the 
pounds pressure to be lost gives from the table below, under the column of the 
initial pressure of steam, the nearest number to that obtained- by applying the 
formula; which is the proper diameter. 





CONSTANTS FOR 


FLOW 


OF STEAM IN 


PIPES. 








Gage Presssure 


Pounds per Square Inch. , \ 


la 


2 


100 


120 


140 


160 


180 M 


200 




Cc 


nstants = Lbs. of £ 


team per 


Hour X \ 




"£ £ 


/ Ft. Pain 




-<.5 
P 


Lbs. Loss of Pressure. 


1 
2 
3 


228 
1,110 
3,960 


620 

3,020 
10,800 


1,530 

7,450 
26,600 


1,650 

8,070 

28,800 


1,760 

8,590 

30>700 


1,870 

9,110 

32,500 


1,960 

9,580 

34,200 


2,060 
10,000 
35,900 


4 
5 
6 


8,390 
15,200 
23,800 


22,900 
41,500 
65,000 


56,400 
102,500 
160,000 


61,100 
110,800 
173,000 


65,000 
118,000 
185,000 


68,900 
125,000 
196,000 


72,500 
132,000 
206,000 


76,000 
138,000 
216,000 


7 
8 
9 


35,400 
50,000 
67,700 


96,500 
136,000 
185,000 


238,000 
336,000 
456,000 


258,000 
364,000 
493,000 


275,000 
388,000 
525,000 


291,000 
411,000 
557,000 


306,000 
432,000 
585,000 


321,000 
453,000 
615,000 


10 
11 
12 


88,700 
113,000 
141,000 


242,000 
308,000 
384,000 


597,000 

762,000 
948,000 


645,000 

822,000 

1,027,000 


687,000 

877,000 

1,094,000 


.730,000 

930,000 

1,158,000 


765,000 

978,000 
1,217,000 


805,000 
1,025,000 
1,280,000- 


13 

14 
15 


172,000 
208,000 
247,000 


470,000 

' 567,000 

675,000 


1,160,000 
1,400,000 
1,670,000 


1,255,000 
1,510,000 
1,800,000 


1,340,000 
1,610,000 
1,920,000 


1,420,000 
1,710,000 
2,040,000 


1.490,000 
1.800,000 
% 140,000 


1,560,000 
1,890,000 
2,240,000 


10 

ir 

13 


290,000 
339,000 
392,000 


793,000 

925,000 

1,070,000 


1.960,000 
2,280,000 
2,640,000~ 


2,110,000 
2,470,000 
2,860,000 


2 260,000 
2,630,000 
3,040,000 


2,390,000 
2,790,000 


2,510JQ00 
2,930,000 
3,390,000 


2,640,000 
3.080,000 
3,560,000 


19 
20 
21 


449,000 
512,000 
579,000 


1,220,000 
1,390,000 
1,580,000 


3,020,000 
3,440,000 
3,900,000 


3,260,000 
3.720,000 
4,210,000 


3.480,000 
3.970,000 
4,490,000 


3,690,000 
4,210,000 
4,760,000 


3,880,000 
4,420,000 
5,010,000 


4.060,000 
4,640,000 
5,250,000 


22 
23 


651,000 
728,000 


1,770.000 
1,989,000 


4.370,000 
4,900,000 


4.730.000 
5,300,000 


5.040,000 
5,650,000 


5,340.000 
.5,990,000 


5,610.000 
6,300,000 


5,900,000 
6,610,000 



A loop system of piping, Fig. 192, is installed to give two methods of feeding 
from the boilers. In this case one side of the loop should be able to carry two- 
thirds of the aggregate steam demand. If there were liability of a breakdown 
the loop system is very effective, as repairs on the piping plant can be made while 
steam is kept constantly on the mains. Statistics on steam pipe breakdowns in 
railway stationd, show a permanent structure with such a remote liability of 
breakdown that the additional first cost and constant condensation coat is not 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



compensated for. Large plants may be built up on the unit system with a single 
main, Fig. 193, or the combination syotem, Fig. 194. A system of smaller pipes 
shows less first cost than a single large steam main. It is doubtful whether it is 
profitable to exceed a 24-in main for pressures over 100 lbs. per square inch. 



S-S 



e 



U X, JL 





Jl IT] [J] pi IT 

lllll 

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arararai 



Has 



Fig. 192.— loop system. 



• VALVES 
Jb BOILERS 
e-£/VG//V£S 

Fia. 193.— UNIT SYSTEM. 





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r-O 


b 

r-O 




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£ 


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Fig. 194.— combination - system. 

In railway work the pounds of steam assumed for pipe calculation should be 
in excess of the average hourly demand, for the reason that the overload falls on 
all engines working in multiple and a fall in pressure varies as the square of the 
rate of flow, thus affecting the regulation of the engine. The steam pipe, if short, 
should contain at least twenty times the volume of the engine cylinders fed from 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



223 



STEAM PIPES. 

Velocity of Steam in Pipes Corresponding to a Constant 
Pressure Loss. 



l-i* 



c3 



S « 

**:> 



Gage Pressure, Pounds per Square Inch. 



100 



120 



140 



160 



180 



200 



Velocity, Feet per Minute at 1 lb. Loss of Pressure per 100 feet. 



12,110 
18,070 
23,450 


4,440 

6,6:25 
8,600 


1,800 
2,680 
3,482 


1,667 
2,482 
3,230 


1,561 
2,325 
3,020 


1,475 

2,197 
2,855 


1,403 
2,090 
2,716 


27,850 
32,420 
35,300 


10,230 
11,900 
12,930 


4,140 
4,815 
5,230 


3,835 
4,460 
4,850 


3.590 

4,175 
4,540 


3,390 
3,945 
4,290 


3,230 

3,750 
4,080 


38,550 
41,600 
44,500 


14,130 
15,270 
16,330 


5,720 
6,175 
6,605 


5,300 
5,720 
6,120 


4,960 
5,360 
5,730 


4,690 
5,060 
5,415 


4,460 
4,820 
5,150 


47.250 
49,750 
52,100 


17,320 
18,250 
19,110 


7,010 
7,380 
7,730 


6,500 
6,845 
7,170 


6,085 
6,410 
6,710 


5,750 
6,050 
6.340 


5,470 
5,760 
6,030 


54,300 
56,500 
58,600 


19,910 
20,690 
21,500 


8.050 
8,375 
8,700 


7.470 

7,760 
8,060 


6,990 
7,270 
7,550 


6,610 
6,870 
7,130 


6,290 
6,530 
6,780 


60,550 
62,500 
64,500 


22,200 
22,950 
23,650 


8,980 
9.280 
9,570 


8,330 
8.600 
8,860 


7,800 
8,050 
8,300 


7,370 
7,605 

7,840 


7.000 
7,235 
7,460 


66,250 
68,100 
69,950 


24,300 
24,950 
25,600 


9.830 
10,110 
10,390 


9.110 
9,370 
9,620 


8,530 
8,770 
9,000 


8,060 
8.280 
8,500 


7 660 
7,880 
8,090 


71.000 
73,250 


26,250 
26,850 


10,630 
10,890 


9.850 
10,080 


9.210 
9,440 


8,710 
8,910 


8,290 

8,480 



1,338 
1,992 
2,590 



,580 



4,255 
4,590 
4,910 

5,210 
5,490 
5,755 

6,000 
6,225 
6,470 

6,685 
6,900 
7,110 

7,310 
7,510 
7,715 

7,900 
8,080 



it. Engines that staggered badly have been cured by adding local steam storage 
where there was a throttling action of the steam main for instantaneous demands. 
This is more noticeable in slow-speed than in high-speed engines. 

As an example of pipe design, we may take a 1000 ihp condensing engine 
with 120 lbs. boiler pressure. As we may under peculiar circumstances desire to 
run non-condeusing at full load, the live steam and atmospheric exhaust pipes 
should be designed to carry 23,000 lbs. per hour, assuming 23 lbs. of steam per 
hp-hour. Overloads if they come are cared for by raising the boiler pressure, as 
the engine is not intended for regular non-condensing running, but the condenser 
exhaust should be proportioned for 25 per cent overload— that is, 1225 ihp at 
about 16 lbs. per hp-hour or a total of 19,GO0 lbs. per hour. Assume the total 
length of steam pipe to be 75 ft. and that there is one separator, one globe valve 
and four sharp right elbows in the line. We thus have (boiler entrance 1, sepa- 
rator 1, globe valve 1 = 3) x 5 = 15. Also S}4 x 4 elbows = 13}^, and the total 
sum is 28. Assuming D at 8 ins. we have 75 ft. -f- (8 X 28) = 299 ft. effective 



224 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Velocity of Steam in Pipes Corresponding to Weight of 
Steam Delivered per Hour. 



u 

o 



■?.% 



Gage Pressure, Pounds per Square Inch. 



100 



120 



140 



ICO 



180 



200 



Velocity, Feet per Minute, per Pound of Steam Delivered per Hour. 



532. 
133. 
59.1 

33.2 
21.3 
14.8 

10.85 
8.30 
6.56 

5.32 
4.40 
3.70 

3.15 
2.72 
2.36 

2.08 
1.84 
1.64 

1.47 
1.33 
1.21 

1.10 
1.00 



71.5 
17.9 
7.94 


11.74 
2.935 
1.305 


10.1 

2.52 • 
1.1 2J 


8.84 
2.21 
.982 


7.89 
1.97 
.877 


7.13 
1.78 
.792 


4.47 
2.86 
1.99 


.734 
.470 
.327 


.631 
.404 

.281 


.553 
.354 
.246 


.493 
.316 
.219 


.446 

.285 
.198 


1.46 

1.12 

.881 


.240 

.183 
.145 


.206 
.158 
.125 


.180 
.138 
.109 


.161 
.123 
.0972 


.145 
.111 

.0880 


.715 
.590 

.497 


.117 
.0971 
.0816 


.101 

.0835 

.0702 


.0884 
.0730 
.0614 


.0789 
.0651 
.0548 


.0713 
.0589 
.0496 


.423 

.365 
.318 


,0695 
0599 
0522 


.0598 
.0515 
.0449 


.0523 
.0451 
.0393 


.0467 
.0102 
.0350 


.0422 
.0364 
.0317 


.280 
.248 
.220 


.0158 
0407 
0362 


.0394 
.0350 
.0312 


.0345 
.0306 
.0273 


.0308 
.0273 
.0243 


.0279 
.0247 
.0220 


.198 

.179 
.162 


.0326 
.0294 

.0278, 


.0280 
.0252 
.0239 


.0245 
.0221 
.0200 


.0218 
.0197 
.0179 


.0198 
.0178 
.0162 


.148 
.135 


.0243 
.0222 


.0209 
.0:91 , 


.0183 
.0167 


.0163 
.0149 


.0147 
.0135 



6.48 
1.62 

.72 

.405 
.259 

.180 

.132 
.101 
.0799 

.0648 
.0535 
.0450 



.0330 
.0288 



.0253 
.0225 



.0180 
.0162 
.0152 

.0134 

.0122 



and 



4 



209_ 
3.6 



8.89 per pound X 



length. Three per cent pressure loss is 3.6 lbs. 

23,000 lbs. = 204,000. 

We find in table, page 221, that this corresponds to a little more than a 6-in. 
pipe. Assuming the pipe to be 6 ins. and calculating over again we get an effective 
length of 242 ft. and a constant of 188,000, corresponding to a pipe just larger than 
6 ins. If the globe valve was replaced by a gate valve, and long sweep elbows 
used, the effective length would be 95 ft. and the corresponding diameter is just 
1 in. smaller: the construction cost would be 20 per cent less, and the condensa- 
tion would be 17 per cent less than with the other fittings and larger pipe. 

Material and Sizes of Steam Piping.— Wrought iron pipe and cast-iron 

fittings are generally used. The pipe is made in "standard weight," "extra 
strong '* and " double extra strong ■" grades. Fittings are "light weight," "stand- 
ard weight" and "extra heavy " grades. All pipe and fittings are rated by "nom- 
inal inside diameter ' of pipe up to and including 12 ins. There is no 13 in. size, 
and all material above 12 ins. is rated by the actual outside diameter, and so 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 225 



(specified. Thug a pipe 13.25 ins. inside diameter i3 called " 14 in. O. D," and the 
nest size " 15 in. O. D." " Standard " pipe should be proved to 300 lbs. per sq. in. 
hydraulic pressure in eizes up to 1*4 in-, and to 500 lbs. in larger sizes. Pipe 
i should be good for a working pressure of half its proof pressure. Thus "stand- 
|ard weight" pipe is generally used; but on account of insufficient thickness at 
j the threads, for 1 in., 2% in. and 3 in. pipe, if a strong job is desired, especially 
i at boilers and main line taps, " extra strong " is generally specified. 

Brass pipe is generally used around machinery for gages and oiling systems 
on account of the ease of bending, better finish and less liability to leak with oil 
I than iron pipe. Copper pipe is used for long sweeps and expansion bends, the 
I pipe generally being riveted and brazed to brass flanges. Soft steel pipe is used 
j where the pipe has to be flanged over the flange ends, and is an alternative for 
I copper pipe in long sweeps or expansion bends. 

Fittings. — In regard to fittings, "lightweight" is good for 25 lbs. pressure 
and is therefore used for atmospheric exhaust work. Double, galvanized, spiral- 
riveted, flanged-iron pressure pipes are also used for this work. For condenser 
exhaust work it may also be used, but the real trouble with light weight fittings 
is the liability of breakages in making the flanges on the pipe and drawing them 
up tight if there is any strain due to poor alignment. " Standard weight " is very 
satisfactory for exhaust work and steam pressures below 100 lbs., though it is 
often used up to 150 lbs., the only objection being that it is difficult to get the 
flanges tight enough together for high pressure work without breaking the bolts. 
There is an objection to the extra heavy fittings, ia that the number of bolt holes 
in most of the flanges are not even multiples of 4, and in some cases are an odd 
number. This arrangement makes a quarter turn impossible. 

Valves.— Valves are of "globe" and "gate" patterns, the seats being made 
of a variety of metals. Bronze seats give very good results for globe and gate 
valves; but exhaust gate valves, and valves seldom used, may have babbitt seats 
iu order to reduce the cost. It is advantageous to have the seats renewable. 
Valves with outride screw and yoke are often made with a cone top on the stem 
just under the gland, the top and corresponding seat being ground. This makes 
it possible to pack the gland under pressure by opening the valve wide. On ac- 
count of the collection of dirt or scale on [the stem seat, the valve may blow too 
much for packing under pressure. 

Valve seats as well as all piping should be cleaned just before erection, and 
after erection steam blown through them to the air in order to remove unavoid- 
. able dirt. To close a valve no attempt should be made to screw the gate down 
harder than the manual effort of the handwheel, for it generally results in mar- 
ring the seat or twisting the stem. A clot of water suddenly released has suffi- 
cient velocity given it with steam behind it to break cast fittings, therefore care 
must be taken iu opening valves. Babbitt seat valves for condenser exhaust 
work should be bj r -passed for 20 ins. and over. Atmospheric exhaust valves do 
not need b3"-passes. Bronze seat valves should be by-passed at 12 ins. or 14 ins. 
and over for 100 lbs., at 8 ins. or 10 ins. for 150 lbs., and at 6 ins. or Sins, for 200 
lbs. pressure. 

In opening up pipe or fittings shut off from the steam supply by valves, some 
positive means should be taken to learn that the valves are not leaking danger- 
ously; therefore before risking the opening of the pipe line, drill a 24 _rn » hole in 
the pipe, which can afterwards be plugged. 

Steam Pipe Joints.— Tight joints are the combined result of good design 
and workmanship. The screw threads should be perfect. Where flanges are 



226 ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



used they should he made up tight, and the pipe ends should not come flush with 
their faces. All threads, flange faces and gaskets, hut not ground faces, should 
be painted before assembling. For work that is permanent Caliban's cement is 
very satisfactory, or graphite mixed with boiled linseed oil. If these are not 
convenient, a mixture of 2 of- white lead to 1 of red lead in boiled linseed oil is very 
good. Eed lead alone is liable to crack under strains. In any case the paint 
should not be thin and should be thoroughly and uniformly applied with a brush 
over the abutting surfaces. 

Small pipes are joined throughout with screw couplings, but large pipes 
should have flange joints at all fittings, and screw couplings elsewhere. Light 
and medium pressure flanges are screwed ou the pipe, and have plain faces. High- 
pressure flanges are screwed or welded on to the pipe ends, or else the latter are 
flared over the flange faces and expanded into recesses in their hubs, the portion 
of the pipe flared over being usually finished for a ground joint. Where ground 
joints are not used it leads to better results to have the flange faces tongued 
and grooved. 

Square-head bolts and hexagon nuts are preferable, and wrenches or span- 
ners for them should have hardened surfaces and be extra strong so that a small 
pipe may be used as a lever. A hammer should not be used to turn the wrench. 
Where cap bolts have to be used, as in attaching to separators, etc., they should 
have a hexagon head; and considerable care has to be used before assembling, to 
see that the bolts are an easy fit, and afterwards that they do not break or strip 
the thread. 

Gaskets cut out of sheet packing may be used where they are not liable to 
blow out, as on exhaust pipes and inside the tongue of high pressure flanges, but 
corrugated copper gaskets are not expensive and are more easily applied and gen- 
erally better, though in some cases the superior elasticity of heavy sheet packing 
may stop a leak, even in a live steam pipe, where copper fails. The hole diameter 
of gaskets should be between the inside and outside pipe diameters. The outside 
diameter should be equal to the inside of the bolt-hole diameter for copper gaskets 
and the outside flange diameter for sheet packing unless tongued and grooved 
flanges are used, in which case it should equal the inside tongue diameter. Tongued 
and grooved flanges may also be packed at the bottom of the groove with asbestos 
or sheet packing. In any case gaskets or packing should have no radial cuts. 

If flange faces are found to leak after the steam is on, the pressure should be 
entirely relieved before attempting to tighten them. If screw threads are found 
to leak they may sometimes be caulked with soft copper wire with the pressure 
on or off as desired. 

Steam. Pipe Supports. — Pipe hanging of the best order is absolutely neces- 
sary if tight joints are desired. Trouble with vibration is chiefly due to turns in 
the pipe being reacted upon by steam puffing tb rough the steam main. Pipe is 
best hung from short rigid centers in such a manner that the pipe may move 
longitudinally under expansion strains due to heat, but not transversely under 
any conditions. Longitudinal vibration will be prevented by the shortness of 
the suspension radii. 

Where pipe must be hung on a long radius from above, it may be successfully 
accomplished by a three-joint or four-joint suspension with the upper suspension 
ends well spread apart. The suspension rods should have turn buckles and must 
be provided with means to prevent their transverse vibration if they are very long. 

Separators, Engine Drains, Etc.— Separators for oil or water depend for 
their success upon a few simple conditions. On the live steam side they should be 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 227 



placed as close to the engine as. possible. In case dry steam is expected from the 
boilers, they should be pretty cheap, but if the boilers are expected to prime, no 
desirable quality should be omitted. Of course, in any case there is no use for 
them if they will not separate, but the cost is mainly dependent on the capacity 
and naturally this need not be so large where water is but a possible contingency 
as where it is a probable one. Large separators, if they can be placed near the 
engine, undoubtedly equalize the pressure and thereby help the speed regulation. 

The qualifications of a good separator are that, in entering it, the steam shall 
immediately change its direction of flow and reduce its velocity. The water or oil 
having greater specific weight will not change so rapidly and may therefore be 
thrown to surfaces down which they may run to a receiving chamber. In doing so 
they should not leave the surface or be blown along it into the current of steam. 
After reaching the receiving chamber they should be protected from violent 
waves or rotary motion and preferably also from contact with the steam current. 
An ample chamber and drain should be provided in steam separators to take care 
of sudden large quantities of water which may come over by priming. 

One of the best precautions against water troubles is 20 degs. to 40 degs. Fahr. 
of superheat in the steam. Pipe coverings help, but condensation in the pipes is 
not a great source of danger unless it is allowed to collect. The chief trouble is 
due to the gradual collection of water in improperly drained pipe, and the carry- 
ing over of large clots of water from a boiler which is priming. In general, pipes 
should not rise vertically in the direction of flow. If it is necessary to do so, a 
separator should be placed on the horizontal run as near the riser as possible. 
In exhaust pipes a drain pipe may be used instead of a separator. Pipes should 
never rise gradually in the direction of flow, as it is impossible to drain them, 
though they may slant downwards without harm. Particular care has to be 
exercised with fittings, particularly reduction fittings, to ensure that they do not 
partially pocket a run of pipe. The fitting pockets, themselves, should be, and 
generally are, small enough to be immaterial. 

Drainage is usually accomplished by pipes y in. to 2 in. diameter. 1-in. pipes 
will care for a good deal of water; and it does not pay to make them too big on 
account of the cost and radiation. Live steam drainage pipes, which are continu- 
ously in use, should be covered; they should also be blown out with live steam 
every six months. They should be provided with valves wherever necessary, but 
these valves should be periodically inspected to see that they are hard open 
wherever they should be. In condensing engines the cylinder drain cocks must 
be piped to the exhaust pipe. In non-condensing engines they may be piped to 
the exhaust or to waste; never to the drainage system as the water contains oil. 
As such pipes carry more or less oil they should be of ample size. Where the 
steam pipes descend to the engine they should have a small drain pipe, about y z in., 
with a valve just above the throttle to take out the condensed water in the pipe 
before the throttle valve is opened. The same applies to the steam chest drips. 
With condensing engines the exhaust pipe should drain itself into the condenser, 
which should be located below the lowest point in the pipe. "With non-condensing 
engines where the exhaust pipe is not self-draining, there should be % in. to 1 in. 
drips to waste just before the rise, and at the lowest joint of the pipe if there is 
any other; these drips should not have valves. 

Automatic cylinder relief cocks should be drained by lj^-in. to 2J^-in. pipes 
to waste so that the drain may be observed from time to lime to detect undue 
leakage at the cocks. The cylinder steam jackets, and the receiver coils of qom- 
pound engines, where the latter acts as a reheater should also be drained. 

Some arrangements must be made to take the water from the live steam pipes 



228 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK, 



without opening them to low pressures. One or two traps of large capacity, into 
which all pipes drain, should be connected with highw r ater alarm whistles and 
hand by-pass valves. The "steam loop," especially as modified iu the "Holly 
System," gives a positive method. 

The plain steam loop shown in Fig. 195 draining a separator, operates as 
follows: The pressure in the separator being supposed to be 95 lbs., and the 
boiler pressure 100 lbs., water will rise in the "drop leg" 11L£ ft. above the 
boiler water level so as to balance the 5 lbs. pressure difference. Steam enters 
the "horizontal " from the separator and is condensed by radiation, the water 
flowing down the drop leg. More steam rushes up the "riser" to fill its place 
and in doing so entrains Avater from the separator with it. The whole goes to the 
"horizontal" where the steam is condensed. Thus the action is continuous. It 
will be noticed that the condensation in the horizontal being small, the resulting 
action is correspondingly weak. Also that if the, separator becomes filled by a 
sudden flow of water so that the steam cannot reach the riser, the drainage will 
gtop. This is the vital objection to the simple " loop." 



HORIZONTAL 




CHECK 



SEP/1 RAW a 

Fig. 195.— plain steam loop. 



Fig. 196 shows the "Steam Loop and Holly Gravity Return System," which is 
a modified steam loop suitable to practical conditions. A shows the receiver, 
placed below the lowest point to be drained, into which all drainage water flows 
by gravity, and which is of sufficient capacity to care for sudden large quanti- 
ties. / is preferably but not necessarily the highest point to be drained, not 
much below boiler pressure, and is likely to have condensation water most of the 
time. This water flows through the suction T, Z, which, on the injector princi- 
ple, helps to draw water through the header iT-2 from such points as may not be 
so favorably located as /. The water in A passes partly through the perforated 
plate, //, and as steam rushes up the riser, C, it has to do so through the perfor- 
ations over the water surface, which materially assists it to entrain water and 
carry it through the T, O, into the discharge chamber, B, which is in reality only 
the top of the drop leg, D. 

There is no " horizontal " in this system, i. ,?., no arrangement for the con- 
densation of steam by radiation within the system itself; but instead the pipe P 
takes a small continuous supply of steam to some place where it can be used. 
Generally the only place Avhere it can be used continuously is the feed water 
healer, and usually there is but small return for live steam put in there. If the 
boiler feed pump pumps cold water, a little may generaliy be fed through the 
pipe r-2 and the "spray "into B, which then acts as a condenser and draws the 



ELECTRIC RAILWA V HAND BOOK. 



229 



water up higher in D, and the steam rapidly up C, without experiencing the Joss 
previously mentioned. A is equipped with eight gage and loud alarm whistle; 
£-2 and E should be furnished with atmospheric discharge valves and pipes for 
emergency use; the pipes iT-3 should have valves close to the header. All valves 
except checks should be gate valves. P\ is a reducing valve, P-2, a three-way 
valve, i^is a check valve and the starting valve shown is for blowing out air. The 
Pollers should be interconnected by a steam pipe of ample size to equalize their 

reoeure under all conditions. After the system is once properly started it will 

;:n indefinitely without attention. 




Fig. 196.— noLLT loop. 



Coverings.— Steam pipe losses resultf rom friction of the pipe walls, bends and 
valvc3, and from radiating heat through the walls of the pipe ; but when either of 
these losses are reduced in the dimensions of the pipe, the other is increased. As 
the radiation can be decreased largely by insulating the pipe, these losses cannot 
be equalled for the least profitable investment. There is no inconsiderable loss 
from conduction through supports and connections in any steam main; an engine 
indicator connected to it will show the variations of steam pressure for different 
steam demands, which can he judged from main ammeter readings. If the volume 
of steam contained in the header is known, the effectiveness of the insulation to 



230 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



DIMENSIONS OF STANDARD WEIGHT WROUGHT-IRON PIPE. 

1J4 and smaller, proved to 300 lbs. per square inch by hydraulic pressure. 
1}4 an d larger, proved to 500 lbs. per square inch by hydraulic pressure. 



Nominal 

Inside 

Diameter, 


Actual 

Outside 

Diameter. 


Thickness 


Actual 

Inside 

Diameter. 


Weight 

per 
Foot. 


Threads 
per 
Inch. 


Taper of 
Threads 


Inches. 

y 8 

i 


Inches. 
0.405 
0.54 
0.675 
0.84 
1.05 


Inches. 
0.068 
0.088 
0.091 
0.109 
0.113 


Inches. 
0.207 
0.364 
0.494 
0.623 
0.824 


Pounds. 
0.243 
0.242 
0.561 
0.845 
1.126 


Number. 
27 

18 
18 
14 
14 




i 

m 


1.315 

1.66 

1.90 


0.134 
0.140 
0.145 


1.048 
1.380 
1.611 


1.670 
2.258 
2.694 


11^5 


1 

<4-l 

o 


2 

2^ 


2.375 

2.875 


0.154 
0.204 


2.067 
2.468 


3.600 
5.773 


MM 

8 


o 

..3 


3 

3^ 


3.50 
4.00 


0.217 
0.226 


3.067 
3.548 


7.547 
9.055 


8 
8 




4 

4y 2 


4.50 
5.00 


0.237 
0.247 


4.026 
4.508 


10.66 
12.34 


8 
8 


•J* 


5 
6 

7 


5.563 
6.625 
7.625 


0.259 

0.280 
0.301 


5.045 
C.0G5 
7.023 


14.50 

18.767 
23.27 


8 
8 
8 




8 


8.625 
9.625 
10.75 


0.322 
0.344 
0.366 


7.982 

9.001 

10.019 


28.177 

33.70 

40.06 


8 
8 
8 




9 

10 


£ 


11 
12 
13 


12.00 
12.75 
14.00 


0.375 
0.375 
0.375 


11.25 

12.000 

13.25 


45.95 
48.98 
53.92 


8 
8 
8 


o 
m 

o 
•S 
u 


14 


15.00 
16.00 
18.00 


0.375 
0.375 
0.375 


14.25 
15.25 
17.25 


57.89 
61.77 
69.66 


8 
8 




Pk 


• 


20.00 
22.00 
24.00 


0.375 
0.375 
0.375 


19.25 
21.25 
23.25 


77.57 
85.47 
93.37 


. 


.5 









radiation can be obtained by closing the connecting valves from the boiler and 
to the engine, and noting the fall in pressure, and the time that will give for the 
header its rate of radiation. In order that this test be reliable the valves must be 
tested for steam tightness. The valve losses from radiation in steam piping are 
considerable; in a plant with an output of 4200 hp., non-condensing, the losses 
were as follows: Condensation and conduction, .36 per cent; leakage, .83 per 
cent; total lbs. of steam per hour lost, 5C00 lbs., at an annual cost of production 
of $1120 per year. Another plant of 2100 indicated horse-power, condensing, 
showed .83 per cent leakage only. 

The condensation loss may be roughly approximated as equal to .55 B. T. Tj. 
per hour, per inch external diameter, per foot of bare pipe, per Fahr. degree 
temperature difference between the pipe and air. The loss per square foot per 
hour per Fahr. degree temperature difference is about 2.1 B. T. U. Actually, as 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 



231 



DIMENSIONS OF EXTRA STRONG WROUGHT-ERON PIPE. 



Nominal 


Actual 


Actual 




Nominal 


Inside 


Inside 


Outside 


Thickness. 


Weight per 


Diameter. 


Diameter. 


Diameter* 




Foot. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Pounds. 


Ya 


.20 


.40 


.10 


.29 


i 


.29 


.54 


.12 


.54 




.42 


.67 


.12 


.74 


$& 


.54 


.84 


.14 


1.09 


% 


.93 


1.05 


.15 


1,53 


1 


.95 


1.31 


.18 


2.17 


% 


1.27 


1.66 


.19 


3.00 


1.49 


1.90 


20 


3.64 


2 


1.93 


2.37 


.22 


5.02 


2^ 


2.31 


2.87 


.28 


7.67 


3 


2.89 


8.50 


.30 


10.25 


'#A 


3.35 


4.00 


.32 


12.47 


4 


3.81 


4.50 


.34 


14.97 


4V3 


4.25 


5.00 


.35 


17.60 


5 


4.81 


5.56 


.37 


30.54 


6 


5.75 


6.62 


.43 


28.50 


7 


6.62 


7.62 


.50 


37.60 


8 


7.50 


8.62 


.56 


47.85 



IRON PIPE SIZES OF SEAMXESS DRAWN BRASS AND 
COPPER TUBES. 

"Will thread to fit iron pipe fittings. 











Approximate Weight per Ft. 


Iron Pipe 


Inside 
Diameter. 


Outside 
Diameter. 


Length Feet, 
ahout. 




Size. 














Brass. 


Copper. 


% 


.27 


M 


12 


.30 


.31 


» 


.36 
.49 


n 


12 
12 


.43 
.58 


.45 

.61 


Y2 


.62 


ii 


12 


.80 


.84 


■ %. 


.82 


liV 


12 


1.17 


1.23 


1 


1.04 


h% 


12 


1.67 


1.75 


M 


1.38 


m 


12 


2.42 


2.54 


1.61 


m 


12 


2.92 


3.07 


2 


2.06 


2% 


12 


4.17 


4.38 


2% 


2.46 


m 


12 


5.00 


5.25 


3 


3.06 


2}£ 


12 


8.00 


8.40 


3J£ 


3.50 


4 


12 


10.00 


10.50 


4 


4.02 


4H 


12 


12.00 


12.00 


5 


5.04 


5.56 


8 to 10 


15.93 


17.30 


6 


6.06 


6.62 


6 to 8 


20.69 


22.38 


7 


7.02 


7.62 


Special 


26.28 


27.77 


8 


7.98 


8.62 


Special 


29.88 


33.69 



232 



ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



Pounds of Steam Condensed per Hour per Foot of Covered Pipe, 

Covering 1 inch thick, having conductivity of J^. 

Temperature of Air 80 degs. Fahr. 



External 






Steam Gage Pressure, Pounds 






Diam. of 
















Pipe, 
Inches. 


80 


100 


120 


140 


160 


180 


200 


1 


.050 


.054 


.057 


.060 


.063 


.065 


.067 


2 


.101 


.108 


.114 


.120 


.125 


.130 


.134 


3 


.151 


.162 


.172 


.180 


.188 


.195 


.202 


4 


.202 


.216 


.229 


.239 


.250 


.260 


.269 


5 


.252 


.269 


.286 


.299 


.312 


.325 


.34 


6 


.302 


.323 


.34 


.36 


.38 


.39 


.40 


7 


.35 


.38 


.40 


.42 


.44 


.45 


.47 


8 


.40 


.43 


.46 


.48 


.50 


.52 


.54 


9 


.45 


.48 


.51 


.54 


.56 


.58 


.61 


10 


.50 


.54 


KW 


.60 


.63 


.65 


.67 


12 


.GO 


.65 


.69 


.72 


.75 


.78 


.81 


14 


.71 


.75 


.80 


.84 


.88 


.91 


.94 


16 


.81 


.86 


.91 


.96 


1.00 


1.04 


1.08 


18 


.91 


.97 


1.03 


1.08 


1.13 


1.17 


1.21 


20 


1.01 


1.08 


1.14 


1.20 


1.25 


1.30 


1.34 


22 


1.11 


1.19 


1.26 


1.32 


1.38 


1.43 


1.48 


24 


1.21 


1.29 


1.37 


1.44 


1.50 


1.56 


1.61 



ECONOMY DUE TO SUPERHEATED STEAM. 



Amount of superheat 

Boiler pressure, gage 

Temperature of superheated steam 

Indicated hp 

Lbs. of steam per lb. of coal 

Lbs. of steam per 1 hp-hour 

Lbs. of coal per 1 hp-hour 

Per cent saving in steam due to superheating 
■' " " " coal " " " 




the pipe temperature increases, the loss increases a little faster. Another method 
of comparing the value of different coverings is to have a cone of heat-insulating 
material fitting over the pipe surface to be tested, and with the same steam tem- 
perature for the different samples measure the rate of rise of temperature in the 
air space inside the cone. The loss from covered pipes depends on the thickness, 
kind and quality of the covering and somewhat on the extent to which it is com- 
pressed. 

Coverings in common use are carbonate of magnesia and asbestos, the latter 
bein^ sometimes combined with other materials such as hair and woolen felt. A 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



233 



little asbestos is usually put in magnesia coverings to bind the material. So called 
"Magnesia Covering " is usually 1 in. thick up to 12-in. pipe, over -which it runs 
1J4 i ns - to 1% ins. in thickness. This covering contains practically no magnesia. 
The loss for two samples having a small percentage of good ar-bcotos -was .65 and 
.87 B. T. U. per sq. ft. per hour per Fahr. degree temperature difference, i. e., 
the loss was 31 per cent to 4iy 2 per cent of uncovered pipe. The latter value was 
for the denser sample. 

Pure asbestos generally gives the same or a trifle greater loss than bare pipe. 
"Air Cell Asbestos " about equals " Magnesia Covering." The following tests of 
commercial coverings were made by Geo. M. Brill and reported in Trans. A. S. 
M. E., Vol. XVI., page 827. A length of GO ft. of 8-in. steam pipe was used in the 
tests, and the heat loss was determined by the condensation., The steam pressure 
was from 109 lbs. to 117 lbs. at the gage, and the temperature of the air from 
58 degs. to 81 degs. Fahr. The difference between the temperature of steam and 
air ranged from 263 degs. to 286 degs., averaging 272 degs. 

REPORT OF Ti^STS ON STEAM PIPE COVERINGS. 

(G. M. Briix.) 





ti 


P, 


u 


2^ . 


a: *^ 





II 






T3 




■2jB,a 


bl^ 


E d 

03 0) 


£ d 




9) 

> 

O 


1 S 


its' 


\ OS p, 


in 

V Pi 
O u 




S>-d 


Kind op Covering. 


a 



5 9 

U Pi 

£ 6* 
02 « 


a> d 

p 


tc 

MS 


c 

-^,d 

£%\ 


c > 


a to 
~^-Pn 






03 

(-5 


W 






•-C 

03 O 

M 


HfiH 


Bare pipe 




.846 


12.27 


2.706 




100. 


2.819 




1.2*5 
1.60 

1.30 


.120 
.080 

.089 


1.74 
1.16 

1.29 


.384 
.256 

.285 


.726 
.766 

.757 


14.2 
9.5 

10.5 


.400 




.267 


Mineral wool 


.297 


Fire-felt 


1.30 


.157 


2.28 


.502 


.689 


18.6 


.523 


Manville sectional... . 


1.70 


.109 


1.59 


.350 


.737 


12.9 


.564 


Manv. sect. & hair felt 


2.40 


.066 


0.96 


.212 


.780 


7.8 


.221 


Manville wool-cement 


2.20 


.108 


1.56 


. .345 


.738 


12.7 


.359 


Champ, mineral wool. 


1.44 


.099 


1.44 


.317 


.747 


11.7 


.330 


Hair-felt „ . . . 


.82 


.132 
.298 


1.91 

4.32 


.422 
.953 


.714 
.548 


15.6 
35.2 


.439 




.093 




.75 


.Si75 


3.99 


.879 


.571 


32.5 


.916 







Exhaust Piping.— In long exhaust pipes, radiation is very objectionable, 
for the steam becomes ladened with the condensed moisture and the weight 
opposed to the engine exhaust is greater. Every pound of pressure lost in this 
way cuts off just so much from the bottom of the indicator card and calls for a 
higher steam supply to do the same work. It is therefore imperative that this 
loss should be kept down a3 far as possible in exhaust pipes. In condensing 
engines the exhaust pipe may generally be made comparatively short, though the 
Mo E. P. of condensing engines is rather lower than in the non-condensing type. 
The loss should be a function of the length of pipe, and in either type of engine 



234 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 



should not exceed 1 lb. per 100 ft. actual run plus *4 lb. In exhausts over build- 
ings the weight of the steam column must be added to the back pressure, and the 
size of exhaust pipes will show economy for larger sizes than the formula for 
live steam pipe indicates. An exhaust connected to a vacuum must be air tight 
in order that the condenser will not fail at full load. 

Exhaust Heads should be placed on atmospheric exhaust pipes where the 
noise or water and oil of exhaust are objectionable. Cases have occurred where 
the exhaust pipe opening over the building roof and only one or two engines 
running, the roof and floors below have been set into periodic vibrations by the 
varying air pressure over the roof. The exhaust head is in principle a good deal 




PITTSBURGH 



ECUPSE 



Fig. 197.— types of exhaust heads. 




dvftOY 



like a separator, in so far as the separation of fluid is concerned; the reduction of 
noise is accomplished by the reduced velocity of the steam from the end of the 
cone and also by the steam chamber action similar to the air chamber principle 
in water pumps. Fig. 197 shows several types of modern exhaust heads. 

EXHAUSTNSTEAM CONDENSERS. 

The Jet Condenser. — This consists of a chamber into which the exhaust 
steam and a jet of cool water are conveyed, the exhaust steam being condensed 
by actual mixing with the latter. The volume of this cordensing chamber is 
ordinarily from one-third to one-half that of the cylinder of the engine. 

The water of condensation acting directly upon the steam will make a given 
lowering of temperature of the exhaust steam with less weight of water and less 
bulk and weight of condenser. To condense steam requires from twenty to 
thirty times the weight of water in cool seasons or climates, and from thirty to 
thirty-five times with warm water, as shown by the table on opposite page. 

Where the condensed steam is to be pumped back into the boiler, the injection 
water goes with it; therefore it must be water that is not objectionable for use 
in boilers. 

The total heat contained in 1 lb. of steam as it leaves the low pressure 
cylinder of a condensing engine, is about 11G3 B. T. U, above that contained in 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



235 



COMPARATIVE WEIGHTS OF INJECTION WATER AND STEAM. 



Temperature of 
Hot Well. 



Degs. Fahr. 



100 
110 
120 
130 
140 



Corresponding 

Back-Press, in 

Cylinder. 



Lbs. per sq. inch 



0.94 
1.27 
1.68 
2.21 

2.88 



Temp, of Injection Water, Fahr. 



40 



50 



60 



SO 



90 



Ratio of weight of injection water to weight 
of steam. 



17.8 


21.4 


26.8 


35.7 


53.5 


15.1 


17.7 


21.2 


26.5 


35.3 


13.1 


15.0 


17.5 


21.0 


20. 3 


ll.fi 


13.0 


14.9 


17.3 


20.8 


10.3 


11.4 


12.9 


14.7 


17.2 



107.0 
53.0 
35.0 
26.0 
20.6 



1 lb. of water at 32 degs. Fahr. and the weight of water required to condense this 

1138 _!_ 39 _l_ 7" 1170 T 

steam is r—t = ' — T — / wnere T * 3 tne temperature of the hot 

well, and / the temperature of the injection water, Tis usually from 100 degs. to 
120 degs. Fahr. 

The area of the injection pipe is approximately- where H^is the weight 

130 V j t 

of injection water required per minute in lbs. and h the head of water in feet. 

The Surface Condenser.— This type differs from the foregoing in the fact 
that the exhaust steam is not mixed or brought in actual contact with the water 




Fig. 198.— method op securing tubes in surface condensers. 



which condenses it. In the surface condenser the steam is separated from the 
cool water by metallic partitions or tubes, the ordinary arrangement being to pass 
the cool water through brass tubes around which the steam is caused to circulate, 
or vice versa. The condensing surface required is usually from 1% to 3 square 
feet per indicated horse-power. 

The surface condenser, while more heavy and bulky to handle for cooling a 
given weight of steam discharged as exhaust, can be used with any kind of water. 
The condensed steam can be used again in the boiler, but the effect of distilled 
water is to increase the corrosion in the boiler, and from 10 per cent to 12 per 
cent of its weight of fresh water has to be added in order to reduce this effect. 



236 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Oil must be separated from the steam, and oil separators should be used in the 
exhaust steam main before it enters the condenser. This method is useful when 
the only available water contains solid matter, salts or acids which would be 



TOWEH 




COLD WATER. 



SUCTION TANK 

Fig. 199.— sELF-cooLixa condenser. 



injurious to the boilers. The same water is used over again and so the steam 
circuit is practically a closed one. 

The brass tubes of the condenser are solid drawn, and are generally tinned 
outside and inside. They vary in diameter from y 2 in. to 1 in., but generally are 
% in. outside diameter. Such tubes are about .048 in. in thickness. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 



237 



The tubes are generally secured to the tube plates by screwed glands and 
stuffing boxes, packed with cotton cord or a ring of thick tapes, as shown in 
Fig. 198. They are placed zigzag, and their pitch measured fiom center to 
center, may be from 1.5 to 1.7 their diameter. 

The thickness of tube plates equals the diameter of the tubes in inches, plus 
M in- 




Fig. 200. — syphon or injector condenser. 



In the surface condensers of modern triple expansion marine engines the 
I amount of cooling surface is from 1.1 eq. ft. to 1.5 sq. ft. per indicated horse- 
power. Prof. Yrhitham's rule for the amount of cooling surface is : 
Where 5" equals cooling surface in eq. ft. 

IV " weight of steam to be condensed per hour in lbs. 

T " temperature of steam to be condensed. 

t " mean tompernturo of circulating water which is the 

arithmetical mean of initial and final temps. 
L " latent heat of steam of temperature T. 



238 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



w L 



Then .?== 

180 (T—t) 

If T equals 135 degs. and t about 75 degs., then S = 



17 W 
180 



The amount of cooling water required is determined in the same way as for 
jet condensers, except that it must be noted that the temperature of the cooling 
water as it leaves the condenser is not the same as that of the condensed steam. 
The formula for determining this weight is as follows: 

Where // = total heat in 1 lb. of steam above that contained iu 1 lb. 
of water at 32°. 
T = temperature of condensed steam. 

/ = " of circulating water as it enters condenser, 

/j = " of circulating water as it leaves condenser. 

W '= weigbt of circulating water (in lbs.) required for each lb, 
of steam condensed. 
^74-32— T 



Then W =- 



tx — t 




FlQ. 201.— INJECTOR CONDENSER WITH PUMP. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 239 



Self-Cooling Condenser.— This type, shown in Fig. 199, consists of two 
parts: the condenser in which the exhaust steam of the main engine, or engines, 
is condensed, and the tower in which the heated discharge water from the con- 
denser is cooled to proper temperature, to be used again in the^condenser for the 
further condensation of the exhaust steam. As this process is carried on contin- 
uousl}', only a very small supply of circulating water is required. 

The heated water falling through the tower is cooled by three processes: first, 
radiation from the side of the tower; second, the contact of cool air; and third, 
evaporation. The cooled water falls from the grating to the subsiding tank at 
the bottom, and is from there drawn by the condenser to be again employed in 
condensation. The current of air is passed through the tower by a circulating 
fan. 

The Siphon or Injector Condenser. — This condenser is shown in Fig. 
200. The exhaust steam receiving a downward direction in passing through the 
goose neck at the top of the apparatus passes through an inner cone, surrounded 
by an annular cone of water. The steam is condensed in this conical space, and 
falls with the injection, whose velocity is so graded by the cross section of the 
condenser that air in the injection is entrained and has no opportunity to remain 
in the space where the vacuum is. The small vacuum cone being continually 
filled and emptied prevents the trouble from air. There is no air pump, but the 
injection pump is required as before. Where a height of water of 9 ft. to 12 ft. 
above the hot well is available a natural flow of water can be used instead of the 
supply pump. 

The Injector Condenser with Pump.— There are many places where 
the height required for the long leg or siphon of the barometric condenser is 
inconvenient. This has given rise to a design of condenser, Fig. 201, in which the 
small bulk of the injector and its efficient action are combined with a pump to 
maintain the vacuum by continually drawing off the water and the air. The 
exhaust steam enters through the inlet 7?, which is controlled by an inner pipe C, 
that carries a deflecting nozzle D ; this throws the injection in a finely divided 
state into the annular exhaust steam passage F, and the air pump below continu- 
ously draws off the water mixed with air, to which a higher velocity is given by 
reducing the cross-section, so that the bubbles of air once caught in the water 
have no chance of rising into the vacuum space below D. 

GAS ENGINES. 

These are used successfully in several railway plants, and, where the gas is used 
directly from the holder without distribution expense, they show a high thermal 
efficiency, and their cost of operation per kw-hour compares favorably with a 
steam plant. A multi-cylinder engine is necessary in order to give constant 
voltage, the flywheel has to be large, and the capacity of the generators should 
be considerably under the capacity of the gas engine. In gas engines the con- 
sumption of coal gas may be taken at 20 cu. ft. per 1 hp-hour, 24 cu. ft. per brake 
hp-hour. "With engines of 100 hp the equivalent coal consumption was 1.1 lbs. 
of coal per hp-hour, and the mechanical efficiency, 85 per cent; this improves 
with larger engines. 

WATER POWER. 

The value of water power for railway work depends upon the supply being 
ample at all times and seasons to operate the whole load. Small water powers, 
ns a variable supplementary, do not often show an economy sufficient to encour- 



240 



ELECTRIC KAIL IV A V IT AND BOOK'. 



ape their development, where the location is not adapted to directly supply the 
railway system. The water flow should be measured at that season of the year, 
which has the lowest flow for the water shed drained by the stream. In order to 
determine the flow of water in an open stream, where the channel has a fairly 
uniform depth and width, twelve to twenty equidistant measurements across the 
channel should be taken from the bottom of the channel to the surf ace of the 
water; their sum divided by their number will give the average depth. 

The velocity of the flow of water can be measured by the time required for a 
float to pass between two parts located 100 ft. apart. As the surface of a stream 
at the center moves approximately 83 per cent faster than the sides and bottom, 
certain allowance has to be made. The cross section in feet multiplied by the 

RESULTS OF TESTS ON A "CYLINDER GATE" VICTOR 
TURBINE. 





Dead 


Revolutions 


Cubic Feet 


Horse 
Power 


Percentage 


Size op Wheel. 


in 


of Wheel 


Water 


developed 
by Wheel. 


Useful 




feet. 


per minute. 


per miuute. 


Effect. 


30-inch Futf Gate.... 


J7.M 


168 


4440 


119.56 


81.35 


T'8 '* • 


37.82 


1G3 


3892 


104.93 


80.03 


m ;; •••• 


37.95 


163 


3392 


88.21 


70. C6 




18.10 


155 


2893 


70.97 


71.£8 


H " '.'•'■'• 


18.20 


159 


2205 


51.42 


63.46 


3G-inchFull Gate.... 


16.78 


135 


6106 


158.18 


81.80 


% "■■■■■ 


17.14 


135 


5422 


141.58 


80.71 


17.35 


140 


4708 


118.22 


70.08 


17.05 


129 


3082 


91.62 


71.50 


1 / '4 

H •••• 


17,48 


134 


3:02 


66.87 


63.30 


39-inch Full Gate ... . 


14.66 


116 


6873 


152.66 


80.37 


'*/% " . . . . 


14.53 


118 


59,20 


129.41 


79.80 


M " . . . . 


16.84 


125 


5517 


135.56 


77.40 


fyk "... 


17.06 


123 


4095 


108.22 


71.67 


I " .... 


17.39 


124 


3856 


81.00 


64.07 


48-inch Full Ga to.... 


13.23 


91 


10072 


201.71 


80.11 


II «:::: 

% " •••• 


14.36 


89 


9042 


192.41 


78.42 


34.75 


89 


78G9 


105.23 


75.34 


34.87 


85 


6744 


132.76 


70.06 


i^ " 


15.28 


87 


5526 


100.G6 


63.09 



velocity in feet per minute, will be the discharge in cubic feet per minute. By 
taking levels toobtain the height of fall that can be secured, and multiplying this 
height in feet by the cubic feet per minute, multiplied by 62.36 lbs. (the weight of 
1 cu. ft. of water at 60 degs. F.) and dividing by 33,000 the gross horse-power of 
the water power can be obtained. 

In estimating the recoverable water power, allowances have to be made for 
the turbines of from 75 per cent to 85 per cent efficiency at full gate. There is also 
loss of head due to weirs, and the necessary drop to produce flow in the flumes 
and raceways, and in addition the suction effect on the turbines in a penstock is 
sometimes reduced by the presence of air decreasing the draft tube effect. 7,11 
theae losses combine to reduce the possible recovery of power and should be given 
ample allowances in estimating water powers for railway work. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 241 



Turbines, etc.— The power obtained by turbine wheels is due to the impact 
of the water against the curved buckets attached to the rotating shaft. The form 
and angle of these buckets and their spacing varies with the different types of 
turbines. 

For heads above 100 ft., the Pelton wheel can be used effectively, and the 
regulation by a deflected nozzle responds much more readily to the load changes 
than in the case of turbines, where the regulator opens and closes the gate and 
ai~ects the flow of water through the turbine. Automatic regulators, however, 
have been made for turbines, which give very satisfactory results for railway 
work, if close attention is given to their adjustment. 

Overshot wheels, due to their large inertia value, show some points in favor 
of their use in railway work for small plants, but their efficiency is so poor as to 
prohibit their use except where there is an abundant surplus of water. 

The table given herewith shows the results of tests on a Victor Turbine, 
made by the Stilwell-Bierce & Smith-Vaile Co., carried out at the testing flume of 
the Holyoke Water Power Co., Holyoke, Mass. 

THE RAILWAY GENERATOR. 

The generator is the most economical transformer of energy in the station, 
and consists essentially, in its simplest form, of two parts : the armature, which 
in revolving induces a potential in the copper conductors wound on its surface, 
when these conductors pass through or across a magnetic field; and the field 
magnet, whose function is to produce a flux or flow of magnetic lines through 
the revolving armature. The successful design of a generator is the happy com- 
promise of many conflicting losses, and it is not within the scope of this hand 
book to discuss these complex relations, which can be found fully treated in 
" Dynamo Electric Machinery " by Sylvanus P. Thompson, and similar books. 

Efficiency.— As all losses in the generator appear in the form of heat, the 
temperature is the criterion accepted as a gage of efficiency. The field magnets 
require a certain amount of energy developed by the armature; this varies from 
.75 per cent for generators above 500 kw to l.S per cent for 150 kw generators. 
The temperature of the field should not rise more than 30 degs. Cent, above the 
air, the temperature of the air being 20 degs. Cent, by the thermometer; or show 
by resistance measurements a resistance greater than that corresponding to 
45 clegs. Cent. ; 1 watt per square inch of external surface of field gives a rise 
r.pproximatcly of 02 dogs. cent, by the thermometer. For field surfaces the ap- 
proximate requirement is 15 sq. ins. per kw output. 

The Field.— A railway generator, is usually compound-wound. In this type 
there arc two separate systems of field coils, one is the shunt, which is connected 
across the full potential, and in series with this circuit there is a rheostat fcr 
var3 ing the current through the shunt coils, in this way changing the magnetic 
field through which the armature rotates. The resistance of this rheostat should be 
sufficient to bring the potential of the armature, run on open circuit at full speed, 
20 per cent below the normal bus voltage; this requires in different types of 
generators a rheostat resistance of from % to 2 times the field resistance. The 
other, the series fields, increases the field intensity due to the current from the 
generator passing around the field, and tends to maintain the potential of the 
generator. The generator is over compounded for increasing loads'so that the 
degree of compounding required depends on the drop of potential on the distn- 
bution system which the generator supplies. Twenty per cent over compounding 



242 ELECTRIC RATLWA Y HAh T D BOOK. 

Is the usual amount employed for railway work, but the compounding coils can 
be shunted by a resistance to reduce this effect to any desired per cent of com- 
pounding. This is the usual way that manufacturers adjust machines for com- 
pounding requirements under 20 per cent. There is a condition arising in 
railway plants extending over considerable territory, where the line drops are 
considerable but not sufficient to warrant a booster, which can be met by having 
the generator wound to give two percentages of compounding. This can be done 
by opening the shunt coil around the series compounding, and separating the 
outlying feeders from the short feeders on the switchboard. It also requires two 
equalizing busses, and the generator can then be operated for a large percentage 
of over-compounding to make up for the line drop and operated independently 
on the long feeders, which will produce better potential delivery at their ends. 

The watts lost in each field should be equal to the product of the drop across 
each field and the current flowing through it. If the fields vary, it is due to 
short-circuited turns on the field or poor connections; the former is usually found 
in overheated shunt fields, and the latter in the series field connections. 

The Armature.— This is composed of discs of thin sheet iron or steel as- 
sembled on the shaft. The modern armature has slots on the periphery of the 
armature body, through which the windings pass. The current density varies 
from 300 circ. mils per ampere to 800 circ. mils per ampere in the ventilated types; 
800 circ. mils per ampere to HOC circ. mils per ampere in the unventilated types. 

The ventilation in the armature is effected by separating the different groups 
of discs by an open spider, which allows the air to pass from the interior of the 
armature body to the exterior, it being thrown out by centrifugal force due to the 
rotation of the armature. The energy lost in the armature is due to the resist- 
ance of the armature windings, the internal drop varying from 7 per cent for 
50-kw to 2 per cent for 2000-kw machines. 

The other loss in the armature is due to hysteresis and eddy currents set up in 
its iron which acts as a conductor cutting the magnetic field. These losses 
aggregate from 6 per cent for a 50-kw generator to 2.6 per cent foral200-kw 
generator. 

The radiating surface per kw output in armatures should be from 20 sq. ins. 
to 18 sq. ins. in a 1200-kw generator. The peripheral speed varies from 2000 ft. to 
3200 ft. per minute. The insulation resistance should be at least from 1 to 3 
megohms, cold, and 1 megohm to 750,000 ohms, hot, and should be subjected to 
an alternating pressure of 2500 volts for 5 minutes without break down. The 
latter test is much more severe when made while the armature is hot. 

The Commutator.— This is built up of a number of segments of copper 
insulated from each other and from their mechanical support by mica. The 
purpose of the commutator is to rectify the alternating currents which are induced 
in the armature coil when passing from one pole face to the next. The conditions 
of the commutator require that as few turns as possible be connected to the 
brush at the same instant, for, when in this position, the coils are short-circuited 
and a local current circulates through them and the brush bridging the coils. 
The electromotive force, due to the flux distribution in the field and the number 
of bars connected to the coils between pole centers, limits the possible local 
current that can circulate in the coils under the commutator. 

The sparking, which the opening of tliis circuit produces, is shown in the 
character of wear on the commutator. A dark bronze uniform color of the 
commutator is the desired surface. Sparking produces bright metallic lines 
around the commutator, or pits the commutator next the mica segment towards 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 243 



the brush in the direction of rotation. The terms of undue and excessive 
sparking, as applied to commutation in the generator, are relative and the proper 
commutation should be defined by the character of the surface and wear on the 
commutator. The radiating surface on a commutator varies between 5J^ to 3% 
sq. ins. per kw output. 

Brushes and Brush- Holders. — The brushes for railway work are usually 
of carbon. The curvature of brush should be fitted to the commutator so as to 
give uniform wear to the segments and mica insulation. It should be hard 
enough to produce a gloss without cutting, and not soft enough to give a black 
film on the commutator. The brushes must be of uniform density and should 
show a bright contact surface which has the appearance of graphite. 

The loss in potential between the commutator bar and the brush should not 
exceed 1.4 volts at full load, and the current density on the contact surface should 
not exceed 40 amps, -per square inch. In early generators there was from % volt to 
1 volt loss between the carbon brush and its holder ; this has been reduced by con- 
necting a flexible lead between the brush and its holder, looping out this contact 
resistance and reducing the drop to ^ of a volt or less. The brush-holder should 
be sufficiently flexible to yield to any inequality in the rotating commutator. 
and yet produce a pressure of 1.2 to 1.7 lbs. per square inch of contact surface. 
The movement of the brush-holder to accommodate wear should be such as to 
keep the brush parallel to the wearing arc. The best position of the brushes 
relative to the commutator is generally marked on the rocker, or its position can 
be found on loading the generator, and finding the point of least sparking for the 
normal load. 

For polishing a commutator use only sandpaper. Have a concave wooden 
segment covering about J4 of the commutator, between the brushes, to which is 
secured the sandpaper, and which is pressed against the commutator surface 
with the armature revolving at moderate speed. 

Bearings.— These are about 3.8 times their diameter in length for 100-kw to 
300-kw, and from 3.2 to 3 above 300-kw direct-connected generators. The engine 
manufacturer supplies the shaft and engine bearing, and the dynamo manufact- 
urer supplies the outboard bearing, when one is required. The armature is built 
up on a keyed sleeve which is forced on the engine shaft. The engine manufact- 
urer usually supplies the dynamo manufacturer with a gage from which the arma* 
ture sleeve is bored, so that it will take the desired pressure in tons to force the 
armature home on the shaft. 

The bearings are always self-oiling either by rings or a chain, revolving over 
the shaft, the lower extremity moving in the oil well. Where the oil circulating 
system is used, oil is kept flowing into the oil well and drained from an overflow 
pipe, keeping the oil at a constant level. This has the additional effect of cool-/ 
ing the bearings. As the air, passing through the armature, draws any oil spray 
thrown by the reciprocating parts, the armature should be screened from it, 
for manufacturers justly demand, that in order to maintain their guaran- 
tees, the armature must be free from oil. Oil carbonizes at the temperatures 
attained, and acts as an adhering surface to which carbon dust from the brushes 
can cling, thus tending to break down the insulation of the armature windings. 

The armature shaft bearings should be scraped to a fit and be adjustable for 
wear, to maintain tire alignment of the armature in its field. In belted machines, 
above 250; kw, it is considered good practice to provide an outboard bearing to 
carry ^he-^-belt strains. In direct-connected generators the bearing friction is 



244 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



about 0.32 per cent of delivered horse-power, and in belted, from .62 per cent to 
1.25 "per cent of delivered horse-power, depending upon the size and bearing 
design. 

SIZES AND APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS OF WESTINGHOUSE 
STANDARD ENGINE-TYPE RAILWAY GENERATORS. 





»2 

£ o 

a 


00 

o 
*o 
ft 


ft 


« 13 


A 
Ins. 


B 

Ins. 


C 

Ins. 


D 

Ins. 


E 

Ins. 


F 
Ins. 


G 
Ins. 


H 
Ins. 


150 


270 


8 


200-225 


18,700 


15*4 


27*4 


46*4 


S2K 


.120 


36 


37*4 


84 


150 


270 


8 


170-185 


24,000 


15*4 


30 


51*4 
51*4 


94*4 


120 


36 


42*4 


96 


200 


364 


8 


200-220 


24,400 


13 


30 


94*4 


120 


36 


42*4 


96 


250 


455 


8 


150-170 


30,600 


17 


soy* 


54% 
62*4 


101 


120 


36 


45% 

52*4 


102 


250 


455 


8 


120-125 


43,200 


16 


36 


114*4 


144 


39 


108 


250 


455 


10 


90-100 


50,000 


18 


32 


67*4 


124*4 


144 


39 


57 


114 


300 


546 


8 


145-160 


43,400 


17 


39 


62*4 
71*3 


114*4 


144 


39 


52*4 


108 


325 


590 


8 


90 


61,500 


19 


38 


131H 


144 


39 


60% 


120 


400 


725 


10 


90-100 


78,000 


22 


39 


73% 


138% 


176 


47*£ 


63*4 


126 


500 


910 


8 


150 


62,000 


18 


38 


71*4 


131*5 


144 


39 


60% 


120 


500 


910 


10 


90-100 


100,000 


21 


39 


80*4 


152% 


171 


42 


70 


144 


800 


1455 


10 


80-90 


135,000 


24 


48 


88*4 


166% 


204 


52*4 


76 


144 


1050 


1910 


12 


80 


147,000 


22 


50 


95% 


180*4 


252 


53*4 


83 


168 


1200 


2180 


12 


75-80 


185,000 


22 


52 


100% 


191% 


252 


53*0, 


68*4 


192 


150012730 


14 


75-80 


200,000 


23 


54 


109% 


209% 


276 


55 


yr*4 


204 



Note. — In the above table the machines which are indicated as having either 
of two speeds may be operated at 550 volts at either speed, or at 575 volts at the 
higher speed. 



SIZES AND APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS OF SPECIAL ENGINE- 
TYPE RAILWAY GENERATORS. 



i 


X 

O 


OB 


03 


S 




A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 


M* 


a 
< 


o 

> 


o 
ft 


ft 
ft 5 




Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


800 


1230 


650 


10 


80 


135,000 


24 


46 


88*4 


166% 
180*4 


204 


52*£ 


76 


144 


10501830 


575 


12 


80 


147,000 


22 


50 


95% 


252 


53*4 


83 


168 


150012300 


650 


14 


80 


200.000 


19 


47% 


10934 


209% 


276 


55 


97*4 


204 


1800 4400 


410 20 


75 


247,900 


24 


56 


129*4 


244%j 312 


62 


111 


204 


2700 4700 


575 1 24 


75 


312,500 


24 


58 


144& 


277r 9 g 336 


62 


125% 


216 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



245 




zimi?t*J&'*riJL&'A*&&'/*j£:*p r 'Z« . 




246 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



-(J 




s 


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10 




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1 






ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAA'D BOOK 



24; 




Fig. 204.— side view of westinghouse belted generator. 



SIZES AND APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS OF GENERAL ELEC- 
TRIC DIRECT-CONNECTED RAILWAY GENERATORS. 
MP, FORM H, 575 VOLTS. 



CLASSIFICATION. 


APPROX. WEIGHT. 


A 


R 


C 


K 


L 


M 








*3 


b 1 


oS 

<U O 


N 









p 






















< 3 


00 
















6 


100 


275 


4,000 


15,000 


80** 


20 


95 


18 


36 


5J- 


24** 


6 


150 


200 


6,400 


29,000 


99 


28 


114 


25 


45 


9 - 


32 


6 


200 


200 


9,000 


39,000 


116 


26 


133 


26**, 


5914 


9 -10J 


44 


6 


200 


150 


10,500 


50,000 


118** 


26 


136 


29 


59*4 


9 -1H 


44 


8 


300 


150 


17.000 


55,000 


125 


32 


141 


27 


68 


114-14 


49 


8 


300 


120 


19,000 


65,000 


128 


38 


145 


30** 


68 


12 -15 


49 


8 


300 


100 


20,500 


75.000 


130 


38 


146 


33 


68 


14 -16 


49 


8 


400 


150 


21,000 


68,000 


132 


41 


148 


30 


72 


14 -16 


49 


8 


400 


120 


22,000 


79,000 


135 


41 


150 


32** 


72 


15 -18 


49 


8 


400 


100 


24.000 


90,000 


137** 


41 


152 


34*£ 


72 


15 -18 


49 


10 


500 


120 


25.000 


81, W0 


144** 


44 


154 


30 


84 


16 -18 


CO 


10 


500 


100 


29.000 


96,000 


160 


47 


178 


30** 


96 


16 -18 


84 


10 


500 


90 


36,000 


110,000 


161 


47 


180 


33 


96 


16 -18 


84 


10 


500 


80 


37,000 


118,000 


162 


47 


180 


34** 


96 


16 -18 


84 


12 


650 


90 


41,000 


117.000 


173 


47 


188 


32 


108 


18 -20 


84 


12 


800 


120 


42.000 


113,000 


173 


4? 


188 


31 


108 


19 -22 


84 


14 


800 


100 


47,000 


118,000 


186 


53 


200 


28 


120 


19 -22 


84 


14 


800 


80 


50.000 


135.000 


187 


58 


201 


32 


120 


19 -22 


84 


16 


1,000 


SO 


58,000 


150,000 


187 


47 


209 


32 


120 


22 -25 


100 


18 


1,200 


80 


66,000 


156.000 


195** 


47 


221 


30** 


130 


24 -27 


100 


22 


1.600 


75 


74,000 


180.000 


230 


63 


245 


24 


164 


24 -27 


120 


28 


2,000 


75 


87,000 


188,000 


285 


43 


312 


26 


204 


27 -30 


150 


28 


2,400 


75 


100,000 


225,000 


320 


48 


364 


26 


232 


27 -30 


180 



These dimensions should only be used for approximate size and are subject to 
change. 



248 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




2 ^ 



I 



1 ' / 

tit 






©unpuiq-iuun *2 



i^h^riJ 



K J 



ELECTRIC KAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



249 



ROTARY CONVERTERS AND DOUBLE-CURRENT GENERATORS. 

Direct-current dynamos generate alternating current in their armature wind- 
ings which are rectified by the commutator and delivered to the external circuit 
as direct current. If collector rings are connected to the windings at suitable 




THP££"W/ft£$> S/JT /T//f£S. 

Figs, 208 to 211. — types op p.otart converters. 



points, see Fig. 207, alternating current can be delivered externally. If both 
commutator and collector rings are used the machine can deliver both direct 
current and alternating current at the same time, in which case it is a double 
current generator. If instead of being driven by external power, it is driven 
as a direct-current or synchronous alternating-current motor, and at the same 



250 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK 



*-t. A-2. B-i. S-2. 

VWW W VWW VWVWWVW 

TWO PHASE SECONDARY TO ROTARY C0NV£RT£R. 
A. B. 



866 V— 



A/WWWWVkAA /WWWVWWV 



THREE PHASE PRIMARY TRANSMISSION LINE: 



8-f. 6-2. f f 

A-2. C~f. A-t 

wwwww\a~^aaaaaaaa/w 

THREE PHASE SECONDARY TO ROTARY COA/VERTER. 
A-B. C-A. 

/WVWWWWWWWW^^ 

THREE PHASE PRIMARY TRANSMISSION LINE. 

A-2. B-2> &2\ 

Ws/WWWV WwWWW W/WWVW 
7#/?££ / , /J4^f SECONDARY TO ROTARY CO/WERTER. 

A-B. B'C. C-A. 

^WVWVVvWVWWV ^ ^WVWWWVWW ^ ^ WWWWWWWW^ 

7#/?££ />///tof PRIMARY TRANSMISSION UN£. 

A-2. C-2. B-2. 

B-1. A-7. C-l 

t f t 

THREE PHASE SECONDARY TO ROTARY CONVERTER. 
A. B. O. 

TWWWWWWWV^^tyW^ 

THREE PHASE PRIMARY TRANSMISSION LINE. 
Figs. 212 to 215.— transformer connections tor rotary converters. 






ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



251 



A-2. 



6-2. 
C-7. 



C-2. 

A-7. 



a-r. 



£-f. &/. 

a 2. *e-2. 



1 



WA/W VWVw VWWV VWVw 

6/X PRASE SECONDARY TO ROTA ft Y CONYERTER. 
A-B. a- A. C-A. *e-&- 

a/\^^a/^aaaa/\aaaamaaaa ^ y wi/wwwvwwvwww 

THREE PHASE RR/MARV TRANSMJSSJO/V LINE. 



A-2. 

3-7. 



6-2. 
C-7. 



b-2. 
a- 7. 
A 






www vwwJ w#aTwW wwTWW 

tf/VT /^5£ SECONDARY TO ROTART CONYERTER. 



C-2. 

A- 7. 

a-2. 



A-B. a-Z>. 



B-C. Z>-*. 



C-A. ^-a 



ywwwwwwwwwv-jwwvw^ 

W/fiVT /%5*Sif PR/MAM TRANSM/SS/ON 1//YE*. 



A-Z 

3-7 



a-2. 

C-7. 



a-2 



I K7 V I 4 1 C> W 1 

vwyvvvw vwwwvv vwwyw Vwwvw 



Xi-2. 



a-r. 



SIX PHASE SECONDARY TO ROTARY CONYERTER. 
A-C. a-<c B-A-C. &-a-<:. 
/ „ « y 



^WWVWWWWWVv/WWWWWA JWWVWWVWWWVWWWA 

TtYO PRASE PR/MARY TRANSMISSION LINE. 

Figs. 216 to 218.— transformer connections tor rotary converters, 



252 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 

time delivers alternating or direct current from the other end, it is a rotary 
converter. 

The armature connections of rotary converters are shown in Figs. 208 to 211. 
Letters represent phases, aud numbers the first or second wire of each phase. In 
the three-phase and six-phase combinations, two phases are comhined in each 
wire, and in the latter the large and small lettered phases are from the same 
transformers. (See transformer connections, Figs. 216 to 218.) The fields of rotary 
converters are connected to the direct current side except in case the rotary con- 

KA-1 A-2* hB-1 B-2\ 

wwwv >Wwwv 

lT/V0 PHASE SECONDARY TO ROTARY CONVERTER. 
A. B. 

awwvwwwwvi ywvwvwwwwi 

TWO PHASE PRIMARY TRANSMISSION LINE. 



Vwwwwvw/ ^Uaa/wwnaaw 

« ? . 866 V t~ B V K ~~U- - 

^HREE PHASE SECONDARY TO ROTARY CONVERTER. 
A-C. ^ B-A-C- m 

M/VVWvWvWVWM/V A/WWVWW\AA/WVWv\ 

TWO PHASE PRIMARY TRANSMISSION LINE. 
Figs. 219 and 220.— transformer connections for rotart converters. 

verter is started from the alternating current side, in which case they are prefer- 
ably separately excited. Transformer connections for rotary converters may be 
made in a multitude of ways, the most common of which are shown in Figs. 
212 to 220. As polyphase transformers are not used in this country, only con- 
nections for single-phase transformers are given. In the six-phase connections, 
the single-phase transformers have two secondary coils apiece, each of which 
is connected to one of two three-phase combinations. 

Rotary converters may be used with compound wound fields the same as 
ordinary generators. In order to make them regulate well, however, it is nec- 
essary to insert reactive coils in the alternating current line, unless the line and 
generator reactance may be used for this purpose. 

BELTS. 

Leather belts are generally preferable to others for both damp and dry places. 
Where the belts must work in steam, they should be made of rubber, as the ordi- 
nary waterproofing used on leather belts will not stand the excessive heat. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



253 



Leather belts are made in one, two or three ply of from T 3 S in. to H in. thickness 
each, weighing from 13 oz. to 16 oz. per square foot per ply. On main drives, a 
first class belt only should be used. Fig. 225 shows a test of a 30-lb. belting butt 
(this being the average weight used for heavy belting). The backbone runs down 



fllECH 



J/30 



SHOULDER 



1390 



^ 



BUTT 




Fig. 225. — parts of hide for belting. 



through the center of the figure. The small sections Nos» 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 18 ins. 
long by 2 ins. wide. The figure shows that to obtain a first class belt it must be 
made entirely of centers, i. e., only the butt should be used, and shoulders and 
flanks should be entirely excluded. 

The best belting should be short lap, with no piece more than 54 ins. long, 
including laps. The weights should be as in the table on next page; 



254 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Width. 
Inches. 
lto2 
2U to 4 
4}4 to 5l£ 
6 and. over 



Weights of Belts. 

Single Belts 
Oz. per sq. ft. 
13 
14 
15 
16 



Double Belts. 
Oz. per sq. ft. 
26 
28 
30 
32 



Single belts 6 ins. wide or less, should have laps between 3% ins. and 6 ins. 
long; for wider belts no lap should exceed in length by over 1 in. the width of the 
belt. For double belts, laps should be S}4 in. to 5% ins. long. Laps should abso- 
lutely have no filling strips. Single belts should have an ultimate tensile strength 
of 3600 lbs. per sq. in., and double belts should have 4000 lbs. per sq. in. If tests 
are made, the average of three pieces selected at random, should be taken. 



HORSE POWER TRANSMITTED BY DOUBLE LEATHER BELTS. 

(1 INCH WIDE, 550 FT. PER MINUTE = 1 HP). 



Speed in 

Feet 

per Minute. 


Width of Belt in Inches. 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 


14 


16 


18 


20 


22 


24 




H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H. P. 


H.P. 


H. P. 


400 
600 
800 


21 

41 

5| 


41 
8! 


5| 
81 
HI 


Ti- 
ll 

14| 


8§ 

13 


10 
15 
20! 


17! 
23 


13 

19! 

26 


14! 
22 

29 


16 
24 
32 


17! 

26 
34| 


1000 
1200 
1500 


8! 
10f 


11 
13 
161 


14! 

m 

21| 


181 
22 

271 


21! 

26 

32! 


25! 
30! 

88 


29 

34! 

43! 


32! 

39 

49 


36 

44 
54! 


40 
48 
60 


43! 
52! 
65! 


1800 
2000 
2400 


13 

14! 
171 


19| 
21| 
26 


26 
29 
34| 


32| 

36! 
44 


39 

43| 

52! 


45! 
50! 
60! 


52 

58 
69! 


59 
65! 

78! 


65! 

88 


72 
80 
96 


78| 
87 
105 


2800 
3000 
3500 


20J 
21i 
25! 


30! 
32! 

38 


40! 
43! 
50| 


51 

54! 

03| 


61 
65! 

76 


71 
76 

89 


81 
87! 
101 


91! 
98 
114 


102 
108 
127 


112 
120 
140 


122 
131 
153 


4000 
4500 
5000 


29 

32| 
36! 


43! 

49 

54! 


581 

65 

72f 


72f 

82 
91 


87 
98 
109 


101 
114 
127 


116 
131 
145 


131 
147 
163 


145 

163 

182 


160 

180 
200 


174 
196 
218 



Note. — The belts are not supposed to be unduly strained. 

For single belts estimate only two-thirds as much as for double belts. 

Pulley Dimensions to Avoid Abnormal Belt Bending Strains. 

No. of Ply. Min. Pulley Diameter. Min. Katio of Diam. to Width. 

Single 3 ins. 



Double 
Triple 



6 ins. 
10 ins. 



Immaterial 

3 :4 

1 :1 



The power transmitted is dependent on the arc of contact. If the belts 
are very oily, the power may be reduced one-half. Paper pulley coverings 
or paper pulleys generally increase the power obtainable by 10 per cent to 20 per 
cent. The power that can be transmitted by belting is greatly increased by 
the use of Cling Surface dressing which increases the life of belts by decreasing 
the wearing off of the surface of belts due to slippage. Belts which are not 
horizontal will generally tend to slip on the lower pulley if worked at their max- 
imum power. The arc of contact is increased by having the slack side of the 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK 



255 



belt on top aud this method is, therefore, preferable. All pulleys should have 
crown faces unless it is intended to shift the belts over them. 

Belts, particularly on long drives, sometimes give trouble by wobbling from 
side to side. This may be due to vibration or movement in the shafts or pulleys to 
which they run, or it may be caused by the belt being stiff and requiring too much 
force to fit it over the crown. In the latter case washing once a week on the side 
next the pulley with one part of beef tallow to two of castor oil mixed warm 
with a little pulverized rosin, until the leather is pliable, will generally remedy 
the trouble. Belts may also run badly if the pulleys are not properly aligned, are 
untrue or are out of balance. Trouble will also occur if the belt is not made or 
fastened truly. "Waves in the belt are often caused by irregular power or untrue 
pulleys, but most heavy belts tend to wave slightly. 

The length of drive, i. e., the distance betwoen centers of driving aud driven 
shafts, may be widely varied according to necessity. If a belt is too short it has 
no elasticity; if too long, it has a tendency to wobble or wave; but the limits are. 
quite broad. 

Center Distances for Belt Drives. 



WIDTH OF BELT (INCHES). 

3 

6 
12 
18 
24 



CENTER DISTANCE (FEET). 

Minimum Preferable Maximum 

4 8 25 

6 12 30 

9 17 32 

11 20 34 

12 22 37 
15 25 40 
17 30 45 
20 35 50 



SHAFT KEYS AND BEARING CENTERS. 







Proper Distance 
between 


Proper Distance 
between 


Shaft Diameter. 


Size of Keys for 




Couplings 


Bearing Centers, 


Bearing Centers, 


Ins. 


and Pulleys. 


Line Shafting. 


Jack Shafts. 






Feet. 


Feet. 


1& 


% x & 


5£ 
61 


i\ 


li 7 s 


A X A 


m 


15 X i 7 g 


7 


11 


lit 


A X is 


71 


2A 


A x A 


8| 


6| 


2& 


A x A 


9 


7 


m 


uxn 


9i 


n 


2*1 


a x i s 


10 


8 


a& 


»*« 


11 


8? 


m 


« x ;g 


124 
13J 


10 


*A 


11 x n 


10| 


4*1 


if x If 


14* 


Hi 


5| 


13 x H 


15 


12 


5£ 


if xii 


16 


121 


n 




17 


13i 


61 




18 


14* 


8 




20 


16 



256 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



DIMENSIONS OF HEAD OR JACK SHAFTS. 



Shaft 


Revolutions per Minute. 


Diameter. 
Ins. 


100 


| » 


150 


! 175 


200 


225 


250 


300 


350 1 400 




Horse Power op Jack Shafts. 


1& 
If* 
ill 


1.7 
3,1 

4.5 

7 


2.1 
3.8 
5.6 
8.7 


2.5 

4.5 

6.8 

10.5 


3. 
5.3 
7.8 
12.2 


3.4 
6. 
9.1 
14. 


3.8 

6.9 

10.2 

15.7 


4.2 
7.6 
11.2 
17.5 


5. 

9.1 
13.6 
21. 


5.9 
10.6 
15.7 
24.5 


6.7 
12. 

18.2 
28. 


2x 3 c 
2 r 7 s 
211 

2f! 


9.8 


12.5 


14.7 


17. 


19.5 


22. 


25. 


29.5 


34. 


39 


14. 

13.5 

24. 


17.5 
23. 

30. 


21. 
28. 
36. 


21.5 

31. 

41.5 


28. 
37. 
47.5 


31.5 

41. 

53.5 


35. 

45.5 

59.5 


42. 
56. 

71. 


49. 
62. 
83.5 


56. 
74. 
95. 


3/ 8 

311 

4}| 


38. 
56. 
80. 
109. 


47. 

70. 
100. 
136. 


56.5 

84. 
120. 
164. 


66. 

98. 
140. 
191. 


75.5 
112. 
160. 
218. 


85.5 
126. 
180. 
246. 


94.5 
140. 
200. 
273. 


113. 
168. 
240. 
328. 


132. 
196. 
280. 
382. 


151. 
224. 
320. 
437. 


5g 
5* 


146. 


182. 


218. 


255. 


291. 


328. 


364. 


436. 


510 


582. 

755. 

950. 
1177. 
1790. 


189. 


236. 


283. 


330. 


378. 


425. 


472. 


567. 


661 


6g 
61 


238. 
294. 


297. 
367. 


357. 
440. 


416. 
514. 


475. 

587. 


535. 
661. 


595. 
735. 


713. 

880. 


832. 
1030 


8 


448. 


560. 


671. 


783. 


895. 


1010. 


1120. 


1345. 


1570. 



1 wo or three belts may be run tandem, but where the pulley diameters are 
small the belts should not touch each other at points on the drive Where belts 
are run tandem, the maximum power of each belt is not reduced but rather 
increased. 

PUIXEYS. 

Pulleys are usually made in two weights for single or heavy belts Crowns 
of pulleys should be from & of the face for small or slow-running pulleys to I 
of the face for pulleys of 24-in. face and over. The latter figure is quite u«ual i°n 
large dynamo pulleys and gives entire satisfaction. The increase in diameter at 
the crown is twice the amount given. Where the crown is too high with a fast 
running belt, the latter is liable to leave the edges of the pulley and thus concen- 
trate all the strain and wear on the belt center. Pulleys and clutches should be 
balanced. Set screws should have cup ends. The bore should be just laree 
enough to fit closely on the shaft. 

Pulley centers and not edges should be aligned. Of course it is necessary 
to align from the edges, but allowance should be made where width differs so as 
to bring the centers in line. ' 

Contrary to general ideas, belts do not "tend to climb to the high side of 
pulleys" ; but where two shafts are not parallel, the belts will run on both pulleys 
toward the low side, i. e ., toward the point where the shafts are nearest together 

Shaftingr.-Counter shafts are usually made in lengths of 24 ft. or less. They 
should be straight before erection, and should be properly supported so that their 
hangers can not shake or vibrate. Journals are pieferably made " self-oiling." 
ROPE DRIVES. 

The limit of belt transmission for railway work is in the neighborhood of 
500 hp. Beyond this power rope drives should be resorted to for transmission 
Curves herewith, Fig. 226, give the power that can be transmitted by manila rope 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



257 



The English method of independent ropes driving in multiple is not suc- 
cessful in railway work, for the reason that unequal tension causes undue strains 
to fall on the ropes having the greatest tension. For the variable railway load, 
American practice is to have a continuous rope wound around the grooves of 
driving or driven pulley grooves, and a slack loop taken from one side of the 
drive, which is held in tension by passing around a tension pulley and kept taut 
by weights. As the diameter of pulleys decreases, the wear on the rope increases. 
The table herewith gives the smallest pulley that should be used; larger diameters 
than those given should be employed where possible. 




10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 
VELOCITY OF DRIVING ROPE IN FEET PER SECOND. 

Fig. 226. — curves fob power transmission by bope dbiving. 



DIAMETER OF PULLEYS AND WEIGHT OF ROPE. 



Diameter of Rope 
in Inches. 


Smallest Diam. of 
Pulleys, in Inches. 


Length of Rope to 

Allow for Splicing 

in Feet. 


Appox. Weight 

in Lbs. per foot 

of Rope. 


% 

1 
IK 

¥ 


20 
24 
30 
36 

42 

54 
60 
72 

84 


6 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
12 
13 
14 


.12 
.18 
.24 
.32 

.49 

.60 

.S3 

1.10 

1.40 



258 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



POWER STATION SWITCHBOARDS. 

The location of the switchboard should be central with respect to the units 
it controls. Iu stations of over 8000-hp output or twenty-five feeders a switch, 
board attendant is generally required. 'Here the elevation of the switchboard in 
a gallery saves floor space and gives the attendant view of the generators he con- 
trols. The "unit system" where the generator panel is located adjacent to the 
generating unit, cutting down the internal conductor cost and giving the engi- 
neer electrical as well as steam control of the unit will prove useful where large 
units are installed. In this case, the feeder circuit-breakers can be operated by 
pneumatic control for distant parts of the station, and the feeder panel board 
located conveniently near the distribution wire tower or underground ducts. 

In the usual methods of construction the generator panels consist of an am- 
meter, circuit-breaker, quick break main switch, equalizer switch, voltmeter for 
throwing in the machines, a regulating rheostat and a field switch. Figs. 227 to 
230 show the forms adopted by various companies. 

The switchboard surface may be selected of slate, enameled or marbleized, or 
of marble. The thickness should not be less than 1% ins. for a 20-in. panel and 
2 ins. for a 26-in. panel, as the circuit-breaker in flying open is liable to fracture 
thinner slabs. They should be secured to iron framing made of T's or L's using 
asbestos washers as a bedding between the slate and its support. Slate slabs 
should not be secured to wooden verticals, as warping of the supports will event- 
ually crack the panels The edges of the panels, have usually ^4-irs. t>evel, and are 
fastened by finished hexigon bolts passing through the panel and iron backing. 

Bus-bars should be figured for the current density given by table herewith. 
They should be rolled medium hard and insulated from a cast iron supporting 
bracket on the back of the board by slate or porcelain. 



COPPER BAR DATA. (Bus-Bars.) 



1 


X 


U in 


m 


X 


u - 


m 


X 

X 




% 


X 


%" 


X 


% " 



2 



2^ X Vs " 

2% X H " 

2% X % " 

2 X V% " 

No. 0000 B. & S. 
i^ in. Round 

% " 
K " 
1 



Amperes. 



433 
530 
626 
725 

676 

798 

916 

1,035 

1,154 
1,500 
1,715 
1,222 



305 
426 
560 
861 



Circular 

Mils. 



318.310 
397,290 
477,465 
556,400 

596. 830 
716,200 
835.600 
954,930 

1.074,300 
1.591.550 
1.989,440 
1,273,210 

211.600 
250.000 
390,6-25 
562.500 
1,000.000 



Square 
Mild. 



250.000 
312,000 
375,000 
437,000 

468,750 
562,500 
656,250 
750,000 

843,750 
1,250.000 
1.562.500 
1,000,000 



Ohms 
per Foot. 



.0000336 
.0000269 
.0000223 
.0000192 

.0000179 
.0000149 
.0000128 
.0000112 

.00000995 
.00000672 
.00000537 
.00000840 

.0000505 
.0000428 
.0000273 
.0000190 
.0000107 



Weight 
per Foot. 



.97 
1.21 
1.45 
1.70 

1.82 
2.18 
2.54 



3.27 
4.86 
6.07 
3.89 

.64 

.76 

1.18" 

1.71 

3.05 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



259 




26o 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK, 




c 

®d)_ 


© i 




=* <S=©^ 






ti b^ 







.- J P r^3MJEqa.^fa L 



s« 




ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 261 



They should be connected together by lapping, and iron bolts used for bring- 
ing these surfaces together, which can be figured safely with smooth bus-bars to 
carry 190 amps, per square inch of contact surface. The connections between 
the bus-bars and switches, etc., are preferably made by a copper link clamped be- 
tween the bus-bar, and between nuts threaded on the stud projecting behind from 
the switches, circuit breakers or ammeters. The current density should not 
exceed 60 amps, to 100 amps, per square inch on thread and nut surfaces. 

Railway switches should have at least 4 ins. between breaking terminals, and 
should be provided with an auxiliary snap or carbon break to shunt the current 
carried by the contact surface, and so reduce injurious arcing effects. The copper 
contact area should be 60 amps, to 80 amps, per square inch of switch contact 
surface with parallel, well-adjusted switch surfaces. A composition machine- 
finished lug held down by an iron bolt should not be expected to carry more than 
120 amps, per sq. in. of contact surface. 

INSTRUMENTS. 

Ammeters.— The ammeter should be dead beat if possible, especially for the 
generator, and have a full scale reading 35 per cent to 60 per cent greater than the 
maximum output of the generator, in order to prevent overloads damaging the 
instrument. It is useful to have the manufacturers mark a red line on the dial 
of the instrument for full load amperes on the generator. 

Where shunts are used, they are connected in the bus behind the board and 
the leads and shunts marked with the number of the instrument. Care should 
be taken that the corresponding instrument should only be used with a given 
shunt. For main ammeters the shunt-type instrument is generally used and 
the shunt inserted in the main bus as it passes from the generator panel 
boards to the feeder panel boards. Ammeters are not essential on feeder boards, 
where the circuit-breaker is reliable and their expense can be saved by introduc- 
ing a plug device, that can be plugged into the bus side of any feeder switch, on 
which readings are to be taken, and the current diverted through the common 
shunt to the ammeter when the feeder switch is opened. This saves space on 
switchboard as well as reducing the cost. 

Voltmeters. There are generally two of these, reading exactly alike "on each 
board. They can be mounted on a swinging bracket so that they can be seen 
from any part of the board. One is used to maintain the station voltage, and 
the other to bring the machines to the bus-bar potential. Before throwing ma- 
chines together there is usually provided a receptacle into which a voltmeter plug 
is inserted, when the machine is to be adjusted in voltage so that one voltmeter 
is sufficient for all the generators. For throwing in, where two pressure boards 
are used, three voltmeters are required. 

Wattmeters. "Wattmeters should be installed where records of output are to 
be kept. Periodic readings of the ammeter and voltmeter multiplied together 
invariably give a result from 20 per cent to 60 per cent above the average watts; 
and some remarkable station performances have been accounted for from this 
cause. The natural tendency is to read the ammeter at its maximum swing. The 
wattmeter should be carefully screened from magnetic effects from the bus-bars 
which may throw it out of calibration. With large units it is the modern railway 
station practice to have a wattmeter on each unit so that the depreciation on the 
units can be averaged. 

Circuit-Breakers. To prevent violent overloads on the generator, or to take 
current off a ground on the line, the automatic circuit-breaker is ordinarily nee- 



262 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



essary, although fuses are sometimes used instead of circuit-breakers on feeders. 
The circuit-breaker should respond to a rise in current above its set value in 
amperes, and open the circuit which it protects; the arc formed on breaking 
should be taken care of by auxiliary contacts of carbon or a magnetic blow-out. 
The contacts should be kept in good order, 'so that the friction between their 
surfaces will not increase the time constant and so strain the generator, or on 
feeders throw the generators instead of the feeder breaker. A circuit-breaker 
should be capable of breaking a circuit before a Weston dead beat ammeter will 
record 100 per cent over the circuit-breaker's set current value. 

Switchboard Connections. — In modern railway practice the positive 
side of the railway generator armature should be connected to the trolley, 
through the series winding of the generator. The equalizing connection is taken 
from the middle point of the switch to the equalizing bus, Fig. 231. but the 
present practice in power stations is to equalize at the dynamo with the equaliz- 
ing switch either mounted on the frame of the dynamo itself, or on a pedestal by 
the side of the dynamo. In other cases again, the equalizer is tied together 
permanently between all the dynamos. The disadvantage of having the equalizer 
opened is that there is a danger of the machine being thrown in circuit before it 
is equalized. In order to provide against this accident, several suggestions have 
been made. One is to make the switch at the dynamo double pole, carrying both 
the equalizer and positive connections, throw the generator in first; another 
method has been used where the throttle of the engine is connected to the 
equalizer switch, so that before the throttle is open, the switch is closed; and 
the generator cannot be thrown in before it is equalized. For balancing and 
adjusting compound generators see page 48. 

The field of the railway generator may be connected up in two ways: the one 
shown in full lines in Fig. 231 is the bus-bar excited method, and the one shown 
in dotted lines is the self-exciting method. When a large number of generators 
are to be handled, a dynamo galvanometer or voltmeter is connected across the 
dynamo terminals of the dynamo switch, instead of plugging in the voltmeter in 
order to show when the generator is of the right potential to be thrown in. It is 
also usual to allow for a panel between the dynamo and feeder panels, on which 
to mount the main ammeter, integrating wattmeter, voltmeters and pressure 
switches. The positive bus-bar only is taken to the feeder board, and the feeders 
are provided with a single-pole switch, ammeter, circuit-breaker and reactance 
coil to choke back any lightning discharges, and force the arrester to operate. 
The dynamo panel should be provided Avith a small double pole, lighting switch 
where the station is lighted from the power generators, so that any generator 
can light the station independently of the power bus-bar. This lighting circuit 
should be looped inside of the circuit-breakers. The present practice indicates 
that the best results are obtained when the lightning arresters are located as near 
the point where the feeders enter the station as possible. Behind the switch- 
board is not the proper place for the lightning arresters as a rule. 

The panel form of construction is now universally adopted, the apparatus 
being mounted on an upper panel, with a foot plate, about 20 ins. below it. These 
panels are made interchangeable for the different units and feeders, and the exten- 
sion of a switchboard, only requires that the bus-bar and iron frame be extended, 
giving a very flexible method, and amply providing for the future growth of the 
system. It is useful in some cases to be able to separate the feeder systems, so 
that they can be supplied by independent generators, Avhere extra demands of 
traffic require a higher potential to be obtained on the congested part of the sys- 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



263 



tern To effect this result, the dynamo should be provided with a double-throw 
switch, and the equalizing system should also be double, with a double-throw 
equalizer switch. If double-throw feeder switches are also provided, the feeders 
can be operated on independent generators when required. It is the usual pract- 











$ D 1 fi 






Fig. 231.— diagram of kailway switchboard connections. 
Ice to tie all rail and return grounds to a common negative bus-bar, but to reduce 
electrolysis, in some cases the ground returns which are tapped directly to the 
water or gas pipe systems, are brought to one ground bus-bar, and the rail or 
return feeders are connected to a separate one. 



264 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



The conductors behind the board are supported on porcelain insulators, or 
threaded through porcelain blocks. All conductors over No should be stranded 
and the field wires should in all cases be a stranded conductor. In some cases 
asbestos or lead covered leads are used. Where bare rubber is employed for the 
insulation great care should be exercised to prevent oil from reaching these con- 
ductors, as fire has originated in several railway stations from this cause. Ex- 
posed terminals of different potential adjacent to one another, especially where 
the line is subject to lightning storms, should be taped and insulated, or so 
shielded that no spark can jump between them, for when the circuit-breaker 
opens on overloads, there may be quite a rise in potential on the dynamo, which 
sometimes starts a damaging flaring arc between exposed adjacent surfaces. 

Lightning Protection. — There are several principles employed to protect 
the generators and apparatus from lightning discharges. The leak arrester con- 
sists essentially of a water resistance connected between the positive trolley and 



♦ Buss 




Fig. 232.— tank lightning arrestee. 



ground, so that the potential between the feeder system is maintained at 500 volts 
difference. Any tendency for static discharge to select the feeder wire as its path 
to ground, is neutralized before an abnormal difference of poteutial can exist. 
The tank arrester, shown in Fig. 232, is plugged into the circuit at the approach 
of a thunder storm. Three tanks are usually employed, so that if a discharge 
passes one, it is dissipated through the other and leaks to giound. 

The magnetic forms of arresters have an air gap about T \ in. over which the 
static sparks jump to ground. The main current passes around an electromagnet, 
whose field of force is so arranged as to blow out of this gap the arc formed by 
the line current following the static spark. Every obstruction offered to the flow 
of this discharge by the ground wire subjects the station apparatus to an electro- 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



265 



static stress, tending to break it down at its weakest point, and every means 
should be used so that the lightning discharge can jump the spark gap of the 
arrester and pass to ground. The high frequency which a discharge possesses 




JVC. Feeder D.C.Feetfer 

Fig. 233. — connection between main and sub-station, two-phase system. 



gives it a tendency to travel on the surface, rather than on the interior of the wire, 
and in this way choke its own passage. This effect increases as the diameter of 
the wire increases, and consequently only a small wire is used for the ground con- 



266 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



ductor, No. 6 being the usual size. A bend in a conductor greatly increases its 
self induction, consequently the wire should be as straight as possible from the 
point of connection at the lightning arrester to the ground connections. Carrying 
this wire parallel or near masses of iron will also tend to retard by self-induction 
the passage of the discharge to earth. To use a water pipe system for earth is not 
the best practice, but where it is necessary an iron lug can be clamped to the water 
pipe and the contact surfaces amalgamated,. the ground wire being soldered into 
this lug. After the connection is made, it should be painted over with, two coats 
of air-drying asphalt varnish. No ground connections that are used for any other 
purpose should be used for the lightning arrester ground. No part of an iron 
structure or piping through the building should be used for this purpose. The 
ground conductor should be connected to the water system as near its entrance to 
the earth as possible. A ground near running water or naturally moist earth will 
give the best results, but in all cases it must be below the frost line. If these 
conditions cannot be secured, a hole can be sunk in the ground until water is 
reached. A copper plate two by two feet, with the conductor firmly soldered to 
it, will in ordinary cases be adequate for lightning grounds. Loose waste metal 
does not materially increase the actual contact area of the earth plate. If such 
material is used for the earth plate, each piece should be connected with the 
ground conductor itself. The best material to use to get a low resistance ground 
is broken coke, which should be tamped well in the bottom of the hole to the 
depth of about 2 ins. The copper plate should then be laid on, and about 4 ins. 
more coke tamped well over it. Earth can then be thrown in and tamped lightly. 

POLYPHASE SUB-STATIONS. 

Pig. 233 shows the main station and sub-station switchboard connections for a 
two-phase transmission system, with an alternating-direct-current generator at 
the generating station and a rotary converter at the sub-station. 



SECTION V -THE LINE. 



Direct current distribution should be employed on roads not exceeding six 
miles radius with moderately condensed traffic and eight miles radius with grades 
and lio-ht traffic. For roads which reach further from the power station than this, 
the question of the most economical method of distribution will have to be solved 
for each individual case, as there are too many variables entering into the problem 
to make a general solution possible. One question in the design of the system 
forlar-er territories when the principal part of the road lies within the six mile 
radius is whether to use more copper to expand the area to, say, nine and one-haif 
miles, 'or use boosters with less copper For distant distribution, the general 
method of solution is given below and also data, from which the copper line can 
be figured The cost of the different methods should be compared with that of 
the direct feeding method as a criterion. The area to which the estimates for 
alternating current distribution should be applied is certainly beyond the five 
mile radius, and the capital investment and cost of copper for feeding the out- 
lying territory alone should be considered. 

The elements involved in the consideration of what would be the best system 
of transmission to use are the fixed and operating charges. The former include 
the cost of line copper for permissible line drop, additional cost on pole line to 
carry copper and the cost of bonding for the return circuit; the latter, the 
interest on capital, the depreciation on the line and the cost of line losses 
per annum To make the substation profitable the cost of these two charges 
should be greater than the sum of the cost of the substation building, the 
boiler generator, switchboard, cost of line, bonding, and the interest charges 
on the substation investment, depreciation charges, cost of supplies, labor 
charges and reduction in main station efficiency due to loss of load. 

In comparing a direct transmission of 550 volts against a rotary converter 
substation, the same principle holds good. Compare the original cost of the 550-volt 
distribution system and the operating charges, as given above, against the cost 
of building the rotary converter substation, the additional cost of generators in 
the power "station, cost of rotary converters and static transformers, cost of trans- 
mission line and insulation and switchboard, and the interest, depreciation, 
attendance and supplies, as well as the annual cost of transformation losses. 

The booster overcomes the line drop, and the economy of using a booster to 
produce proper potential at distant points depends upon the relation between 
the copper cost, depreciation and transmission losses for direct current distribu- 
tion, and the booster cost, depreciation and transmission losses. It is not 
usual that boosters operating continually for any considerable load will show a 
better investment than copper; but for transient loads they do make an econom- 



268 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



ical showing. The disti-ibution can be carried by copper alone on roads between 
six and ten miles radius, where the equipments are operated by feeders only 
under normal loads. 

Data will be given in this chapter to determine the copper line costs; and 
equivalent rotary or substation construction could be estimated from the manu- 
facturers' quotations for specific performances. 

THE MOST ECONOMICAL ARRANGEMENT OF FEEDERS. 

The next matter to be decided in liDe construction is the proper amount of 
copper to use and its most economical disposition. We will first view this 
question from commercial considerations. Keturns from the investment in 
copper may come from several sources. The first and direct loss caused by a de- 
ficiency of copper in a feeder system is in the loss of energy ; second, in the in- 
creased depreciation of the car equipment due to the higher temperatures attained 
by motors operated by low voltages ; third, in the added expense of operating 
more equipments where a given headway between them is maintained, due to the 
lower maximum speeds and slower acceleration under low voltages. 

In connection with the energy it can be seen that the smaller we make the 
feeder for a given load, the greater the loss and the less will be the fixed capital 
charges against this feeder per annnum. On the other hand, the cross section 
may be increased until the interest charges are largely in excess of the energy 
saved. Lord Kelvin determined that the most economical sized feeder to use was 
the one in which the annual interest charges were equal to the annual cost of 
the energy lost, and this is accepted as a general rule for the determination of 
the proper capital investment in the feeder. To the cost of feeder should be 
added the cost of its insulation and pole line or of conduit, and the interest 
charge can be fixed by local conditions. 

The price per unit of energy generated in the station should be based on that 
charge for which a power station could sell all its output without profit or loss. 
The method for computing this charge is given on page 267. Taking this prime 
value, the cost for the losses on the line will be some amount less than this cost, per 
unit lost, depending upon cost of this additional production of energy, and the 
cost varies on each plant for this loss, but the cost of increasing a load 10 per 
cent on a station will make little difference in its consumption of coal, oil and 
water, except where an extra unit has to be operated to maintain the usual 25 
percent overload margin allowed in operating capacity; and under these con- 
ditions the losses in this added unit are chargeable to the line losses. Strictly 
speaking, the fixed charges belong to that portion of the energy of the station 
which produces a revenue, and again the increased loading of a unit brings up 
its efficiency, and this line loss is reflected in decreased cost of the total output. 

If these costs and current deliveries are determined for any road, it is very 
easy to construct a table in which the cost of the energy lost is compared with 
the capital charges, and this determines what size of wire can be most econom- 
ically used. The next and most difficult question is the fixing of the current 
required to propel the car or cars which are fed by the copper to be supplied. 

Assume the energy consumption as 1.2kw-hour per car mile for level track, 28-ft. 
car body weighing 18,000 lbs., single truck, two G. E. 800 motors with K-2 con- 
troller, and speed 10 miles per hour. This, with 500 volts, gives the average of 
24 amps, per car for current delivery. On the first step the car would require 60 
amps, at 500 volts ; but, with this flow of current, a drop will occur over the 
copper conductors. Say the voltage fell to 450 volts with the controller on the 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 269 



first notch, then the current will be 54 amps. The second notch of the controller 
cuts out 4L£ ohms., and this should largely be taken up by the counter e. m. f. of 
the motors, which have started and commenced accelerating. 

The speed gained on the first notch reduces the current obtained when the 
second notch is reached, and the greater the feeder drop the slower the accelera- 
tion. The greater the amount of energy required to bring the equipment to 
speed, the higher will be the temperature attained by the motors, and the greater 
the rate of equipment depreciation and the maximum demand on the power sta- 
tion. These losses and station investment can be reduced by greater line copper 
investment. 

In this problem, both the copper and ground return system have to be 
considered. Allowing 20 per cent drop, which means an effective voltage delivery 
of 400 volts to the equipment, the maximum current at starting, which will be on 
the second notch, can be assumed as about 90 amps. Say that 8 per cent drop is 
allowed for the ground returns, and 12 per cent for overhead copper; this gives a 
maximum feeding resistance of % ohm per equipment. The average demand 
then is 24 amps, per car, and the maximum demand 90 amps, for the case under 
discussion. 

The effect of grades is to increase both the starting current and also the 
running current value. The chart, Fig. 234, shows the relation which exists 
between the traction coefficient, which is plotted as ordinates on the chart, and 
the watts at 1 mile'per ton per hour, which are plotted as abscissae on the chart. 
Diagonal lines are drawn across the chart corresponding with grades from level 
up to 19 per cent, to assist in giving what is really required, i. e., the amperes 
flowing for different speeds and grades. On the right hand of the chart is given 
a scale in amperes, assuming the current delivery to the equipment is at 500 volts, 
for speed of 1 mile per hour. While the current delivery is not a rectilinear 
function of grade and speed, approximately proportional results can be obtained 
by multiplying the speed on grades by the wegiht of the car and then by the current 
given in this chart at the required grade ,which will give the total amperes required. 

As an example, suppose we have a car weighing 18,000 lbs. climbing a 4 per 
cent grade at 10 miles per hour, with a track coefficient of 25 lbs. Pass up the 
vertical line 25 until the diagonal line indicating 4 per cent is reached, then pass 
horizontally until the 1 mile per hour scale of amperes is reached; this gives 0.42 
amps, per ton. For 9 tons this would be 0.42 (amps.) X 9 (tons) X 10 (miles) = 
37.8 amps. The two other vertical columns at the extreme right of the chart, one 
6-mile speed and the other 12-mile speed, give the current required, including 20 
per cent loss on the line. For example, .assume an 8 per cent grade, 30 track 
coefficient, car weighing 20,000 lbs., running at 8 miles per hour, at 20 per cent 
transmission loss. This will give 5.7 amps, per ton, adding J£ more for increased 
speed and multiplying by 10 for weight in tons would give 5.7 X 4 X 3 X 10 = 76 
amps. This, of course, is without any rheostat in circuit with the motors. The 
same problem can be worked out by the table given on page 271. 

The following example will illustrate the use of this table: 

Example — Given a car weighing 12,000 lbs. loaded; the grade at the point 
where we wish to know the current is 4 per cent; speed required is 7 miles per 
hour; traction coefficient on this track is, say, 20 lbs.; motor efficiency is 80 per 
cent; current delivered at 500 volts. The current taken at this point will be equal 
to watts in table, shown at intersection of 4 per cent grade and 20 coefficient, 
multiplied as follows: 

198.9 X 7 (miles per hour) X 6 (tons weight) _ 

.80 (efficiency) x 500 (volts pressure ) ~ amps. 



270 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



::|8: 



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Fig. 234.— chart showing relation between traction coefficient and 
watts at 1 mile per ton per hour for different grades. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



271 



It is extremely difficult to give the exact speed at which a car will ascend a 
given grade, for each equipment will fall in speed in mounting a grade until the 
counter e. m. f . of the motors has been reduced to such a point that the current is 
sufficient to propel the car up the grade. This point is variable, depending upon 
the equipment. 

In considering the copper service on grades, the cars coming down grade 
require less current than those ascending, and generally above a 3" per cent grade 
a car will float with open controller after being started up to speed. It is very 
important to maintain potential at grades in order that the car can climb the 
grade at good speed, and to reduce the heating of the motors; and if the schedule 
can be maintained up grades the motorman will not be called on to make up time 
by coasting too fast down grade. The usual practice of feeder taps from trolley 
to feeder every ten or eight poles on levels should, on grades, be reduced tc six 
or four poles, in order to maintain the feeder pressure at trolley wire. The 
headway of the cars will have to be known in order to get the average current 
demand, but the average demand is taken care of when provision is made for 
the maximum demand. 

In the operation of a railway it is necessary at times to operate more cars 
over a section of track than are required by schedule, and fixing the maxi- 
mum current demand is purely a local problem. The maximum demand is usu- 
ally figured for a total drop of 140 volts where 500 volts are used at the station, 
and 150 volts with a 550 station voltage. 

There are a number of ways in which the copper investment can be reduced to 
handle this maximum load, some of which are given on page 276. By estimating 
the possible number of cars that could be massed together and using the constant 
given for each individual car, the maximum demand can be determined. 



Theoretical Watts Per Ton of 2,000 [L,bs. and Per Mile Per Hour, 
with Various Grades and Traction Coefficients. 







Coefficient, in 


Pounds Draw Bar Pull Per Ton. 




Grade 




Percent. 


























12 


13.5 


15 


18 


20 


25 


30 
59.7 


35 


40 


50 


60 





23.9 


26.9 


29.8 


35.8 


39.8 


49.7 


69.6 


79.6 


99.5 


119.4 


1 


63.7 


60.6 


69.6 


75.6 


79.6 


89.4 


99.5 


109.4 


119.4 


139.2 


159.1 


2 


103.4 


106.4 


109.4 


115.4 


119.4 


129.3 


139.2 


149.2 


159.1 


179.0 


198.9 


3 


143.2 


146.2 


149.2 


155.2 


159.1 


169.1 


179.0 


189.0 


198.9 


218.8 


238.7 


4 


183.0 


186.0 


189.0 


194.9 


198.9 


208.9 


218.8 


228.5 


238.7 


258.6 


278.5 


5 


222.8 


2->5.8 


228.8 


234.7 


238.7 


248.7 


258.6 


268.3 


278.5 


298.4 


318.3 


6 


262.6 


265.6 


268.5 


274.5 


278.5 


288.4 


298.4 


308.3 


318.3 


338.1 


358.1 


7 


302.4 


305.4 


308.3 


314.3 


318.3 


328.2 


338.1 


348.1 


358.1 


378.0 


397.9 


8 


342.4 


345.1 


348.1 


354.1 


358.1 


368.0 


378.0 


387.9 


397.9 


417.8 


437.6 


9 


381.9 


384.9 


387.9 


393.9 


397.9 


407.8 


417.8 


427.7 


437.6 


457.5 


477.4 


10 


421.7 


424.7 


427.7 


433.7 


437.6 


447.6 


457.5 


467.5 


477.4 


497.3 


517.2 


11 


461.5 


464.5 


467.5 


473.5 


477.4 


487.4 


497.3 


507.2 


517.2 


437.1 


557.0 


12 


501.3 


504.3 


507.2 


513.2 


517.2 


527.2 


537.1 


547.1 


557.0 


576.9 


596.8 


13 


541.1 


544.1 


547.1 


553.0 


557.0 


567.0 


576.9 


586.8 


596.8 


616.7 


636.6 


14 


580.9 


583.9 


586.8 


592.8 


596.8 


606.7 


616.7 


626.6 


636.6 


656.5 


676.4 


15 


620.7 


623.6 


626.6 


632.6 


636.6 


646.5 


656.5 


666.4 


676.4 


696.3 


716.2 



272 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK 



VERTICAL LINES SHOW 
THE LENGTH OF SECTION 
FED BY ANY SIZE OF FEEDER 



ONLY SCHEDULE 
LOAD CONSIDERED 




Fig. 335.— diagram showing the distribution of feeders on a road 
with cars 500 feet apart. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 273 



PROPORTIONING FEEDERS. 

After the current for the feeders has been determined, the next question is 
the location of the feeding sections and the proper disposition of the copper 
to get maximum potential delivery. This copper may be in one or several 
feeders. Where it is combined into one feeder, the cost of copper, per volt drop, 
is least. The cost of supporting this feeder is less, and the strains which it im- 
poses on the pole line and the surface it presents to wind pressure, are all in favor 
of the single feeder. The sub-division of the feeders and the connection of these 
separate divisions to different circuit breakers in the station is for safety. The 
sub-division of the feeders may be said to have been originally due to the em- 
ployment of fuses as safety devices. The action of the fuse required the dividing 
of the feeding systems up into a number of independently fed sections, but the 
modern circuit breaker, being much more prompt in its action, provides ample 
safety for the electrical machinery. Fuses, if placed between separate feeders 
on the line, will open when any section is grounded, so that in rewiring or recon- 
structing old distribution systems it is desirable to inter-connect the neighboring 
feeders by fuses, and thus get the most effective use of the copper. 

The diagram on page 272 shows the application of this principle of locating 
.r'eeders to a road 16,500 ft. long, on which the cars are 500 ft. apart with a 12 per 
cent drop; ordinates are drawn every 500 ft. or for each car, and their length 
represents the ampere feet required at each point. To apply this diagram to the 
case of a road with cars a greater or less distance apart the ampere feet required 
will be inversely proportional to the car spacing; thus with cars 3000 ft. apart 
the values in ampere feet will be one-sixth of the values given in the diagram. 
The ampere feet are given in column 15 in the table on page 274, from which 
the different conductors can readily be selected and applied to find the least 
feeder cost f orthis distribution. 

It will be seen from this diagram that the feeding sections grow smaller as 
the distance increases from the station, so also this method of laying out feeders 
gives each feeder uniform service. The limiting distances for No. 0, No. 00 and 
No. 000 feeders, applied to the problem worked out, are shown in the diagram. 
The ordinates below the datum line show the current consumed by the cars at 
each point. This current multiplied by the distance from the station, gives the 
ordinates above the datum line, which are the ampere feet. With a road in which 
the feeders traverse short cuts, i. e. do not follow the trolley line, the problem 
would have to be arranged so that the distribution takes place from the inter- 
section of the feeder and trolley, and the distance in feet to the station from this 
point, would be the feeder length. 

Wiring Diagram for Simple Transmission.— The diagram on page 275 
will give the correct size of wire to use in power transmission, from a distance of 
1000 ft. to 25,000 ft., and from no drop to 200 volts drop. On the lower margin of 
this diagram will be found current in amperes. On the right vertical edge will be 
found distance in feet. On the left vertical edge will be found volts drop. On 
the top of the sheet will be found sizes of wire, with a heavy line vertically 
through the diagram for each size of wire. 

Any wiring problem within the values given on the diagram can be solved as 
follows: Suppose we had 200 amps, to carry 3 miles with 50 volts drop. Start 
at the bottom of the diagram at 200 amps., follow this vertical line up until it 
intersects the horizontal line from 50 volts on the left hand vertical scale, pass 
along the radial line from this point until the horizontal line from 3 miles is met. 
The vertical line passing through at this point will lead upwards until the scale of 



274 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK'. 



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ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



275 




276 ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



wire is reached, and this will be 67,500 circ. mils, the value sought. Any three 
conditions required of a railroad feeder being known the fourth can be de- 
termined graphically by this diagram. For instance, suppose we had No. 0000 wire 
and wished to find out how far this would take 100 amps, with 75 volts 
drop. This problem can be solved by finding the intersection of the 100 
amps, and 75 volt lines and passing down the radial line intersecting this 
point until the vertical line extending from the circ. mils scale from No. 0000 
wire is reached. Then the horizontal line intersecting at this point from 
the scale of feet will give the distance in feet that the current can be car- 
ried with this wire and with this loss. The problem of finding the current, 
having given distance, size wire and drop, can be solved as follows: First, 
find the intersection of the wire with the distance, and then pass along the 
radial line intersecting at this point until the volts drop is reached. Then 
the vertical line also intersecting at this point with the radial drop line will lead 
to a horizontal scale in amperes and satisfy the other conditions of this equation. 
The other required problem, to find the volts drop when the size of wire, current 
and distance are given, can be worked out in the same way. The conductor 
length is given in feet single distance and the diagram should not be used for a 
metallic circuit; for in that case it shows only half the amount of copper nec- 



MUETIPEE FEEDING. 

Another problem that often arises in railway feeders is to find the multiple 
feeding resistance of several conductors when the current is delivered at one 
point. The rule for this is to multiply together two resistances, and divide their 
product by the sum of their resistances. If another conductor is feeding in 
multiple with these two and the correct resistance of these three conductors in 
multiple is sought, the combined resistance of the first two must first be determined 
and then combined with the third conductor in the same way. For tests on copper 
conductivity see page 33 and for tests on line conductivity see pages 46 and 47. 

It is usual to run two feeders from one circuit breaker in the station to each 
continuous section, but considerable money can often be saved by combining two 
feeders into one, giving one equivalent cross section of the two. For instance, 
2 miles of triple braided No. 0000 wire weigh 8184 lbs., of which about 1600 lbs. is 
insulation. If now, a single 450,000 circ. mils cable were used instead, it would 
weigh 8992 lbs., of which only 1000 lbs. is insulation, and the drop of this mile 
transmission would be lower by 8 per cent than with the two No. 0000 feeders. 
The tendency in modern line construction is to use larger and fewer feeders, 
advantages being found in line cost, location of weight on pole, and copper 
economy. 

CONSTRUCTION AND JOINTING OF FEEDERS. 

The insulation generally used on wires is known as weatherproof, and it 
consists of two or three braidings of jute, which should be thoroughly impreg- 
nated with a water-proofing compound. The covering and compound should be 
tough enough to resist considerable abrasion, and there should be no decrease in 
insulation resistance with 110 volts, after several hours immersion in water. 

It has been the practice in the past to tin the wires of stranded cables. Tin- 
ning increases the resistance of the wire, for it combines with the surface 
copper, and the effect is to slightly reduce the conductivity of the wire. There is 
no reason for tinning copper where weather-proof covering is used, except where 
the feeder is exposed to salt sea air, and in mining districts where the air is laden 
with corrosive gases. Where cables are spliced it is very easy to tin the strands 
before making the splices. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 277 



W£ST£/?rt OA?/0//> 




Pig. 237.— line splices. 



278 ELECTRIC RAIL IV A Y HAND BOOK. 



The ordinary Western Union Joint, shown at A in Fig. 237, is satisfactory 
where the wires are No. or smaller. Good results, however, are uot obtained 
with this joint when the wire is larger than No. 0. The best joint in such cases is 
made by turning the ends sharply at right angles, paralleling two wires, wrapping 
with No. 12 copper wire, and then soldering the joint, as shown at B, Solder is 
usually poured over a join t of this kind, but care should be taken that the wire is hot 
when the soldering is done. The best way to heat the joint is to use blow lamps, 
placing the joint on a board. With a little experience the best results may be 
obtained with resin as a flux, but soldering acids and compounds are generally 
used. The lap of the two wires on this splice joint should be at least twelve times 
the diameter of the wire. If properly soldered, this joint will then be as st:ong as 
any other part of the conductor. Exposed joints should be served with at least 
four layers of adhesive tape, so that the joint will be as well protected as the 
insulated wire. A splice in stranded cables is usually made by interweaving the 
strands of the two cables. Several methods often employed are shown at C and D 
(Fig. 237), but to make the joint electrically satisfactory each wire should be 
separately tinned before the two cable ends are interlaced. The connection is 
then served with No. 20 copper wire, as shown. 

THE FEEDER INSULATORS. 

In addition to the insulation covering on the feeder wire, a second insulation 
should be introduced between the feed wire and its mechanical supports. The 
materials generally used for this purpose are porcelain, glass and compounds of 
mica and shellac, rubber and asbestos. The mechanical properties of this insu- 
lation should be such that it will stand strains without fracture, and that the 
surface will not absorb moisture. Glass or porcelain is generally used for No. 
000 feeders or smaller, but for larger feeders with long spans, exceedingly strong 
insulators should be selected, especially where it is also necessary to use an iron 
pin. Porcelain has been greatly improved in strength during recent years, and 
the present method of firing it in the kiln has thoroughly vitrified the body of the 
insulator, still leaving it tough. For the testing of insulators see pages 74 to 7ti. 

In the saddle form of insulator, shown at C, Fig. 238, with butterfly wings, the 
portion of the insulator where the wire rests should be provided with rounded edges 
so as not to abrade the wire if there is any movement of the feeder due to tempera- 
ture changes. The fiarings of the petticoat should not be wide enough to allow 
water to spatter under them from the cross arm, or narrow enough to invite 
insects to make cocoons and nests in them. Where a flaring petticoat is used, 
the top of the cross arm may be rounded and the edge of the insulators made 
helmet-shaped, so that the drip shall fall outside the cross arm, but these consid- 
erations are more pertinent in high tension transmission work. 

The strength of insulators can be tested as follows: Place two of the regular 
pins 24 ins. apart in a wooden beam, 4 ins. X 6 ins., and tie down into the top of 
the side groove of the insulator a %-'m. rod of iron 28 ins. long. A strain by a 
lever that will give a permanent set to this rod should not fracture the insulator. 
A test should be given for both top and side strains. The method of making this 
relative strain test is shown in Fig. 239. No copper line can withstand such 
strains to an insulator as these tests impose. The strain on the copper conductor 
is a limiting mechanical factor beyond which it is not profitable to increase the 
Strength of the pole line. 

The composite insulator, which is formed of a metallic saddle for the feeder 
and a metallic bushing for the pin, is a form of insulator largely used. These 
two metallic parts are held together and insulated from each other by insulating 



ELECTRIC RAILWA V HAND BOOK. 279 




Pig. 838.— line insulatobs. 



28o 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 



material which is generally moulded into place under heat and great piessure. 
The desirable qualities in the composition used are that it have sufficient me- 
chanical strength and that the strength be maintained when the temperature of 
the insulator has been raised to 150 degs. Fahr. The worst fault of these com- 
posite insulators is that they become plastic in warm weather and yield to con- 
ductor strains. This composite insulating material should not be affected by 
rain so if any of the substances in the composition are dissolved, a roughened 
surface is produced which will hold dirt and cause leakage. 

Where the line passes through trees it must be protected from contact with 
the latter, as the movement of the branches by the wind abrades the insulation of 
the wire. For cases of this kind the split wooden sheath, shown in L in Fig. 238, 
is often used. This should be held firmly in position so as not to slip along the 



L^p SIDE |gg) 




Fig. 239.— methods fob testing insulators. 

wire, but the really best protection, where it is possible, is to pull the feeder away 
by guying it to another limb. If a split porcelain insulator is used to enclose the 
feeder and the guy twisted around the porcelain insulator and some tension put 
on it to an adjacent limb, the tree and the wire are both free to move without any 
considerable strain. 

THE POLE LINE. 



Wooden poles are divided into classes dependent on their form, growth 
and symmetry. The woods generally used are chestnut, hard pine and cedar. 

As a rule, the dimensions of round wooden poles should bear the re- 
lations shown in the table on next page. 

Cedar poles over 47 ft. long should not be used, as the wind and con- 
ductor strains are liable to break them down. All first-class chestnut 
poles should be second growth— that is, a pole grown from an offshoot of 
a chestnut tree that has been cut down. This can be determined by the 
annual rings being larger and of a lighter color, as shown at A in Fig. 
239, or by the knot holes being nearer the top of the pole. If the bark i9 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 281 



on the pole the serrations should not be deep in second growth chestnut. 
A pole should be fairly round, and not vary more than 10 per cent, 
from true diameter all around its surface. 

DIMENSIONS OF BOUND WOODEN POLES. 













Length of 


Cir. in 


Diameter in 


Cir. in 


Diameter in 


Pole in Feet. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches, 


Inches. 


30 


33 


10% 


18 


6% 


35 


36 


Ujl 


20 


41 


39 


12^ 


23 


7% 


47 


44 


14 


23 


52 


47 


15 


23 


7% 


57 


50 


16 


23 


m 


68 


53 


16% 


23 


Ws 


73 


56 


17% 


23 


7Ys 


84 


64 


20% 


25 


8 



In order that the pole line have a neat appearance, the poles must 
he straight; no deflection greater than 4 per cent should be allowed 
from the center line. A pole should be cut down when the sap is not 
running, either in midwinter or summer, in order to give the best life, 
as the sap contains the elements that decompose and start dry and wet 
rot. 

After the pole is cut it should be allowed to stand with the bark on 
it, if exposed to the sun and weather, to season; otherwise it will be sun- 
checked— that is having cracks which run parallel to the trunk shown at B, Fig. 
240 and expose the interior of the pole to rot. 

A wind-shaken pole, shown at D, is one which has been subjected to 
severe wind storms during growth, which have fractured the fibres thus 
permanently weakening the pole. 

Heart rot in second growth chestnut is generally near or at the butt. 
If a pole is affected by rot where it is exposed after peeling, internal rot 
will show on the surface of the pole by dark spots of fungi over the affected 
parts; when exposed for any length of time fungi will grow on the outside 
of the pole over the rotten portions. Knot holes larger than % in. within 
10 ft. of the butt greatly decrease the strength of the pole, for at this 
point the greatest strain comes. Knot holes where the core has dropped 
out or is loose, indicate premature decay in poles. These points are given 
to indicate what to look for in the selection of first-class poles. 

Chestnut deteriorates rapidly when the surface sap wood is cut, and 
for this reason hard pine is usually employed where special shapes, such as 
hexagon, octagon, beveled or turned poles, are required. These are not, 
as a rule, made longer than 40 ft. In the selection of sawed poles the 
heart should be near the axis of the pole. Wavy grain lines, as at E, on 
a sawed pole indicate that it was sawed from a crooked log, and heavy side 
strains are very liable to fracture such timber. 

Cedar has neither the elasticity nor tensile strength of chestnut or 
hard pine of the same size, the fracture being a sharp one across the 
fibre, as shown at G, while chestnut still maintains its fibrous fracture 
when broken, as shown at F. Cedar, however, can be secured of very 
uniform sizes, and in some sections the increased sizes necessary to equal 
chestnut and hard pine in tensile strength still makes it a cheaper pole. 

Iron tubular poles are made up to 50 feet high; both the standard pole 



282 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



and the extra strong poles are made to meet the variation in line 
strains. Taking one length most commonly used, which is 31 feet, they 
are usually divided into five classes: 

Lateral strain in Pounds which will give 
lbs. to show 6 in. deflection, permanent set of % in. 

No. 1... 3501bs. 7(X)lbs. 

No. 2 500 " 1000 V 

No. 3 ■ 700 " 1200 " 

No. 4 1000" 1700" 

No. 5 2000 " 2600 " 




Fig. 240.— characters op wood tor poles. 



The test should be made when the pole is set in a proper concrete bed 
6 ft. deep and the strain applied to the top of the pole. 

The pole should be as nearly round as possible; should not deviate 
more than % in. between maximum and minimum diameter, and thick- 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 283 



ness of tube should not vary more than Win.; %-in. is the greatest 
deviation that will be allowed from true diameter at the top of the pole. 
As these poles are made up of sections, some provision should be made 
to test them where these sections are mechanically connected together. 
One provision inserted is that the pole should be dropped a distance of 
6 ft., butt foremost, on a solid foundation, three times without the joints 
loosening. 

There are two ways of connecting the different lengths, one is by 
heating the larger pipe, and, while hot.swaging the larger pipe down to the 
smaller cold pipe, over a length of about four times its diameter; when 
this joint cools the shrinkage of the outer pipe grips the inner pipe; 
tests of these joints usually show that they are stronger than either of the 
single pipes to both compression and lateral strains. 

The other method is to introduce between the inner and outer pipe a 
rusting mixture, usually of sal ammoniac and iron filings; in oxidizing, 
this mixture increases its volume, thus expanding and making a union be- 
tween these sections. In testing this class of pipe for deflection the joints 
sometimes yield and show more permanent deflection than is caused by 
the pipe alone. These poles are usually constructed by uniting three 
sections of round pipe. 

A guard ring slipped over the pole to rest on the earth at its base has 
been used, but water is retained here, rusting the pole at the point where 
it has to bear the greatest strain. These have been removed in a num- 
ber of cases and the life of the pole prolonged. 

The following weights and lengths are usually carried in stock: 

27 ft. long, 240 to 350 l'bs., standard; 335 to 560 lbs., extra strong. 

28 ft. long, 250 to 610 lbs., standard; 345 to 1175 lbs., extra strong. 
30 ft. long, 270 to 780 lbs., standard; 375 to 1380 lbs., extra strong. 
35 ft. long, 800 to 1050 lbs., standard; 890 to 1670 lbs., extra strong. 
40 ft. long, 850 to 1530 lbs., standard; 1335 to 2355 lbs., extra strong. 
45 ft. long, 1174 to 1665 lbs., standard; 1835 to 2600 lbs., extra strong. 
50 ft. long, 1345 to 1800 lbs., standard; 1995 to 2835 lbs., extra strong. 

For pole testing rig see page 73. The results of some pole tests are given 



below. 








Wooden Poles. — 






■Round 
bottom. 


Top. Deflection. 


Chestnut. 


Cedar. 


10% in. 
11% " 
12% " 


5% in. 7 in. 

6% " 7 " 
7% " 7 " 


340 lbs. to 510 lbs. 
405 " " 680 " 
490 " " 935 " 


360 lbs. to 406 lbs 
432 " " 540 " 
495 " " 675 " 



The above was the average of a number of experiments. 

Lattice Poles.— I. Length over all 26 ft. 6 ins., unsupported length 20 ft. 7ins. 
Laced from bntt plate with middle plate. 

II. Length over all 28 ft. 6 ins., unsupported length 22 ft. 6 ins. Gusset plates 
between butt and top plate. 

I. Elastic limit 1,540 bs. Deflection 10 ins. ) Pole lattices were filled with 

XL ** " 3,340 •« " 14 " > cement. 



284 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



TESTS ON STANDARD IRON TROLLEY POLES. 



03 


00 

QJ 

S 
o 

Eh 


o 


d 


Ph 

A 
br. 
a 

<v 


.a 
M 

'53 


Deflection at Top of Pole when 
set in 5 feet of Ground. 


IS 
is 


a 

M 


o 
n 


o 
o 
in 


i 

tr- 


tc" 
jQ 

o 

o 

o 


02 

,Q 

O 
O 

in 


00 

O 


In8. 

4 


Ins. 
No. 4 
No. 3 

9-32 
No. 4 
No. 3 

9-32 


Ft. 
7 
9 

14 
8 
9 

16 


Ins. 
6 
6 






Ft. 


Lbs. 


Ins. 


ill S. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


5 
6 


28 


450 


5 


8 


10J4 


20 




4 
















5 
6 


30 


515 


5 


10 


l? 


26 





















EXTRA IRON HEAVY POLES. 



4 


11-32 
3-8 
7-16 
3-8 
7-16 
7-16 
7-16 
7-15 
1-2 


7 
9 

14 
8 
9 

16 
8 
9 

16 


6 
6 























5 


28 


708 


9-16 


5 


m 






6 






5 
















6 

7 


30 


1025 




7% 


8Y2 




18 


6 
















7 


30 


1380 






m 


1U 


9^ 


8 























A selected lot of poles costs more than the run of the stock, yet in 
ordinary trolley line construction money can be saved by designating 
exactly how many of each class of pole will be required, the best and 
most uniform poles being for streets and highways, and the poorer quali- 
ties used along the country roads. Corner poles and those required to 
support extra span strains should be specially listed in the specifications; also 
stubs and anchors or foundation timbers. 

Specifications are varied for every class of line construction, but the 
usual clauses which relate to the class of pole to be delivered are as 
follows: 

Round poles, first class. 

There are to be ( ) poles, ( ) feet long, with an average butt 

diameter of ( ) in. and an average top diameter of ( ) in., to be a 

gradual taper from the bottom to the top, to have no deflection bend or 

twist which will give the pole a greater deflection than ( ) per cent. 

from the true axis, that the pole shall be peeled clean of bark and fibre, 
that sun cracks shall not show on the surface of the pole, neither shall 

it be wind-shaken or checked; no knots over ( ) in. will be passed in 

this class. The butt shall be sawed square and the top chamfered at an 
angle of 45 degs., the knots shall be trimmed close, gains for cross arms to be 

cut ins. from the bottom of chamfer, and to be cut — ins. deep and — ins. 

wide. These poles will all be of wood and show no signs of dry or wet rot. 

For square sawed poles the specifications vary in this way: The pole 

ghall be ( ) in. by ( ) in. at butt and ( ) in. 'by ( ) in. at the 

top; shall be planed and chamfered, the heart of the tree shall be central 



ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



285 



® @ 



WM9 




FlO. 241.— TYPES OF POLES." 



286 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



to the long side of the timber; where this pole is to he beveled on the 
edge the width of the bevel should be given, also where it is to begin, 
how far from butt of pole. In hexagon poles the length of the sides of 
the hexagon, as well as the diameter of the pole, should be given, as also 
the taper of the poles. In fancy turned poles the height of hexagon and 
beginning of turned part of poles should also be given. Built-up poles 
are special, and need drawings to clearly define the design. The length 
of a wooden pole may vary within such wide limits that sizes will have 
to be selected to give ample factor of safety for the line strains thrown 
on them, and depends on the soundness and preservation of the wood to 
maintain the line in service. A pole that has been thoroughly weather 
cured standing is stronger than a new pole which is partially green. A 
green pole shows greater deflection and less tensile strength than one that 
has been standing some time, so lumbermen do not like to be bound in a 
specification to the deflection and breaking strains which are applicable 
to iron poles, and they are not usually inserted. 

Iron poles. The weight and dimensions of each section and total 
length of pole are usually specified. The composition of the metal re- 
quired may be specified, seamless steel tube now being generally used. 
The method of putting the sections together may 'be restricted in the 
specifications; the tensile strength, as well as the deflection and permanent 
deflection for different strains, are usually incorporated. To be delivered 

painted with ( ) coats of anti-rusting paint is required; also a turned 

plug of wood driven in at the butt end, and sometimes at the top, is nec- 
essary where they are to be handled much in transportation. Collars, 
flanges and tops are accessories in most cases on the pole. Manufacturers 
can drill any holes in the pole without any appreciable advance on the 
first cost. These poles, with their sizes, should be located and specified. 

Lattice poles vary so much in the angles and spacing of the lattice, 
the slope and character of base, that the contractor or manufacturer 
should indicate what is desired or what will be furnished by a drawing. 
The pole can be specified regarding its mechanical strength and deflection 
the same as the round pole. 

Fancy and special poles are not standard, and cannot be subject to 
general specifications, unless the product of a single manufacturer is to be 
adopted. 

For ordinary shapes and special poles see Fig. 241. 

With wooden poles the depth of setting is determined by the line strains, but 
roughly the pole is set 18 per cent of its length in the ground. For wooden poles 
the hole should be dug of as small diameter as possible with convenience in 
digging. In clay ground it should not be larger than 15 ins. at the bottom and 20 
ins. at the top. A foot-stone is generally placed at the bottom of the pole on the 
side opposite from where the strain will fall on the pole. The earth should be 
well tamped around the pole, and only a few inches of earth should be thrown in 
at a time. The life of a pole can be considerably prolonged by treating it with 
creosote. Painting the butt of the pole with pigment, which does not enter the 
pores of the wood, decreases, rather than increases, the life of the pole. Where 
sandy ground is encountered, such as will not well support a pole, barrels may be 
buried one upon another, and the pole set in these barrels, as shown in Fig. 242; 
where iron poles are to be set in concrete in very sandy soils, the same method can 
also be used. 

Poles buried in marshy grounds have to be provided with a structure which 



ELECTRIC RAILWA Y HAND BOOK. 



287 



will increase their bearing areas. Figs. 243, 244, 245 show common methods of 
these constructions. The support of the pole in soft ground has also to be assisted 
by head guys or brace studs. 

In case of iron poles the surface presented does not give a sufficient bearing 
area against the soil to carry the strain which the polo is designed to resist, so 
concrete i3 used around the base to enlarge the foundation area between the earth 
and the pole. Fig. 246 shows the standard setting. 





Figs. 242 and 243.— pole setting in yielding grotjnd. 





Figs. 244 and 245.— special pole footings. 



The concrete should be composed of one part Portland cement, two parts 
sharp sand, and four parts broken rock of the size to pass through a 2-inch ring in 
any direction. The sand and cement should first be thoroughly mixed together 
while dry, then enough water added to dampen the material and then turned until 
entirely mixed. The stone is then added and the whole concrete mixed together. 
Care should be taken that the hole in which the pole is set has fairly smooth sides,' 
so that in tamping the concrete in place dirt will not be knocked down and mixed 
with the concrete, and so destroy its usefulness. The setting of iron poles in 
marshy or loose ground requires about the same special structure as shown in 
Fig. 242. 



2SS 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



Where hard stone is met in a few holes only, and in not sufficient quantity to 
warrant the use of a steam drill or dynamite, a piece of iron pipe slightly larger 
than the butt of the pole can be filed with teeth at one end, and by rotating this 
and feeding with emery and water, the hardest rock can be cut to the depth of 4 ft. 
in a few hours; the core can then be broken out with a chisel. Where concrete is 




Fig. 246.— iron pole sett- 
ing IN CONCRETE. 





Fig. 248.— METHOD OP 

SUPPORT FOR 

TAMPING. 



Fig. 247.— method op rig- 
ging FOR POLES. 



Fig. 249.— level for 

DETERMINING RAKE, 



mixed at one place and carted to the pole line it should be made very wet, and 
the slow setting variety of cements only should be used. Concrete should always 
be tamped until a smooth surface shows on the top. 

Raising the poles and lowering them into the holes is generally done by 
a portable derrick mounted on a heavy dray, together with a crab winch (see 
Fig. 247). This is driven as close to the pole hole as possible— the pole previ- 
ously being rolled parallel to the road, as close to the hole as convenient, or it can 
be raised directly from the dray. A chain is rigged around the pole a little above 
its centre of gravity, and the pole raised up into a vertical position, and the derrick 
moved over until the pole is direcLly over the hole. The bottom end of an iron 
pole should be plugged up flush with a wooden plug at least 6 inches long. The pole 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



289 



is guided down the hole against a skid plank until it rests on the 8 inches of 
cement and guyed into position, see Fig. 248. The rake of the pole should be 
from 8 inches to 12 inches, depending on the flexure of the pole and the character 
of the foundations. A level shown in Fig. 249 is very useful for varying and 
determining rakes, and by sliding a 1J4 inch projection on one edge of the level 
any rake can be determined from 7J^ inches to 15 inches for a 24 foot pole, and the 
pole can be set by means of this level. Do not attempt to set the pole by the eye, 
as a crooked tree or uneven ground will throw the pole out, and it is very 
important in straight line work to keep the rake the same on all poles in order 
that the final pole line will pull up nearly straight and present a neat appearance. 
The table below gives poles per mile upon different spacings and the weights 
of line wire they will have to bear. 

WEIGHT OF WIRE SUPPORTED BY POLES. 



Distance 




Approximate Weight of B & S Wire, 


between 


Poles per 


Weather Proof, Double Braided. 


Lbs. 


Centres in 
Feet. 


Mile. 








No. 1. 


No. 0. 


No. 00 


No. 000 


No. 0000. 


40 


132.00 


12.9 


15.1 


18.9 


24.2 


30.3 


50 


105.60 


16.1 


18.9 


23.6 


30.3 


37.8 


60 


88.00 


19.3 


22.7 


28.4 


36.3 


45.4 


ro 


75.43 


22.6 


26.5 


33.1 


42.4 


53.0 


80 


66.00 


25.8 


30.3 


37.9 


48.8 


60.6 


85 


62.11 


27.3 


32.2 


40.3 


51.5 


64.4 


90 


58.66 


28.9 


34.09 


42.6 


54.5 


68.16 


95 


55.57 


30.6 


35.9 


44.9 


57.5 


71.8 


100 


52.80 


32.2 


37.8 


47.3 


60.6 


75.6 


105 


50.28 


33.8 


39.7 


49.6 


63.6 


79.4 


110 


48.00 


35.4 


41.7 


52.1 


66.6 


83.4 


115 


45.91 


37.03 


43.5 


54.4 


69.6 


87.0 


120 


44.00 


38.7 


45.4 


56.8 


72.7 


90.8 


125 


42.24 


40.2 


47.3 


59.1 


75.7 


94.6 


130 


40.61 


41.8 


49.2 


61.5 


78.7 


98.4 


135 


39.11 


43.4 


51.1 


63.9 


81.8 


102.2 


140 


37.71 


. 45.08 


53.03 


66.3 


84.8 


106.0 


145 


36.41 


46.6 


54.9 


68.6 


87.8 


109.8 


150 


35.20 


48.3 


56.8 


71.0 


90.9 


113,6 


160 


33.00 


51.6 


60.6 


75.8 


96.9 


121.2 


170 


31.06 


54.7 


64.3 


80.4 


103.0 


128.6 


180 


29.33 


57.9 


68.2 


85.3 


109.1 


136.4 


190 


27.79 


61.2 


71.9 


89.9 


115.1 


143.8 


200 


26.40 


64.5 


75.7 


94.6 


121.2 


151.4 


210 


24.76 


68.6 


80.8 


101.0 


129.2 


161.6 


220 


24.00 


70.8. 


83.3 


104.1 


133.3 


166.64 



Pole Fittings.— The standard wooden cross arms usually kept in stock are 
given in Fig. 250 with the dimensions and spacing for pins. Cross arms are 
usually kept in white or Norway pine or long leaf yellow pine. The tensile 
strength of Norway pine is approximately 10,700 lbs. to the sq. in., and the 
breaking cross load for long leaf yellow pine is 21,300 lbs. to the sq. in. The 
breaking cross load for the standard size of cross arm is 3820 lbs. for white 



290 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



pine and 5060 lbs. for yellow pine. Records show that the long leaf pine 
is 40 per cent stronger, but the yellow is more durable, as it does not rot 
so readily where the iron bolts pierce the cross arm, which is the point 



/ 

4*r 72% - -16'- • f2-\4r 



•A~l2T-i6-+iZ-\4* 






2/^-*- -22— •--- 21— 4* 

6-0 •» 






t£ V7 ^T yr ln!i"r" yy fe" y y *^" 



•^ i. 8 ± l-J— _:j 



jj — : — : — -b-o 1 -^ — ■ — ■< 







Fig. 250.— miscellaneous types of cross arms. 



at which the cross arm has to bear the greatest strain. In order to avoid 
piercing the wood at this point with wooden poles and also where wooden 
cross arms are used on iron poles, straps and plates are employed, as 
shown in Fig. 250. The pole is gained in the regular way when wooden, but 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK* 



2gt 




Fig. 251.— feeder, wire supports 



2Q2 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



where the pole is iron, a saddle is cut into the cross arm to make it fit 
the pole and thus increase the hearing area of the cross arm. Fig. 250 
shows a cast-iron fitting to attach a wooden cross arm to an iron pole. 7, Fig. 251, 
shows a split cross arm construction where the insulator pin is also the spacing 
piece between the two halves. For securing cross arms to poles in railroad feeder 
work, use %-in. galvanized bolts, and lag screws instead of J^-in. Cross arms 
should be planed straight grained and painted with two coats of Prince's metallic 
paint, made up in the proportion of 7 lbs. to 1 gal. of pure linseed oil. 

Three designs of split cast-iron brackets are shown in Fig. 249. The two 
halves clamp the pole by two bolts which pull them together; the threads of the 
top bolt catch the whole strain in this method of fastening. The diameter of the 
pole at point of connection with cross arms can only vary 1 in. for this style of 
fastening. Instead of a cast-iron cross arm, a sheet-steel punched cross arm made 
in two duplicate halves, is shown in Fig. 251. The elasticity of the two halves 
allows for considerable variation in the size of poles. Four bolts hold the 
halves together and either iron or wooden insulator pins can be used. 
Side arms are very useful in dodging trees; where the poles have to be 
set at a fixed distance from the curb, the arm may be swung either side 
of the pole, and the feeders in this way cleared of tree contacts. 8 and 
9 show the two, three and one pin arm method of fastening. 

In some instances the feeders have to be supported on structures. 10 shows 
them carried under an elevated railroad. At A is shown the general ar- 
rangement, at B the suspension irons, at C the porcelain insulator, at D 
the spacing washer between insulators. A %-in. iron pipe threads these 
insulators, which are placed every 12 ft. to 25 ft. 11 shows how a wire support 
is made where house connection can be made, but no pole can be set. The 
feeders are tied in the insulators in this case, and the span wire is also insu- 
lated by strain insulators. 

ERECTION OF SPAN AND TROLLEY WIRES, 

After the poles have been set long enough to have the concrete hardened, or 
the ground settle, the span wires are strung in position. In some cases guard 
wires are required, but as a general rule guard wire construction is falling into 
disfavor, because it has been found to add a greater hazard to the overhead line 
construction. 

The span wire usually employed is of galvanized steel, or Swedish iron, consist- 
ing of seven strands, and with general dimensions as follows : 

Diameter of each wire in inches 07 .11 .12 .135 

Outside approximate diameter in inches £ T s s f T ' B 

Weight per 100 ft. in pounds 10 21 29 36 

Yards per 100 lbs 307 209 130 88 

Breaking strains in pounds average 2500 3950 4600 6100 

In some cases No. 1 B. & S. galvanized wiped Swedish iron is used, with No. 
trolley in short spans, and two No. 1 wires are twisted together for long spans 
and anchor guys. Stranded span wires give considerable less line maintenance 
cost, after several years of use. Guard wire spans are No. 8 B. & S. galvanized 
iron, and for longitudinal guards. No. 10 B. & S. is usually specified. Before 
erecting the pole it should be provided with the proper gains and holes drilled 
in them to receive the pole fixtures. 

With wooden poles the span wire may be attached to the pole and adjusted 
by means of an eye bolt, shown at 1 in Fig. 252, or the fork bolt 2, or ratchets 6, 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



293 




Fig. 252.— pole span wire fixtures. 



294 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



7 and 8, For iron poles, clamps, as shown at 3, 4 or 5, can be used. Where attach- 
ment is made to a lattice pole below the pole top, or to a lattice column, the device 
shown at 9 may be used. Where a wall is used for the support of the span, a rosette 
and expansion eye bolt, shown at 10, can be employed. Where iron poles are 
used, turn buckles, shown at 11, are required for taking the slack out of the span 
wire; sometimes one eye of the turn buckle is insulated to reinforce the trolley 
insulator. Insulated turn buckles are shown at 12 and 14. At 13 is shown a 
wooden strain insulator. At 17, 18 and 19 are shown different methods of splicing 
in the span wire to the eye of the pole fixtures. Nos. 15 and 16 show span wire 
insulators. 

The general methods of disposition of labor in active construction of trolley 
line work varies in nearly every case, depending on the conditions, material and 
labor on hand. The work is generally carried out in the following order; placing 
of pole fixtures, stringing up of the span wires, erection of guard wire, erection 
of trolley wires, erection of feed wires. When a dead trolley wire is put up it is 
generally unreeled under the span wires in the middle of the track, and tied with 




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Fig. 253.— methods of connecting feeder to trolley. 



u 



temporary tie wires to the span wire, starting the trolley wire from two strain 
guys; the tension is then brought upon it. To erect a live trolley wire 
the reel is mounted on a flat car with brake levers and is pushed ahead of the 
construction car with the trolley under tension, and immediately attached by 
means of suspension insulators to the span wires. In this way some 6 miles of 
trolley can be put up in a day. 

Where the feeder taps to the trolley wire, two methods are employed: One is 
to let the feeder tap act also as a span wire, and connect it by a jumper into the 
feeder ear, as shown in Fig. 253; the other method is to put the feeder ear on a 
regular iron span wire, and above it stretch the feeder tap, and connect by a 
pig tail from the feeder tap to the trolley ear. This latter method of construction 
has several advantages; one is, if the trolley falls, it may break the pig tail, and 
disconnect itself from the feeder. It also gives a ready method of disconnecting 
a grounded feeder from the trolley wire. It is found in practice, that a feeder for a 
span wire has neither the strength nor the durability of the iron span wire, and 
this weak part of the overhead system can be strengthened by making the feeder 
tap only an electrical connection, without imposing on it further the carrying of 
heavy line strains. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



295 




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FlGo 254.— TROLLEY WIRE INSULATORS AND FITTINGS. 



296 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




Pig. 255 —types or side-arm construction. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



297 



The following strain table will give an approximate idea of the & train on 
wires when erected for span wires. This table gives the distance of span in feet 
and the dip of the span wire in inches, with a single trolley and a double trolley: 

TABLE SHOWING SAG OF SPAN IN INCHES FOR DIFFERENT 
TENSIONS AND LENGTHS OF SPANS. 





Strain on Poles in Pounds. 


Span in 
Feet. 


D. T. S. T. 

500 lbs. 


D. T. S. T. 

800 lbs. 


D. T. S. T. 
1000 lbs. 


D. T. S. T. 

1500 lbs. 


D. T. S. T. 
2000 lbs. 


40 


15.4 

20.8 
26.3 
31.9 
37.6 
43.5 
49.5 
55.6 
61.9 


10.6 
13.6 
16.7 
19.9 
23.2 
26.7 
30.3 
34.0 
37.9 


9.6 
13.0 
16.4 
19.9 
23.5 
27.2 
30.9 
34.7 
38.7 


6.5 
8.5 
10.4 
12.4 
14.5 
16.7 
18.9 
21.3 
23.7 


7.7 
10.4 
13.1 
15.9 
18 8 
21.8 
24.8 
27.8 
30.9 


5.3 
6.8 
8.3 
9.9 
11.6 
13.4 
15.2 
17.0 
18.9 


5.1 
6.9 
8.8 
10.6 
12.5 
14.5 
16.5 
18.2 
20.6 


3.5 
4.5 
5.6 
6.6 
7.7 
8.9 
10.1 
11.3 
12.6 


3.9 
5.2 
6.6 
8.0 
9.4 
10 9 
124 
13.9 
15.5 


2.7 


50 


3.4 


60 


4.2 


70 


4.9 


80 


5.6 


90 


6.6 


100 


7.6 


no 


8.5 


120 


9.5 







In pulling up span wires, the temperature of the air in which the work is 
done must be considered, for a span pulled up to 1500 lbs. at 10 degs. below zero 
Fahr., will only give a strain of 350 lbs. at 90 degs. Fahr., yet a T Vin. span wire 
pulled up with 850 lbs. at 50 degs. Fahr. will reach the breaking strain at 8 degs. 
Fahr. below zero, providing the pole does not yield. But the result of construct- 
ing high tension line construction in hot weather is to throw the poles out of 
alignment. With a trolley wire more attention has to be paid to strains, because 
the distance over which these strains can be transmitted being greater, they fall di- 
rectly on the overhead line construction, and the effort to displace the overhead 
line fixtures by this tension must be taken care of by strain guys. 

In order to keep these strains from distorting curve work, strain guys must 
be placed at the tangent of the curve, adjacent to the curve, in order to relieve the 
pull offs from any line strains. Copper trolley wire changes its length in each 
mile, 4J4 ft. for 90 degs. variation of temperature. The right tension to put on a 
trolley wire is such that the rise and fall are taken up in the dip, and do not 
move the line fixtures longitudinally. If, for instance, the poles move with a 
change of temperature, it may be assumed that the line strains are being trans- 
mitted unduly. The way to determine whether this is taking place is to throw a 
long plumb bob line over the span wire and mark on the pavement the position 
of the span wire in the cool morning, then again at noonday when the sun has 
thoroughly warmed up the overhead construction. If there is no change in these 
two positions of the plumb bob with a taut trolley wire it is safe to assume that 
each span is automatically adjusting itself to temperature changes without caus- 
ing undue strains on the overhead construction. 

Overhead line construction is put up with all degrees of tension, nut it does 
not require very much observation to see that the high tension construction leads 
to less trolley wheel wear, and the wheel does not leave the trolley at high speeds 
as readily as with slack overhead construction. Appearances also certainly favor 
laut lines. 



?g8 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



For approximating the strain put on lines by the block and fall, the distance 
moved by the pulling rope, divided by the distance this pull moves the line under 
tension, multiplied by the weight applied to the pull, gives the line tension. 

The different standard forms of trolley wire insulators are shown in Fig, 254. 
These fixtures shown hold a round trolley wire, but the ear may be so arranged 
as to hold a figure 8, or grooved trolley wire. 

Side-Arm Construction.— To decrease line cost and pole obstructions, 
side-arm construction is often resorted to. Fig. 255 shows some of the types 
used. The trolley wire fixtures for bracket suspension shown in Fig. 254 are 
used for securing the trolley wire to the side-arm or bracket and insulating it 
therefrom. 

CURVE CONSTRUCTION. 

Overhead work on curves should be so designed that the wheel will not leave 
the trolley wire in going around the curves. This is practically accomplished 
when the following precautions are observed: 

First. All line tensions should be taken off the trolley wire at the end of both 
tangents to the curve by running strain wires to take up this tension, (2, Fig. 256.) 

Second. The location of the curve of the trolley wire should not be directly 
over the center of the track except at points of tangency, but should depart from 
these points toward the center of the curve, the departure being greatest at the 
last named point. (1, Fig. 256.) The amount of departure at the center increases 
as the radius of the curve decreases. The table on page 300 shows what this 
should be for different radii. 

Third. Radii of the curves should not be less than 40 ft. Where curves as 
small as this must be used, an improvement can be made by making the switches 
at the ends of the curves of a greater radius than the main part of the curve such 
as using 70 ft. radius at switches on 40 ft. curves; this eases the curve for about 
10 ft. at each end depending upon the position of track and center of trolley 
stand. The proper position of trolley wire around curves can be found by 
marking the center of stand on outline of celluloid car body in the same way as 
given on page 124 for locating curves. 

Fourth. There should be a sufficient number of pull-offs around the curve, so 
that the deflection of the trolley wire at any one point will not be greater than 
10 degs. This is accomplished by properly spacing the pull-offs for curves of 
different radii and also by having long ears bent to radius of curve. The table 
shows the distance apart the pull-offs should be in order that the angle be- 
tween the trolley wire and the pull-offs should not tend to throw the trolley 
wheel from the wire. 

In the construction of turnouts no additional poles are necessary as the poles 
for span wires are sufficient with the large radius of curvature. The pull-offs are 
connected with poles midway between the two overhead switches and the poles 
on the line with overhead switches. There are a number of different methods of 
attaching the pull-offs and of locating the pull-off poles. In Fig. 256, 2 shows one 
method. All pull-offs, independent of their arrangement, must be provided with 
turn-buckles, so that they can be varied in length, thus enabling the trolley to 
be adjusted to the proper curve. Another method requiring short pull-offs is 
shown in 4, Fi^. 256. The poles are set on opposite sides of the curves and heavy 
span wires run between them, the pull-offs being adjusted to this wire. In 
another method, known as the flexible method, the trolley wire is connected 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



299 



to heavy span wires by means of pull-offs, 5, Fig. 256. Here all the pull-offs 
are arranged at right angles to the trolley so that this method has the advant- 
age of equalizing all the strains on the different pull-offs, thus tending naturally 
to hold the trolley wire to a curve. 




Fig. 256.-- curve construction. 



When there is a switch in the line, where it branches in the shape of a Y, a 
general method is shown in 3, Fig. 256, where the pull-off pole is located in 
line with the switch, 



30O 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



TROLLEY WIRE SUSPENSION ON CURVES. 





Distance be- 


Distance be- 




Distance be- 


Distance be- 


Radius in 
Feet. 


tween Center 


tween Pull- 


Radius in 


tween Center 


tween Pull- 


of Track and 


Off son 


Feet. 


of Track and 


Offs on 


Center of 


Curves. 




Center of 


Curves. 




Trolley wire. 






Trolley wire. 






Ins. 


Ft. 




Ins. 


Ft. 


35 


14 


6 


100 


4 


12 


40 


12 


7 


120 


4 


14 


45 


10 


8 


140 


4 


14 


50 


8 


9 


160 


3 


14 


55 


7 


10 


180 


8 


14 


60 


7 


11 


200 


3 


14 


70 


6 


12 


250 


3 


16 


80 


6 


12 


300 


2 


16 


90 


5 


12 


350 


2 


16 



TROLLEY WIRE. 

This should be bard drawn and in as long length as possible. Several 
sections besides the round are used as shown in Fig. 257, which leave 
the lower surface unobstructed for the trolley wheel to roll over. On high 
speed roads the flashing of the trolley at points of support gives trouble, and 
equipment breakdowns occur, due to the rise in induced potential caused by this 
sudden partial rupture of the circuit. The trolley wheel should not strike the 
insulator bell when worn down to V/^-yhs. diameter. 

The tensile strength of round wire, soft and hard, is given in the following 
table. 



PROPERTIES OF SOLID COPPER WIRE. 

(B. & S. GAGE. ENGLISH AND METRIC SYSTEMS.) 





1)1 AM. 


AREA. 


WEIGHT. 


Breaking Strain. 


o 


1 

460 


OB 

u 
v 

a 
1 


u 
a . 

o 


<a to 

CCt-i 


no 

u 

§a 
3 


^ CD 
P. 


OB CD 


Kilo- 
grams 
per Kil- 
ometer. 


Hard Drawn 


Soft Drawn. 


60 
03 

o 


00 

a 



O 

Ph 


ia 


QD 

CI 

O 

Ph 


2 2 
so 


0000 


11.683 


211600 


.166190 


107.20 


641 


3382 


954.30 


8310 


3768 


5650 


2562 


000 


410 


10.404 


168100 


.131793 


85.01 


509 


2687 


756.80 


6580 


2984 


4480 


2031 


00 


365 


9.266 


133225 


.104520 


67.43 


403 


2129 


600.20 


5226 


2370 


3553 


1611 





325 


8.251 


105625 


.082932 


53.47 


320 


1688 


480.40 


4558 


2067 


2818 


1277 


1 


289 


7.348 


83521 


.065733 


42.41 


253 


1335 


377.40 


3746 


1698 


2234 


1013 


2 


258 


6.544 


66L64 


.052129 


33.63 


202 


1064 


299.30 


3127 


1418 


1772 


803 


3 


229 


5.827 


52441 


.041338 


26.67 


159 


838 


237.40 


2480 


1124 


1405 


637 


4 


204 


5.190 


41616 


.032784 


21.16 


126 


665 


188.30 


1967 


892 


1114 


505 


5 


182 


4.621 


33124 


.025998 


16.77 


100 


529 


149.30 


1559 


707 


883 


400 


6 


162 


4.115 


26244 


.0,20617 


13.30 


79 


419 


118.40 


1237 


561 


700 


317 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



301 



No. hard drawn trolley wire is the size usually used for overhead work. 
The sizes of No. 00 and No. 000 may find favor in high speed work for the pur- 
pose of conductors only, but the heavier the trolley wire, the less it yields to 
the trolley pole springs and the higher will be the rolling contact resistance be- 
tween the trolley wire and the wheel. Ant ron flanged wheel will cut the tiolley 
wire badly, and everything in construction should be done to throw the wear on 
the trolley wheels. The ordinary wear on trolley wire, is .001 in. for 65,000 cars, 
and the natural wear from the trolley wheel would give it a life of about twenty 
years. The wear is greater on curves and switches than on straight line. 

It is bad practice to make a splice in trolley wire by means of a sleeve or coup- 
ling close to a fixture. It will be noticed that the trolley wheel in passing a splice 




Symmetrical. 





Figure $, 




Elliptical. 



Fig. 257. — sections of trolley wire. 



is slightly thrown from the wire, and if it again strikes the fixture, it will be 
thrown from the wire considerably, causing arcing at the point where the trolley 
wire is connected to the fixture. The method of connecting the trolley wires to 
the ear may be by clamping the ear over the trolley wire, which is soldered to the 
ear body. The span wires which transmit the strain from the trolley wire to the 
pole line, should be placed at such intervals that there will not be any consider- 
able displacement of the span wire fixture between the opposite trolley poles. 
There should be no side strains in case of side-arm construction. 



CONNECTION OF GROUND RETURN FEEDERS. 

For connecting the ground return feeder to the rails Fig. 258 shows a method 
where the bond is concealed or not available for attaching a feeder to it. A cast- 
iron lug is used having the shape shown in 1, A and B. This has a recess cast on its 
inside surface, a hole diagonal to this recess is drilled just the size of the in- 
sulated feeder. The direct connection between the web of the rail and the 
feeder is effected by inserting the feeder through the diagonal hole and 
flaring the stranded wire in this recess. The area opposite this recess on 
the web of the rail and the flaring end of the cable are both amalgamated. 
A small hole is drilled in the top of the lug entering this recess. After 



302 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



the cable has been inserted and sealed in the lug by means of asphalt 
paint, and the surface of contact of the lug and rail have been painted 
with asphalt paint and drawn up tight by means of the two bolts shown, 
amalgam can be introduced in the recess through this plug hole until the 
recess is completely filled. In this way an excellent connection can be 
made between the web of the rail and the feeder. Care must be taken to 
have the recess tight, by sealing with asphalt paint or varnish. 

Where the bond is exposed, have two supplementary feeders running 
both ways from the feeder tap, as shown in 2, Fig. 258 to cover at least five 
bonds each way. The bond wire and supplementary feeder should be 
spliced together by fine wire and soldered. The practice of pouring solder 
on the joint does not lead to the best results; it is best to use a blow 
pipe for this work, and to be sure a good solid connection is made-. The 
feeder should be tied between the supplementaries, by a special joint, at least 
1 ft. long as shown. 

Where a return feeder passes up a wooden pole, it is usually carried 
inside an iron pipe from at least 10 ft. above the sidewalk to a point ad- 
jacent to its connection with its underground supplementary. This pipe 
must be sealed, so that no water can enter from above along the side of 
the feeder. Two methods are employed for doing this — concreting at this 
point, and tamping oakum around the feeder and sealing with asphalt. 
A lU-in. pipe is used for feeders up to 500,000 circ. mils. The pipe can 
be readily bent by packing full of sand and heating. 

Where it is intended to carry the return feeders inside iron poles, pro- 
vision should 'be made for this arrangement when setting the poles. A 
hole is drilled and tapped in the side of the pole, about 2 ft. below the side- 
walk line, of a size to receive a lj^-in pipe. This pipe is carried to the 
rails at the point of connection of the feeder with the supplementary. A 
fish wire can then he run from the opening of the lateral pipe to and up 
the pole. 'Sometimes it is necessary to run another fish wire down in 
order to catch the fish wire through the branch pipe. If the feeder at the 
top of the pole is connected to the fish wire with a tapering splice, taped 
with strip lead and slushed with grease, very little* trouble will be found 
in pulling this cable down the pole and out of the side branch. 3 a/id 4 
show these methods of construction. 

The return circuit is often grounded by "ground plates" at the station 
and along the track to assist the track bonding. The improvement of con- 
ductivity by such methods is only temporary. The areas these plates pre- 
sent for the ground return are insignificant compared with the areas of 
rails in contact with the earth, as one mile of 9-in. double track presents 
30,000 sq. ft. of contact surface. If ground plates are to be used, they 
should be of sheet iron % in. thick and 4 ft. x 4 ft. and buried so deep 
that they are surrounded by water. If a stratum of rock is found, it is 
useless to put the ground plate in at all. In case water is struck, about 
4 ins. of 'broken coke should first be tamped down. On this lay the 
ground plate, which should 'be provided with a num'ber of bond con- 
nections to the ground return feeder. These connections should be well 
protected by 'being painted and taped, especially at the point of connec- 
tion with the iron plate. Above this should be tamped at least 4 ins. 
more of broken coke, after which the earth thrown in on top and lightly 
tamped. This construction is shown in 5, Fig. 258. 

'Ground plates deteriorate very rapidly with use, and a plate of the 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOR'. 



303 




Pig. 258.— methods of connecting ground rettjkn to ra.il, etc. 



304 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY II AMD BOOK. 



/nterjectisx? P/pe Cc/?/?ecf/o/t \ 



Bond/ny 3/ocA 




Feeder S/?(//?f 3car</ af Staf/o/? 



Fig. 259.— ground return connections and methods op measuring feeder 

currents. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 305 



size given could not carry more than 25 amps, and remain useful for any 
length of time. 

Fig. 259 shows a method of making connection to a water pipe. A cast 
iron saddle, shown at A, is used, having a recess entering at an angle cast 
in its contact surface with the pipe. Into this recess is bored a hole which takes 
the feeder and is a close fit, and into this recess, above where feeders enter, there 
is a tapped hole for a %-in. bolt. The saddle is secured to the surface of the pipe 
and the surfaces of contact are fitted fairly closely. The surface of the water 
pipe, which will be covered by the recess in the saddle, is amalgamated. The sur- 
face of contact between the saddle and pipe is painted with asphalt varnish. This 
saddle is held in position by a strap and nuts. The feeder end is first 
amalgamated and thrust through the side hole entering into the recess; 
then the feeder is well painted or calked with jute around the bole which 
it enters. This recess is now filled with amalgam by means of the hole 
over the cable shown at 7 forced against the pipe by screwing down on a 
%-in. bolt, screwed through the tapped hole and against the feeder. 

Ground returns have been made by connecting together old rails. The 
apparently low first cost has been urged in favor of this method of form- 
ing ground returns. The method of connecting the rails together to make 
a continuous conductor has usually been by means of bonds such as used 
In track construction. 8 shows a method for making the connections with- 
out the use of bonds; the rails are lapped and a tinned bonding block of iron, 
cast to fit the shape of the rails, inserted between them. The contact sur- 
faces on the rails should be well cleaned and %-in. bolts used to draw these 
surfaces together. 'When these rails are buried, the precaution should be 
taken to have their bearing surface at the center of the rail. This keeps 
the rail connections always under compression, due to the weight of rail 
and the earth covering. 

Copper ground return conductors require insulating and will be rapidly 
eaten away if buried directly in the ground, even if supplied with weather- 
proof covering. Lead or rubber covered cables are too expensive for this 
slight difference of potential. These cables can be drawn into a conduit, 
like that shown at 9 or laid in a grooved moulding, as shown at 10. In these 
methods of laying, the duct should be sealed with asphalt at all joints 
and elbows. The grooved moulding is sometimes filled with asphalt and, 
where a large groove is used, the cable can be supported from the bottom 
by cleats and the groove filled with concrete imbedding the cable. Cap- 
ing should not be put on until concrete is thoroughly set. 

Where these underground feeders enter the station there should be 
means for determining whether they are carrying any current or not; to 
insert an ampere meter in each feeder is too expensive, but if each feeder 
is run through a copper rod about 45 ins. long (see 11), of such a di- 
ameter as to be ample for the largest ground return feeder, and each 
rod provided with two binding screws located exactly 40 ins. apart on all 
these rods, these rods can be used as shunts. The current on any feeder 
can be read when the terminals of the ampere meter are connected to any 
feeder shunt, the meter being previously calibrated to this size shunt. 

Readings taken at regular periods of a week or so will furnish com- 
parative records, and will show exactly what current is being carried on 
the underground feeders. Where simultaneous, continuous records are 
required, thermometers can be placed directly in contact with the shunt 
and taped in place; they should be located near the middle of the shunt 



306 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



and fine wire stretched across the shunts and against the stem of the 
thermometers as shown at 12. The heights of the mercury in the ther- 
mometers are then adjusted to this wire, when the temperature of shunta 
are the same as the air. When current passes, the rise of the mercury 
will be as the square of the current flowing, giving a simultaneous visual 
comparative record of the current returned by each feeder. 

The current taken by any ground return feeder, where the contact is rivet 
bonded, should not exceed 30 amps, per sq.in. of contact surface. With expanded 
bond this may be increased to 45 amps, per sq. in. and amalgam surface 55 amps, 
per sq. in. of amalgam contact. 

BONDS AND BONDING. 

The usefulness of the best bond can be destroyed by not properly applying it. 
It should never be connected to the rail in wet weather, or where the surfaces 
are moist. The hole should be freshly reamed before inserting the bond. A 
special reamer should be used where the bond has a face connection with a mill 
for the contact surface. The bond before expanding or riveting or forcing should 
just fit the hole, so no moisture can enter adjacent to the contact. If moisture 
is present it will gradually work around and corrode the contact surfaces. 
The channel pin bond gives good results for this reason as the surfaces of contact 
can be forced into such intimate contact that corrosion cannot work its way be- 
tween the surfaces. 

Fig. 260 shows the West End bond consisting of a taper thimble which slips 
over the bond wire and secures connection between the bond and rail. 

Fig. 261 shows the Johnston bond, which has a thimble that screws on to the 
bond wire and is clamped To the rail by a nut. 

Fig. 262 shows the Bryan bond, which clamps the bond wire by means of a 
heavy bolt to a contact piece which is forced against the rail by the same bolt. 

Fig. 263 shows the Columbia bond, having a thimble which fits the rail tapered 
to receive a taper bond, which is forced into contact by upsetting the end of the 
bond. 

Fig. 264 shows the Ohio Brass Co's. bond which has a taper split thimble 
forced between the rail contact and the bond. 

Fig. 265 shows the American Solid bond, which makes the connection between 
the rail and a straight bond wire by a taper thimble expanding a concentric bush- 
ing and contracting on the bond. 

Fig. 266 shows the American Flexible bond, which secures contact to the rail 
by a concentric sleeve, in which the bond terminal is expanded. 

Fig. 267 shows the Forest City bond, which rivets a large contact surface to 
the side of the rail by upsetting the end of the bond projecting through the rail. 

Fig. 268 shows the Harrington Ball bond, which expands a tubular bond term- 
inal against the rail by forcing graded sizes of balls through the hole in the bond 
terminal. 

Fig. 269 shows the Harrington Diagonal bond, which forces a taper cup, into 
which the bond wires are brazed, into a hole drilled between the web and base of 
rail. 

Fig. 270 shows the Chicago or Crown bond, which forces the bond terminal 
against the sides of the bond hole by driving in a taper pin. 

Fig. 271 shows the same method of connection but here the bond is sufficiently 
thin to allow of the fishplate being placed without striking the bond connection. 
It is called the Crown Protected bond. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 307 




FIG. 268.— HARRINGTON BALL BOND. FlG. 269.— HARRINGTON DIAGONAL BOND. 



™o ^0 o o^ 
Fig. 271.— crown protected bond. 




Fig. 274.— brown plastic bond. Fig. 275.— brown bond for old rails. 



3o8 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Fig. 272 shows the Grauten bond, which consists of a riveted terminal into 
which the bond wires are soldered. 

Fig. 273 shows the Stern & Silverman bond, where a hollow nipple is drilled 
into the hole in the rail for bonding, and a nut is forced upon a taperiug thread 
which locks the nipple and by compression makes contact with the bond wire. 

Fig. 274 shows the Brown Plastic bond, which by a plastic alloy connects the 
fishplate around the rails it secures. 

Fig. 275 shows the same type of bond, where the fishplate is connected to the 
base of the rail. It is used on rails already laid. 

Fig. 276 shows tbe Payne Welded bond, which can be placed under the fish- 
plate and directly welded to the rail on each side of the joint. 



32 



o 9' 



Fig. 276.— payne welded bond. Fig. 277.— Atkinson bond. 





Fig. 278.^syracuse bond. Fig. 279.— ajax bond. 

Fig. 277 shows the Atkinson bond, which is expanded into contact with the 
tail hole by pressure. 

Fig. 278 shows the Syracuse bond, which is soldered in contact with the rail 
by use of the proper soldering solution and a special torch to produce the required 
temperature. 

Fig. 279 shows the Ajax bond, which consists of a copper strip placed under- 
neath the fishplate and forced against the rail by screws. The fishplate, the rail 
Web and copper are amalgamated before being put in place. 

The table on page 309 gives the results of a series of tests on different rail 
bonds. Tests by the same engineer, W. E. Harrington, give the cast weld joint, 
made by Wm. Whartou, Jr. & Co., as 30 per cent of the conductivity of the solid 
rail. P. Dawson's tests show the resistance of the Falk cast joints to be from 74 
per cent to 103 per cent of the conductivity of the same length of continuous rail. 

Pressure plays a larger part in the conductivity of a contact than area. In 
connecting copper to iron there will be present a resistance at the contact sur- 
faces, even if these surfaces are molecularly combined. The Peltier and thermo- 
electric effects applied to this connection are confused, generally speaking, with 
the resistance offered to the current of electricity when passing between two con- 
ductors of dissimilar molecular characteristics. The aggregate of these effects 
is practically negligible for the reason that when a current passes from the iron 
to the copper, the effect will be neutralized by the passage of the current out of 
the bond again to the iron. Neither the Peltier nor thermo-electric effect are 
rectilinear functions of the current density on contact surfaces, yet all bond 
tests exhibit a rectilinear relation between the density of contact and resistance. 
These effects are, therefore, practically negligible. 

It is a question whether drilling a bond hole with oil increases or decreases the 
resistance, the results of tests showing too great a variation to decide. Amalga- 
mating the end of the bond before riveting or expanding improves the contact resist- 
ance, but no brass terminal should be thus treated. To tin a bond where exposed 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



309 



tJESTS ON VARIOUS RAIL BONDS. 

W. E. Harrington. 





0) 

O 1> OD 

Kind of Bond. of 


sn 


O 




Size of 


9^ M 




■3 


n % fl 

a> oj O 




Size of 
Contact. 


Bond 
B. &S. 


Ohms. 




©3° 









Gage. 


g'S.S 






S 


n 














Joint only, no bond 36" 


36" 










.ooon 


0? 


Iron channel pin 36" 


45" 


48" 


A" Pin 





1 


.00049 





Bryan iron wire 36" 


36" 


39" -j 


Plate 2%" dia. 
1" hole in it 


} w 


2 


.000286 


"5 


Crown 36" 


30" 


36" 


X" head 


0000 


1 


.000247 





Bryan iron wire, ) qfi// 
amalgamated j 


36" 


39" -j 


Plate 2%" dia. 
1" hole in it 


J w 


2 


.000224 


•g 


Crown, amalgam'd 36" 


30" 


36" 


%" head 


0000 


1 


.000185 


3 


Bryan copper wire 36" 


36" 


39" -j 


Plate 2%" dia. 
1" hole in it 


j- 0000 


2 


.000175 


J- 


Columbia 36" 


30" 


36" 


%" head 


0000 


1 


.000131 





Columbia, amalga. 36" 


30" 


36" 


%" head 


0000 


1 


.000126 


«3 

-2 
02 


Stranded crown 36" 


5" 


7" 


%" head 


0000 


1 


.0001 


Plastic socket 36" 


m" 










.000093 


a 


Bryan copperwire, ) gg// 
amalgamated J 


36" 


39" -j 


Plate 2%" dia. 
1" hole in it 


j- 0000 




.000071 


a 








Surface 1J4" 






.00006 


£ 


Plastic cork 36" 


9" 














Ajax bond 24" 


24" 


8%" 


814 sq. ins. -j 


34 S( l- in. 
section 


I 


.000041 




Solid rail, no joint 24" 


24" 








.000024 


s| 


Joint only, no bond 24" 


24" 










.0015 


5l 


Ajax bond 24" 


24" 










.000048 


H 


Solid rail, no joint 24" 


24" 










.000035 


£ 


Double Ajax 24" 


30" 










.00004 


1_ 
.a 


Solid rail, no joint 24" 
Ajax bond 24" 


30" 
24" 










.000035 
.000051 


1ft rj 

00 c^ 1 


Solid rail, no joint 24" 


24" 










.000044 


So 


Ajax bond 24" 


24" 


5M" 


5X"sq.ins. -j 


% sq. in. 
section 


\ 


.000031 




Solid rail 24" 


24" 










.0002 



to the earth increases its life. A supplementary bond wire is inadequate to assist 
the carrying capacity of the rail. The same cost in copper and labor at the joint 
will give a great deal better results. The size of bonds on a railway should be 
decreased as the current flow decreases. A No. 00 bond should not be required to 
carry over 120 amps, or a No. 0000 bond, 200 amps., if the contact density at 
actual contact surfaces is not over 140 amps, per sq. in. The only way to educate 
trackmen to make proper electrical connections is to test after them by some 
of the methods shown on pages 39, 40 and 41, or by use of the Conant bond test- 



3io 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOIC. 



ing method. The best way to attain good bond connection in construction work 
especially with bonds under the fishplate, is to pay for the work done by a merit 
system, based on the conductivity of the work; all bonds below a fixed standard 
to be replaced free of charge. 

ELECTROLYSIS. 

The decomposition of the iron of the rails or subterranean piping systems 
due to the flow of current from the metallic surfaces into the adjacent moist soil 
is known in street railway work as electrolysis. The constituents of the soil may 
cause corrosion, due to the chemical affinity between soluble matters in the soil 
and iron, forming an iron rust of several molecular combinations of oxygen and 
iron. This action may be accentuated by the flow of current from the iron sur- 
faces into the surrounding moisture; but the results of this action are not distin- 
guishable by any visual or microscopical examination over that caused by natural 
oxidation of these buried structures. Soils high in chlorides will carry this rust 



TROLLEY 




i©i 



s|P flPiPE SYSTEM 



DYNAMO 

Fig. 280.— general distribution of current. 

through adjacent soil. There is, however, a chemical test that can be made im- 
mediately after uncovering a badly oxidized pipe, which will in some cases 
determine whether the cause of depreciation was due to natural oxidation or 
electrolysis from escaping currents. 

In undertaking to determine whether subterranean metallic structures are 
affected by the rail return current, it is necessary to find the current flow in this 
structure, and not to base the deductions on potential measurements between the 
subterranean structures and the rail. Tests given on pages 43, 44 and 45 give data 
from which the current flow can be determined, and by carefully tracing this 
current flow along the pipe system its entrance and exit from the pipes can be 
determined. It has been found m some railways that the current is carried 
directly into the water pipe system by a portion of the subterranean metallic 
structure being brought into actuai contact with the rails. Such connections 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



3ii 



should be removed before considering any of the methods for testing. The rela- 
tions of the water-pipe system to the railway system in regard to the pumping 
station and main arteries of the water-pipe system and the location of the rails 
and power station are most important features of the problem and should be 
carefully plotted out, as well as the current flow in the pipe system laid out by 
means of ordinates on different parts of the piping system, the ordinates corre- 
sponding in length to the current intensity in the piping system. From this 
data can be ascertained at what point of the piping system the leakage current 
can be drained away so as to produce the least flow in the piping system, and to 
reduce the electrolysis of the rails and pipes to the least possible value. 

The custom of connecting the pipe system at the station directly to the nega- 
tive bus-bar rarely leads to satisfactory ^results. There will be points in the 



™S Y -r-" 1MLB,UMfe 



®! 



Stt 



RAIL 



\ „\ 



^§E 



;: 






m . \m 



POINT OF MAXIMUM CURRENT FLOW IN PIPE 



I^EZOD 



POTENTIAL 




OTENTIAL OF WATER PIPE 



Fig. 281.— distribution of potential: no connection between pipe and 

RAIL. 



TROLLEY 




Fig. 382.— changes in distribution op potential when pipe and rail 
are connected. 



piping system where the flow of current is maximum, and there is a varying 
tendency for the current to flow to and from the rails and pipes. If the piping 
system is tapped at this point and current led away from the railway system and 
earth resistance interposed between the rails and piping system, this flow will 
not be found to be large. It should not exceed 8 per cent of the total rail return 
in any one section. 

Fig. 280 shows the. general distribution of current between the railway system 
and the subterranean piping system, and Fig. 281 shows the distribution of poten- 
tial between these two systems. Between A and £, Fig. 281, is shown the drop 
of potential along the rail; between Cand Z>, the drop of potential on the water 



312 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 





















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HOURS 



PlG. 283. — CURVES SHOWING INCREASING RESISTANCE OE DIFFERENT SOILS WITH 
gO AMPERES PER SQUARE YARD CURRENT DENSITY, 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 313 



pipe. Fig. 282 shows the change in potential when a connection is made between 
the water-pipe and rail and ground return feeder. 

Tests on pages 44 to 46 will show whether the bond is faulty, and deflecting 
the current into the water-pipe system. Other methods ifor more complicated 
systems have to be used for the reduction of this current flow in the water-pipe 
systems. Connecting a separate set of feeders to the water pipe at their maxi- 
mum current flow points, and maintaining its potential at this point above the 
rail potential, by a separate booster, will tend to dam back the flow of current 
from the rails. This booster sometimes is compounded by the flow of the main 
circuit around its fields, so the difference of potential will automatically vary 
with the output required on the system. Where gate boxes are brought in 
actual contact with the rails, the iron vertical portion of the gate boxes should 
be substituted by wood or terra cotta pipe, and no metal portion of the wate.r- 
pipe system should be allowed to come within 36 ins. of the rails, unless in- 
sulated. 

The problem of deducing the electrolytic effect on the water-pipe systems, 
where it is of any consequence, is very complicated, on account of the inter- 
relations between the two systems and the complex current distribution. It is 
always possible, however, to find simple means for reducing the current flow in 
the water pipes to a negligible quantity. 

Electrical Resistance of Earths. 

Clay, 6 per cent moisture 50 ohms per cu. yd. 

Sand, 8}^ per cent moisture 35 " " " 

Loam saturated with salt water 20 " " " 

Gravel and loam, 3^ per cent moisture 87 " " " 

DrySand 23,000 " " 

Cement, Portland 1,800 " " " 

Asphalt, Barber paving 37,800 " " " 

Wooden ties, oak rail 3 in. from earth, damp. 8,600 " " sq. ft. rail contact 

Wooden ties, dry 18,700 " " " contact 

The resistance between a pipe surface and earth rises as the rust accumulates 
on the pipe. Different soils show considerable variation in these changes, de- 
pending upon the soluble constituents in the soil. Fig. 283 shows these varia- 
tions in a few cases with a current density of 20 amps, per sq. yd.: A, soil from 
Broadway, New York City; B, soil from Brooklyn, N. Y.: C, soil from Paterson, 
N. J.; D, soil from Peoria, 111. Increasing the current density causes the 
resistance to rise and tends to cut down the current flow. 

Service pipes passing under the rails in the vicinity of the power station often 
show the effects of electrolysis, on account of the high current density which 
the adjacent rail surface focuses on these points. Insulated service pipes made 
for this purpose should be used in these locations; but if iron pipes are used they 
should be enclosed in wooden troughs and surrounded by hot asphalt under the 
rails and for a distance extending ft. beyond the rails on both sides of the track. 



SECTION VI -CAR HOUSE. 



In order to design the maximum available storage capacity for a certain area, 
cut out a plan of a car to a convenient scale allowing the clearance space required 
on the sides of the car. Where internal pillars are used for supporting trusses, 
greater distance is required between tracks for clearance. The greatest dis- 
tance is generally found with open cars with the running boards down, where 
there should be at least 8 ins. between the running board and pillar. A number 
of such templets covering the space and clearances required by the type of car 
to be housed can be arranged in various ways over a plan of the property on the 
same scale in order to determine the maximum storage capacity with the least 
special track work. 

The width of the property available will determine the economical length of 
span and support of roof. "Wooden roof trusses are advised as decreasing the 
fire hazard, as the structural iron trusses collapse and prevent fighting the fire 
from outside. The distance between the car house front and the main track 
should be sufficient to make the entrance curves outside the car house of moder- 
ate radius. For layout of car house tracks, see Page 136. 

Transfer Tables.— For handling the cars within the car house, transfer 
tables are used for which there are several general methods of construction. In 
one a shallow transverse pit is constructed, wide enough to accomodate,with 18 ins. 
to spare on each side, the largest single or double truck equipment. The transfer 
table carries on it a track, upon which, when aligned with any fixed track, a car 
can be moved. The transfer table can then convey the car to any other desired 
track. Where the transfer table runs through the middle of the car house, it also 
forms a bridge to pass over the transfer pit. Another method is to have the 
transfer table roll on the surface on tracks at right angles to the main tracks. In 
this case, there are spring sloping tongues which are depressed to the head of the 
rail, and up which the car rises until it is on the transfer table. This method of 
construction makes the main track continuous, and the transfer table in this 
case is only used to transfer the cars at right angles to their length. In case of 
fire, the latter method has advantages as the cars can be taken out of the car 
house more expeditiously. 

The transfer table can be used in small car houses, and light cars moved by a 
geared hand winch; or a street railway motor can be geared to the wheels of the 
transfer truck. The current can be carried to this motor by a trolley wire over- 
head, or a protected third rail which is under the floor, a shoe being used for 
collecting the current for the motor on the transfer table. The maximum speed 
is generally 4% miles per hour, and the motor geared accordingly. 

Overhead Construction.— The overhead trolley may be strung up on span 
wires as in outdoor construction or under the beam, using a fixture like that 




ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 315 



shown in Fig. 284. A light T-iron is also sometimes used, 
insulated from the roof work by blocks of hard wood 
dipped in insulating paint while the wood is warm. It is 
important in fixing the height of the trolley wire in the car 
house to have it so high that the trolley pole tension 
springs are not under considerable tension, for this 
weakens them, and makes the trolley liable to leave the 
wire in service, where the height of the wire in most cases 
is 22 ft. above the rail head. 
Fl( L- T ^tl'rJ^ CjET Doors.— The car house doors may be either of the 

ITIJSLI UliJi. JUK 

indook use. swinging or sliding type. The swinging door is most gen- 

erally used. This door does not require a break in the 
trolley wire over the sill, if the door is swung both ways from the center. 
The doors should be well framed and at least 3 ins. thick with double diagonal 
panelling of yellow pine, and the fastening should be such as to force the door 
against its jam. Heavy doors should be locked open as well as closed. 

Floors.— Car house floors are usually of wood. Wooden block paving set 
on end has been used successfully. There should in any case be an air space be- 
tween the floor in the car house and the earth, in order that the hot motors will 
not sweat badly on cooling over a moist floor. For this reason earth and cement 
floors, especially where the location of the car house does not afford excellent 
drainage, should not be used under the equipment where stored. The author has 
found two cases where high rates of motor depreciation were clearly traced to 
this cause. Where there is a low track with water standing over it, through 
which the equipment has to run, several companies place a line of steam pipe be- 
tween the rails above the floor but clearing the motor, on which steam is kept in 
wet weather and the equipment thoroughly dried at night. Equipments having 
low insulation, can be baked in this way. 

General Heating.— Where there are inspection pits it is customary to 
arrange steam piping around the sides of the pits for heating purposes. But for 
general heating, the indirect heating methods give the best results for a given 
weight of steam used. Here flues are carried to the different parts of the car 
house, and heated air distributed. Flues are also located between the tracks with 
registers so that this warm air can be blown up under the equipment. The air is 
heated by first passing through a bank of steam pipes, when by means of a 
blower it is forced through the ducts of the distributing system. 

General Lighting. — The lighting of the car house can be best effected by a 
group of incandescent lamps or enclosed arc lamps which are arranged along the 
aisles or passage ways. Light for the night inspector should be especially pro- 
vided, as without proper light his work is only half done, and as no other man 
can render such valuable assistance in the maintenance of the equipmeut, every 
convenience should be placed at his hand. In respect to the proper light to work 
by there have been several satisfactory methods used. One is to have a flexible 
cord with a 32 c.p. lamp on one end, and a plug at the other end, plug receptacles 
being placed around the building. A short cord can then reach from the recept- 
acle to the interior or underneath the car, four other lamps being banked together 
at some convenient location in series so that the trolley circuit can be used. The 
inspector's lamp should be connected on the " ground " end of the series. 

A bicycle lamp arranged with a handle to be carried in the hand also makes a 
good source of light. For day work windows for side light, and, where the car 



316 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



house is wide, roof light should be provided. Where short roof spans are em- 
ployed, mill construction with a saw tooth roof having glass on the perpendicular 




side as shown in Fig. 285 can be employed and gives abundant interior illumination. 
The front of the car house can be finished in any shape desired to hide the serrated 
roof, This method makes one of the cheapest forms of car house structures, where 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



317 



wood is employed. The result of dark car houses is dirty cars and greasy floors 
with scrap heaps at every available corner. 



CARE OF CARS. 

"Washing.— Where this is done in the car house, a track is generally desig- 
nated for the work; it should have a cement or asphalt floor pitched % in. to the 
foot so as to be well drained. The car is first washed down with a stream of water 
from a hose. For cleansing the inside floors and seats and sweeping out, com- 
pressed air is used with success, as well as for blowing out the interior of the 
motor and controller. There is no better method to quickly cool a hot motor or 
boxes. 

Lubricating Methods.— Grease is generally put into the journal boxes by 
means of a paddle, by which it is gouged out of a bucket and smeared into the box. 
The man who does this, if he is not unusually careful, soon has the floor smeared 

with grease, and this is the begin- 
ning of a dirty car house. It is then 
transferred to tools, workmen and 
trucks, and the efficiency of a work- 
man is decreased when he has to 
look like a coal heaver on account of 
the grease and dirt surrounding him. 
The best method is to use a 
bucket with a short %-in. spout 
soldered to the lower side and a 
tightly fitting plunger which when 
screwed down forces the grease out 
of the spout. This spout can be 
shoved into the journal box, a turn 
or two given to the screw and the 
proper amount of grease injected 
into the journal box or gear, causing 
a saving of waste and dirt. 

Sand.— This is generally sup- 
plied to the cars at the car house. 
For charging the sanding boxes dry 
sand only should used and a con- 
venient drying arrangement can be 
provided as follows : Over the boiler 
room a sealed loft can be built 
that is used to heat the house and repair shops. Fig. 286 shows the side elevation 
of the loft and boiler room. It will be seen that the iron stack from the boiler 
down stairs passes through this room, and around it is a wrought-iron funnel 
with a circular opening about 2 ins. wide around the stack at the bottom, and with 
a flare about 2 ft. wide at the top. The wet sand is introduced into this hopper by 
a motor-operated conveyor from the sand pile. The sand when dried by the heat 
of the stack spreads over the flue of the sand bin, and is perfectly dry by the time 
it reaches the spout whence it is delivered into the sand car. In this way the sand 
is dried practically automatically, and by heat that would otherwise be wasted. 




Fig. 286. — method of drying sand. 



SECTION VII -THE REPAIR SHOP. 



General Arrangements.— There are several methods in the design of the 
repair shop by which the equipment can be readily dismantled. In some cases 
the tracks are elevated from 4 ft. to 6 ft. above the general floor level as they 
enter by being built upon trestle work with bents about 10 ft. apart. Another 
method is to locate the repair shop on sloping ground so that the repair shop 
proper is at a lower level than the car house where the disabled cars are stored. 
Here the motor and trucks can be lowered to the working floor by some convenient 
hoisting arrangement. The usual method is to have a pit the width of the tracks 
or even wider by supporting the tracks by an occasional I-beam, and this pit is 
generally laid in brick or concrete and made water-tight. In order to handle the 
motor and take it from underneath the car several devices are used. One is to 
have a portable horse which can be placed inside the carbody and to which tackle 
can be rigged to lower the motor into the pit or onto the repair shop floor in the 
case of a two-story construction. The more modern method is not to place any 
rigging work inside the carbody but to use a hydraulic jack mounted on a carriage. 
On the end of the plunger is arranged a cradle which will engage the motor and 
lower it below the truck parts; this carriage can be run either along a track or 
the floor and the motors in this way moved where desired. 

The tendency in larger repair shops is to raise the carbody off the truck. 
Fig. 287 shows a rig which will raise the whole carbody well above the truck, so 
the work can be carried on from above without the use of a pit. The other 
method is to jack the carbody off the truck by means of four jacks and two cross- 
beams; after being disconnected the truck is run from under the carbody and 
carried into the repair shop. 

In designing or improving methods of handling car parts in the repair shop, 
every effort should be made to reduce the time and facilitate the dismantling of a 
car, so as to remove any of the parts with the least delay possible. With the 
motor, wheels or any other portions of the equipment many arrangements have 
been used to carry these parts to the repair department. The sloping track 
from the pit to the floor of the room can be curved through several pits, or all the 
pits can lead into one general area-way, so the truck can be hauled up the incline 
to the repairing floor. 

Another method is to have an overhead crane over the equipment, which can 
carry the parts to the repair shop. Where the overhead trolley is in the way, a 
long insulated flexible cable is used which can be hooked over the trolley wheel 
and used to bring in or take out the equipments; this gives clear overhead space 
for crane work. Another method largely used is an overhead track, made up of 
two I-beams which are supported by brackets, and on the lower flange between 
the I-beams rolls the carriage on which the equipment parts are transferred from 
one part of the shop to the other. Either a differential tackle or air lifts attached 
to an overhead carrier can be used for raising or lowering the equipment parts. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



3*9 




320 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



The best method to adopt in any repair shop depends entirely upon the rela- 
tions of the machine and repair shop, and the character of the structures in which 
this work is carried on. There is still another method for dismantling, practiced 
by some companies which consists of bolstering up the car body and depressing 
the track, in this way separating the equipment from the body ; then the truck 
is rolled along the tracking pit at right angles to the car body, and is again raised 
and carried away from the equipment. 

Lathes.— In small shops a screw-cutting lathe with centers high enough to 
clear the largest motor armature and long enough bed to take a car axle for 
turning is required. One such lathe for roads operating 30 cars, two for 60 cars, 
three for 150 cars, should take care of all commutator turning and axle work, 
even where repairs are heavy. Where an overhead track is used, it should pass 
over this lathe, so that the work for the lathe can be brought directly to it. It is 
found in railway repair shops that the heavier types of lathes are required for this 
work. A grinding attachment is very useful for bringing the bearings to correct 
dimensions and polishing. With the harder variety of sand stones, commu- 
tators could be ground down with less loss than turning. Never use emery 
wheels on commutators. Tools with individual motors show economy over 
shafting in machine shop work, and leave room overhead for the crane. 

In a small shop a double-gap lathe can be made a universal tool, which will 
take in the gaps the car wheels and the grinding arrangements fitted to true the 
wheels. The expense of one tool, where the repair work is light, is less than two 
lathes, one for axle and armature work, and one for wheel grinding. Where the 
wheel grinding lathe is used instead of the double-gap lathe for truing car 
wheels, this should, if possible, be placed away from the other machinery, as the 
dust and dirt arising from this machine injure the bearings on all the other 
machinery. 

Drills.— An upright drill, with 14 ins. between the center of the bed and 
post, is a convenient size for the repair shop. Truck frames, structural work, 
special work and rails can be handled on this drill, as well as line material, con- 
trollers, brake rigging and station repairs. In small shops the electric-driven 
track drill, with flexible shaft, can be attached to an overhead structure and used 
in the shop for general drilling, when not required on track work. 

Planers and Profilers.— Where special work is made up, a planer is 
required with a 24 in. bed. 

LIST OF MACHINERY AND TOOLS REQUIRED IN REPAIR 
SHOP EQUIPMENT. 

MACHINE SHOP. 



30-car. 

Speed lathes, 6 ins 1 

Lathes, swing 14 ins. Double-gap swing, 

36 ins., screw-cutting 1 

Axle lathe 

Wheel grinding lathe 

Wheel boring machine 

Hydraulic press for wheels and armature 

pinions 1 

Automatic hack saw 1 

Drill 24 ins.. vertical 1 

Planer, 24 ins 

Shaper and siotter, 16 ins 

Profiler, 14 ins 1 

Automatic tool grinder 1 



SIZE OF ROAD.- 

60-car. 


300-car. 


1 


2 


2 


4 


1 


2 


1 


1 


... 


1 


1 


2 


1 


2 


2 


4 




1 


• •• 


1 


1 


1- 


1 


1 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOR'. 321 



ARMATURE AND FIELD REPAIRS. 

f* — ---SIZE OF ROAD , 

30-car. 60-car. 300-car. 

Armature stands ; . . 4 6 12 

?ieid winding machines 12 3 

3aking ovens 112 

BLACKSMITH SHOP. 

Gorges 2 4 6 

Drop hammers ... ... 1 

shears, cut % in. x 6 ins ... ... 1 

Punches, hole 1 in. x % in ... ... 1 

WOOD WORKING TOOLS. 

3 laner , s surface 1 1 1 

splitting saw 1 1 2 

Moulders Ill 

Joiners Ill 

sandpaper machine ... 1 1 

Vertical mortising machine 1 1 1 

Tenoning machine ... 1 1 

Soring machine 1 1 2 

Where there is much brass work done in the shop, such as overhead line 
naterial and equipment parts, the profiler certainly gives the greatest and most 
lirect method of finishing these castings, and practically can do any work that 
1 small milling machine can 

Other Tools. — The hydraulic press for pressing wheels on and off should 
ilso be provided with a device for pressing off the armature pinion and commuta- 
tor. The armature pinion is often started by a blow from a heavy hammer which 
n many cases has bent the shaft. 

There is no small tool more needed in the repair shop than an automatic hack 
saw which will save considerable labor. One large enough to take the standard 
•raiis should be secured. 

Artoature Stands.— There are a number of methods of designing arma- 
;ure stands, the most primitive being two horses in which there is a V cut on the 
cop of the back, in which the armature is rotated. A deviation from this plan is 
to make two A-shaped supports braced together, on the cross-bar of the A being 
a platform for tools and coils. Instead of a plain V two rolls are often used for 
the shaft to rest in so that it can be readily turned around. The more modern 
method of making armature stands is _"to provide two pedestals secured to the 
ftoor, which can be elevated or lowered by means of screws and the armature 
■ rotated in a fork on the top of the pedestals. This allows the winder to get right 
"over his armature. At his side is a stand for tools and coils. For winding bands 
on armatures a handle can be clamped over the pinion or shaft, and the binding 
wire wound under tension. 

Field. Winding.- This is often done in some shops on a lathe, speeded at 
low speed. If this is a screw-cutting lathe with a capacity to give the proper 
turns per inch for the wire, by clamping the wire in a tension device secured in 
the tool post, the wire can be laid on automatically by the feed of the lathe, and 
at the end of the turns, with a little practice, the winder can soon reverse the 
feed so there will be no lap over. 

Where field winding machines are built especially for the purpose, a screw 
working into a worm gear gives the best results as this locks against any slack, 
and an automatic arrangement can be attached to the wire feed, consisting of a 
right and left hand screw which are opposite the side of the field. These screws 
will rotate one turn for every turn of the field, and the threads per inch are equal 



322 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



to the turns per inch required on the field. The wire is held on the rig: 
screw in going forward and depressed on the left hand screw in going bac 

Bake Ovens.— Small bake ovens for armatures and fields can be 
the form of a box, into which the armature is slid or the fields hung. T 
should have an iron bottom with a number of perforations, and be raised 
6 ins. from the floor. Underneath this perforated iron floor are arranged 
of five lamps, which are enclosed by a false box in the bottom of which ar> 
a number of holes. This should clear the floor about 2 ins. On the top of 
there should be two rows of ^-in. holes about 4 ins. apart, and a slot slid: 
these holes. There are holes in the slide so placed that they will register jj 
holes on the box; and in this way sufficient ventilation can be produced 
away the moisture or fumes which are driven from the armatures or field 
number of cases where bake ovens have not given satisfaction it has bee 
that they did not have sufficient ventilation, the air in them becoming so 
that it would take up no further moisture. The temperature of a ba: 
should not be carried over 180 degs. Fahr., especially if linseed oil is us 
insulating medium. 

General Remarks.— Where compressed air is used for cleaning U 
tures, a pipe can be run to the blacksmith shop. If a small nozzle is inl- 
into the center of the supply pipe, a small jet of compressed air will indu< 
of air which can be easily regulated and controlled for the forge fires. 

The repair shop should be lighted and well ventilated, and where ov 
wide, this should be done from the top as well as the sides. To paint tlv 
of the repair shop with cold water white paint gives a neat appeara 
increases greatly the interior illuminatiou. The floors can be concrete c 
and where pits are in the repair shop the floor space can be increased by 
sliding doors, with handles to slide on battens between the rails. The 
can be slid underneath the truck when only the truck is being worked < 
pit should be lighted by side lights which are covered with wire shiel 
pits should be slightly sloped towards one end or the middle where a de 
can be made in the cement for collecting any seepage or moisture, wl 
accumulate in the pit. 

It is best to have the pit floored with 2-in. hard pine flooring, laid 
concrete, which gives a better surface for rolling the trucks and hanc 
material. The usual practice in locating machinery in a repair shop 
place it. that the work passes from one part of the shop to the other in it 
without passing the same point twice. 

It is great economy to have all tools belonging to the company mar 
have a tool-room and a workmen's check system, in order that the tool- 
replaced, or, if mislaid, the person responsible can be known. In small t 
foreman is generally tool-room keeper, and keeps the tools in order, and 
cases an automatic tool grinder is located in the tool-room. 

It expedites work for each repair man to have his own set of tools, c 
of large and small wrenches, hammers, cold chisels, pliers, calipers a 
which are supplied him by the company and charged to his account, ere 
given on their return. In repair shops, where the cost of repairs is lar 
almost invariably been found that a large amount of time is lost in loc 
tools which can be left anywhere on the work-room floor. Poor or 
tools do not lead to the best work and discourage the workmen. 

The numerous labor saving tools and wrinkles for the repair of the t ; 
parts of the equipment can be found in their proper place under "Equip 



SECTION VIII -THE EQUIPMENT. 



THE CAR BODY. 

Modern practice in car body construction for heavy high speed work is indi* 
cated by the specifications given below, which are abstracted from those used by 
the South Western Missouri Electric Railway, and are for a car body 30 ft. 6 ins. 
long, with smoking compartment. This type of car body has been selected for 
standard specifications as it covers all the details required in the most extensive 
systems. 

Whereas the structuraf woods, which have been selected in this specification, 
conform to the general nomenclature regarding the kinds of wood to be used, the 
specific species of wood is not often included in the car body specifications, except 
that for interior finish. The woods forming the modern structure of the car are 
specified in a general manner since a specific kind of wood is very often difficult 
to procure. Furthermore the lumber market to-day does not furnish, in the prop- 
er quality and lengths, certain varieties of oak which some years ago were readily 
procured. The lengthening of the car body has made these long timbers, partic- 
ularly the sills, difficult to obtain, especially so when a particular species of oak 
is specified. The tendency for car body construction is to abandon timber for the 
longitudal beams on the car and to introduce angle iron around the sill, the whole 
length of the car, to produce the necessary strength. This method also decreases 
the depth of the sill. 

The details are fully designated in the specifications, which form a guide to 
the general make up and dimensions of the parts entering into car-body construc- 
tion. 

The size of car bodies varies. The dimensions of a number of car bodies, which 
have been recently ordered, are given for reference in the table on page 324. 

Car Body Specifications. — General Dimensions. 

Feet. Ins. 

Length of car body over corner posts 30 6 

" " " over vestibules 40 2 

" " " •' bumpers 41 2 

Width of car body at sill, over plates 8 3J^ 

" " '• "" at belt rails 8 3% 

' : " " " over water drip rails 8 4^ 

Height of car body from under side of sills to top of roof, not includ- 
ing trolley board 9 

Height inside, from floor to top plate 6 3 

" " •' top of floor to underside of upper deck ceiling. . . 8 2 

" from track to underside of sills when car body is mounted on 

trucks S 1 

Bottom Framing.— Side sills of very best quality long leaf yellow pine, size 
4V£ ins. x 7% ins. finished, reinforced on the outer sides with steel plates ; plates 
to be % in. thick, 7 ins. wide, extending full length of car body and around corners 



324 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 











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ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 325 



to door posts on ends in one continuous piece and securely bolted to sills with 
oval head carriage bolts. 

End sills of oak, size 7% ins. x 4% ins. finished. 

Cross sills of oak, size 6% ins. x 2% ins. finished. 

Diagonal braces of oak, size 4 ins. x 1J4 ins. finished. 

Trap door framing to be arranged to meet the requirements of the 

motor, for two motors to each car, of type No and of hp. 

each. 

Bottom framing to be also arranged to meet the requirements of the 

double trucks, with wheels 33 ins. in diameter, wheel base of trucks dist- 
ance between centres of truck bearings , bolsters to be set back 

from end of car body, gauge of track 4 ft. %y z ins. 

Bottom framing to be tied together with % in. round refined-iron rods, one 
for each through cross sill, extending across the whole width of bottom frame 
and through side sills and plates, with thread and nut at each end. Short fram- 
ing and trap door framing to be also tied together with %-in. round refined-iron 
rods and plated where necessary. Body bolsters to be made of 9 ins. x % in. and 
9 ins. x % i n - i™ 11 filled with oak, made to suit the requirements of the trucks 
and securely bolted to the car body. 

Inside truss rods to be made of 2 ins. x 1^ ins. refined iron with 1 in. round 
ends with thread and nut. These trusses to be placed as high as possible and out 
into posts and securely fastened to posts and sills. Also truss rods of 1 in. round 
iron to be placed underneath side sills to support centre of car, with turnbuckle 
in the centre, and securely bolted to sills at ends. 

Floor to be of best quality quarter-sawed yellow pine, % in. thick with 2^-in. 
face, tongued and grooved, closely laid longitudinally with car and securely nailed 
to bottom framing. Floor to be of two thicknesses, the lower layers being laid 
crosswise and the top floor to be laid longitudinally with car. Trap doors to be 
fitted with large wrought-iron handles, counter sunk into trap doors and bolted 
through. 

All parts of bottom framing and under side of floor to be painted with brown 
oxide of iron paint, and all mortises and tenons to be thoroughly white leaded 
when being put together. 

Body Framing.— All posts, rails and other parts of body framing to be of 
best quality tough ash. Ventilator rails to be faced with oak on the inside and 
molded. Side of car to be framed for 11 windows on each side with straight siding 
below windows. Ends of car to be framed for double doors and one window at each 
side of door opening. Posts to be well braced. Diagonal cross bracing between 
posts, made of oak % in. x 3J4 ins. and tightly fitted. Outside of car below win- 
dow to be sheathed with matched poplar sheathing vertically and well nailed to 
body framing, sheathing to be % in. thick and 2 ins. wide on face. 

Inner side of sheathing to be backed with best qualily linen scrim well glued 
to sheathing, posts and bracing, and when the glue has become hardened the scrim 
to be painted with brown oxide of iron paint. The joint between sill plate and 
sheathing to be covered with 1J4 i ns - x X in. half oval iron molding extending 
full length of body at sides, also on ends. The joint between arm and rail and top 
edge of sheathing to be covered with 1J4 in. x 14 in- half oval iron molding extend- 
ing full length of body and around corners to door posts on ends in one continuous 
piece. Posts to be secured at bottom with strap bolts made of 1J4 in. x r 5 s in. iron, 
extending through sill with thread and nut at bottom. Strap bolts to have heel 
bent on top and cut carefully into posts and to be securely screwed to posts. 



326 ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



Posts to be tenoned, and sills and top plates to be mortised, drawbored and pinned 
and all pinning to be done in such a manner that pins will draw tenons into mor- 
tises. 

Tops of posts to be provided with wrought-iron T-plates securely fastened to 
posts and top rails. Side top rails to be of best quality yellow pine, size 4% ins. x 3 
ins., finished, strengthened by a heavy letter panel made of ash 1% ins. thick and 

7 ins. wide, which is gained into top rail as well as posts. Under drip rail to be 
2J4 ins. x 2*4 i"S- xJ4 in. angle iron, extending from corner post to corner post in 
one continuous piece and securely screwed to posts and letter panel. Arm rail 
of ash, size 1% ins. x 4% ins., finished. Side posts of ash, 2J4 ins. thick, cut to 
pattern. Corner posts of ash, 4 ins. thick, cut to pattern. Diagonal bracing be- 
tween posts of oak, size % in. x 3J/£ ins. Truss plank at bottom, inside, of ash, 
size 1J4 ins. x 9 ins. Door posts of ash, size 2^2 ins. x 2% ins. Each door post 
sball be provided with one % in. round iron rod, extending from top of headpiece 
through to bottom of end sill, screwed to headpiece and let into door posts, and to 
have thread and nut at bottom. 

Roof.— To be of the monitor-deck pattern full length of car. All parts of 
roof framing to be of best quality tough ash. Ventilator rails to be faced with 
oak inside and molded. Lower ventilator rail of ash faced with oak, 2J/£ ins. x 
4J/2 ins. Upper ventilator rail of ash, size 2J4 ins. x 3^ ins. Ventilator mullions 
of ash or oak, size 1% ins. x 2*4 ins. Side of lower deck carlines of ash, size 1% 
ius. x2ins., cut to pattern, glued and tenoned into lower ventilator rail, and 
ehouldered, glued and screwed to side top rail. Centre of upper deck carlines of 
ash, \% ins. x 1^ ins., cut to pattern, glued and screwed to top ventilator rails. 

Roof to be further supported by ten steel carlines, one over each intermediate 
side post, made of 1J4 in. x % in. steel, forged to shape of roof in one continuous 
piece and extending from side top rail to side top rail, with a foot at each end, 
which is securely screwed to side top rails. Steel carlines to be securely bolted to 
wood carlines. Roof framing to be covered with matched poplar sheathing y% in. 
thick and 3 ins. wide, closely laid and securely nailed to roof framing. Outside 
of roof sheathing to be painted with brown oxide of iron paint, and then covered 
with No. 8 cotton duck, and outside of duck covering to be painted three coats of 
lead and oil paint before trolley board is placed in position. Inner side of roof 
sheathing to be painted with brown oxide of iron paint. The entire upper deck 
of roof to be covered with roof mats made of ash slats, placed on ash cleats laid 
in white lead, and securely screwed to roof framing. 

Trolley Board.— To be of best quality white pine, made of two boards 1% 
ins. thick, 6 in. wide and 11 ft. long, placed 4 ins. apart on centre of roof, placed 
on ash cleats laid in white lead and securely screwed to roof. All parts of trolley 
board and roof mats to be well painted with lead and oil paint. Bolts to be pro- 
vided for securing trolley pole base stand, and to be located to suit the 

base. Roof mats to be placed on lower decks at diagonally opposite corners of 
car, also black steps on corner posts and grab handles on roof at same corners, of 
black. 

Platforms and Vestibules.— Platform outside knees of oak, 3*4 ins. thick, 

8 ins. wide. Platform inside knees of oak, 32£ ins. thick, 8 ins. wide. All 
platform knees to be re-enforced with 5 ins. x % in. iron plates extending full 
length of knees and securely bolted to same. Platform floor to be best quality 
quarter-sawed yellow pine % in. thick with 2)4, in. face, laid crosswise and 
securely nailed to platform framing. Distance from top of car floor to top of 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 327 



platform floor 15% ins. Platforms to be 4 ft. 10 ins. long from end of car body to 
outside of vestibule front at centre of car, enclosed at front by stationary 
vestibule, with folding doors at both sides hung to vestibule corner posts, also 
folding gates for summer use. Vestibule to have three sash at front, the sash 
in centre opening to drop, and all other sash to be stationary. All framing 
parts of vestibule to be of best quality tough ash. Lower part of vestibule fronts 
to be sheathed with matched poplar sheathing, placed vertically same as on sides 
of cars, sheathing to be % in. thick and 2 ins. wide on face and securely nailed to 
vestibule framing. Inner side of sheathing to be backed with linen scrim and 
painted same as on sides of car. 

Inner side of vestibules to be finished in oak throughout, finish at bottom to 
be panel work, all finished in the natural color of the wood and varnish. 

Hoods.— To be of the street car pattern. The bow to be of oak 1% ins. x 
1% ins. steamed and bent to shape. The carlines to be of ash % ins. x 1J4 ins. 
steamed and bent to shape, shouldered, glued and securely screwed to bow. Hood 
carlines against end of car to be of ash, 1% ins. x 1)4 ins - Hoods to be covered 
with matched poplar sheathing % in. thick and 2% i n9 - wide, bent to shape and 
securely nailed to bow and carlines. Outside of sheathing to be painted and 
covered with cotton duck, and outside of duck covering to be painted three coats 
of lead and oil paints. Inner side of hoods to be painted same color, as outside 
of car body. Outer edge of hoods to be provided with an iron guard to prevent 
trolley pole from wearing out canvas covering. 

Smoking Compartment. — Each car to have a smoking compartment at one 
end, 7 ft. 8J4 ins. long between end linings, with longitudinal side seats made of 
oak and varnished. Partition between smoking compartment and balance of car 
to have a single sliding door, 25-in. opening. Windows at each side of door open- 
ing in partition to be glazed with clear glass; also glass in door to be clear. 

Windows.— Eleven on each side of car, and two at each end. Each window 
opening to have two sash, the upper one to be stationary and the lower one to 
drop flush with arm rail. All window openings at sides of car to be provided 
with a hinged casing covering space between sash and inside lining, which will 
close the opening both when sash are up and down. The lower outside end sash 
to be made to drop, and the inside end sash] to be hinged and fitted with brass 
wire cloth. 

Interior Finish.— Interior finish of car body and vestibules to be of quar- 
tered oak throughout, of modern design and secured in place with solid black 
oval-head screws. End and side linings of oak, % in. thick, with raised panels 
T 9 e in. thick. 

Doors: Center rails of oak, 6^2 ins. x 1 T B S ins. Lower rails of oak, 8*4 ins. x 
l x B g ins. Upper rails of oak, 4J^ ins. x 1 T S S ins. Side door stiles of oak, 4J^ ins. x 
lj; B B ins. Center door stiles of oak, 4 ins. x 1 T B S in. Panel mutins of oak 2 ins. 
x lj^ ins. Raised panels of oak, / H ins. thick both sides. 

Sash: Bottom rail of oak, 3^£ x % in. Top rail of oak, Z% ins. x % ins. 
Side stile of oak, 2 x l 5 ins. x % in. 

Deck sash: Lower rail of oak, 1% ins. x % in. Upper rail of oak, 1^ ins. x 
% in. Side stiles of oak, l T 5 g ins. x % in. 

Transom sash in ends : Lower rail of oak, cut to pattern, 1*4 ins. a % in. 
Upper rail of oak, 1 in. x % in. Side stiles of oak, 1% in. x % in. 

Ceiling.— Of three-ply birch veneer, plainly decorated and varnished, ceiling 
and ceiling moldings to be secured in place with screws, and ceiling moldings to 



328 ELECTRIC RAILWAY BAND BOOK. 



be grooved on back to receive the lamp wires. Back of ceiling to be painted 
with brown oxide of iron paint. 

Doors.— Automatic double doors at each end of car, made of oak with oak 
panels, hung at top with contra-twist door fixtures. Door in partition to be hung 
with hangers and track. Door openings at ends of car to be 40 ins. wide and 6 ft. 
3 ins. high, and door openings in partition to be 25 ins. wide and 6 ft. 3 ins. high. 
All doors to have stationary glass. 

Sash.— All sash to be % in. thick and made of oak. 

Deck Sash.— Eleven on each side of car pivoted and made of oak. The ends 
of ventilator or monitor deck to be divided into three spaces, with pivoted sash 
in center opening and stationary glass in side openings. 

Glass— The glass in all windows and doors to be first quality double thick 
American window glass, imbedded in molded rubber on all edges to prevent rat- 
tling. Glass in deck sash to be double thick white chipped, with 1 in. clear edge 
and imitation bevel. 

Curtains.— All side and end windows, also outside of end door openings to 

be provided with curtains. Curtains to be made of material, pattern 

color , mounted on 1-in. spring rollers and fitted with the 

fixture at the bottom. Curtains on outside of end doors to be 

made up in same manner as the other curtains, to be placed in a neat oak box 
over door opening with side pieces extending down to arm rail to form guides 
for curtain fixtures. 

Seats.— There are to be eight (8) on each side of car in large compartment, 

six of which are to be of Walkover pattern, and four stationary 

seats; the two stationary seats at end next to vestibule to be placed longitudinal 
with car, and the two stationary seats next to partition to be placed crosswise. 
Cushions of all reveisible and the two longitudinal stationary seats to be 33 ins. 
long and the two stationary seats next to partition to be 31 ins. long. Backs of 
all cross seats to be 22 ins. high, and those of the longitudinal seats to be of same 
height as side lining (13 ins.). All reversible cross seats to have grab handles on 
coiner of back at aisle end, also movable foot rest and thumb latch on seat back 
levers. All seat cushions to be 18 ins. wide. All seat and back cushions to be 
covered with canvas-lined rattan with hard enamel finish. Space between center 
of stationary cross seat and the first reversible seat to be 37 ins. Reversible seats 
to be spaced 17 ins. between edges of seat cushions when passengers are facing 
each other, and 16^2 ins. between edges of seat cushions when backs are all 
turned same way. Aisle through center of car to be 20 ins. wide. 

Hand Rails. — To be placed in smoking compartment only, supported by 
black ornamental brackets. Rails to be made of oak 1% ins. diameter, with pol- 
ished black ends. Each rail to be supplied with six (6) padded hand straps made 
Of fancy leather and fitted with black buckle. 

Floor Mats.— Everett pattern, made of ash slats % in. thick, % in. wide, 
placed % in. apart, extending longitudinally in aisle full length of car and sunk 
flush with the floor. 

Trimmings.— Of very best quality black metal, dead finish and secured in 
place with solid black screws. 

Grab Handles.— Long vertical grab handles to be placed on posts at each 
side of each vestibule entrance, made of 1-in. steel-lined black tubing fitted into 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 329 



black end sockets, 36 ins. long, and securely screwed to posts with solid black 
oval-head screws. 

Window Guards.— Three bar window guards to be placed on outside of all 
end windows, made of ]4, i n - heavy black tubing filled with hard wood and secured 
in place with solid black screws. 

Signal Bells.— Two 6-in. steel conductor's signal bells to be supplied with 
each car, with necessary cords of ! S s -in. round oak tan leather extending through 
center of car suspended from ceiling with suitable black hangers with 13-in. drop. 

Register.— One fare register of latest pattern to be furnished 

with each car, with necessary cords of t s 6 -m. round oak-tan leather extending 
along ventilator rail at each side full length of car and onto both platforms, sus- 
pended by suitable brackets or guides. 

Wiring.— Car bodies to be wired for light and trolley circuits. Light circuits 
to be arranged for four single lights on each ventilator rail in large compartment 
and two single lights in upper deck of smoking compartment. All wiring mate- 
rial, sockets and switches to be furnished by the railway company. 

Headlight.— Each car to be equipped with one headlight 

complete, arranged to hang on front of vestibule. 

Heaters.— Each car to be equipped with sixteen electric heaters, type to be 
selected by the railway company. 

Sand Boxes. — Each car to be equipped with two (2) sand boxes— one at each 
end at diagonally opposite corners of car, placed under seats, arranged to operate 
by foot lever, and supplied with removable hose. 

Gongs.— Two 14-in steel foot alarm gongs to be supplied with each car one 
under each platform. 

Brake Staffs.— One on each platform, \% ins. round at the bottom, forged 
tapering to 1 in. round at the top, well braced, fitted with 12^3-in. black ratchet 
brake handle and %-in. twist-link Norway-iron brake chain. 

Platform Steps.— Double steps at each platform entrance, sides of steps to 
be made of steel plate J4 in. thick, with treads of ash % in. thick and 8]4 ins. 
wide. Distance between end of car body and inside of platform crownpiece 38 
ins. Distance from outside of car side to outside of platform knee 13 ins. Dis- 
tance from top of platform to first step 11 ins., and from top of upper step to top 
of lower step 10^ ins. Distance from top of platform floor to underside of bot- 
tom step 24 ins. Distance from top of platform floor to top of car floor 6% ins. 
Edge of bottom step to project V/ % ins. beyond side of car. Outer edge of step 
treads to be covered with iron molding. 

Draw Bars.— Extra heavy radiating spring draw-bar at each end of car, with 
necessary slides, all securely bolted to car body. Height from track to center of 
draw-bars when car body is mounted on trucks to be 22^ ins. 

Bumpers.— Angle iron bumpers to be placed on front of vestibules, made of 
6 ins. x 3^ ins. x % in. angle iron bent to same shape as vestibule front, and 
extending full width of same, projecting 6 ins. beyond front of vestibule and 
securely bolted to platform knees, which project out for that purpose. Height 
from track to center of bumpers to be 33J^ ins. 

Material and Workmanship.— All material entering into the construction 



330 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK, 



and finish of these car bodies to be of the very best quality; all sills to be full 
length without splicing; mortises and tenons to fit each other tightly without 
false filling, and to be thoroughly white leaded when being put together; all 
lumber to be of the very best quality and thoroughly well seasoned and dried; 
and all work to be done on a strictly first class workmanlike manner. 

Corner Posts and Headpiece.— To be securely tied together with an ang.e 
iron brace let into top of headpiece, corner post and side top plates. Outside of 
corner post, where it joins plate and headpiece, to be protected by a heavy iron 
plate. Corner iron to be placed in corners of hoods where the bow joins the rear 
carline. 

Painting.— These car bodies to be painted in the best possible manner, let- 
tered, ornamented and striped as desired by the railway company, and varnished 

throughout with railway varnish. Outside of car to be painted in 

the following manner: Two coats of pure white lead and linseed oil. After sec- 
ond coat car to be puttied and plastered where necessary. Car to be rubbed with 
pumice stone and water until a perfectly smooth surface is obtained. Two coats 
of flat body color, and if necessary an additional coat will be put on, depending 
on color used. One coat color and varnish, on which striping and lettering will 

be done. Two coats rubbing varnish, second coat to be rubbed with 

pulverized pumice stone and water. Two coats railway body varnish. 

All striping to be done in gold. Lettering and numbering to be of same size and 
style as shown by photograph to be sent by railway company. Roof of cars to be 
painted three coats of lead and oil paint, each coat to be allowed to dry before the 
succeeding coat is applied. Inside work to be finished in the following manner : 
All parts of inside woodwork of car and vestibule to receive one coat of oil filler, 

one coat of pure linseed oil, and three coats of rubbing varnish, last 

coat of varnish to be rubbed to a cabinet finish. No shellac to be used on any 
part of the cars. 

Inspection.— The railway company shall have the privilege of sending a re- 
presentative to the shops of the car builders to inspect and examine the cars while 
being built. 

Trucks, Mounting Motors and Installing Electrical Equipment.— The 
company to furnish and deliver free of any expense at the works of the car build- 
ers all necessary trucks, motors, wire, switches, sockets and all other electrical 
equipment for these cars, and the car builders to install same without any extra 
charge. 

Time op Delivery.— These car bodies to be delivered complete, f . o. b. cars, 

on or before 19 — , subject to delays caused by fire, labor 

trouble or any other cause beyond the control of the car builders. 

NOMENCLATURE OF CAR PARTS. 

(See Pigs. 288, 289, 290.) 
Abreviations. 

WOODWORK. METAL WORK. 

O Oak C. I Cast Iron 

A Ash W. I , Wrought Iron 

Y. P Yellow Pine M. I Malleable Iron 

P Poplar W. S Wrought Steel 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



331 



" : -O' 




332 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK 















8. 


Sill, Y. P., 0. 






56. 


Upper deck. 


9. 


End Sill, 0. 






57. 


Deck bottom rail. 


10. 


Transverse floor beams. 


0. 


58. 


Deck post. 


11. 


Cross tie rod, W. I. 






59. 


Deck window. 


15. 


Side post, A. 






61. 


Deck end ventilator. 


IT. 


Corner post, A. 






64. 


Window. 


IS. 


Door post, A. 






66. 


Window stile. 


19. 


Belt rail, A., Y. P. 






67. 


Sash lift. 


20. 


Belt rail band, W. I. 


half oval. 


68. 


Sash stop bead. 



f-v -- ' .-.-- i 



4-5^ 




Fig. 289.— end view of car body. 



81. 


Fender rail, A., Y. P. 




69. 


Window blind. 




22. 


Fender guard, W. I., half oval. 


72. 


Window blind mullion. 




23. 


Body truss rod, W. S. 




73. 


Window blind lift. 




04. 


Body queen post, W.S 


.M.I., CI. 


77. 


Window guards. 




25. 


Truss rod plate, W. I., 


C.I. 


78. 


Door stile. 




27. 


Outside panel, Convex 


P. 


79. 


Door mullion. 




28. 


Lower outside panel, Concave P. 


81. 


Middle door rail. 




29. 


Upper end panel. 




82. 


Top door rail. 




30. 


Lower end panel. 




85. 


Mirror. 




31. 


Inside frieze panel. 




86. 


Door case sash. 




32. 


Panel strip. 




89. 


Fare wicket. 




88. 


Panel furring. 




91. 


Sliding door handle. 




34. 


Seat bottom. 




102. 


Platform timber clamp. 




35. 


Seat leg. 




103. 


Platform end timber or 


cro 


36. 


FroDt seat rail. 






piece. 





ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



333 



Back seat bottom rail. 
Back seat rail. 
Lower seat back rail. 
Seat back board. 
End seat panel. 
Upper belt rail. 
Window ledge. 
Plate. 

Eaves moulding. 
Window blind rest. 
Window sasb rest. 
Outside window stop. 
Inside window stop. 
Carline. 



108. Platform post. 

109. Platform post boss washer. 

110. Platform rail. 

112. Dash guard straps. 

113. Body hand rail. 

114. Side step. 

115. Hood. 

116. Hood bow. 

117. Hood carline. 

119. Hood moulding. 

120. Brake shaft crank. 

122. Brake shaft. 

123. Upper brake shaft bearing. 
125. Brake ratchet wheel. 




Fig. 290.— sectional view of cab body. 



334 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



The modern tendency is to lengthen car bodies, especially where there are 
many short distance riders, since it leads to increased comfort and the probability 
of the passengers always obtaining seats, and this will attract more traffic al- 
though the cost for operating is very slightly increased. Where double trucks 
are substituted for single trucks, the car body can be lengthened 4 ft. and in- 
creased in weight proportionately without perceptibly affecting the demand on 
the power station, or increasing the power supply per equipment; and, the labor 
item being a constant, the cost per passenger will be less. 

SPLICING CAR BODIES. 

A number of roads have increased the length of their car body by cutting 
in two and splicing. The Union Traction Co., Philadelphia, has followed the 
following practice : Taking its short 18 ft. car bodies, which had six windows, 




1 5/7/ of of of Car- V*6~ Oa/ir 
* +£*/Z" Georq/a P/rre 




rur/tffucA/e /f 




Aufs7? 



BofsTer 

Fig. 291. — method or splicing car bodies with wooden beam 



the body is sawed in two. The side sills are cut dovetail, and the inserted length- 
ening sill is dovetailed into the side sill. The car is lengthened so as to just 
receive two more window frames, which gives a car body length of 24 ft. when 
complete. The inserted sills are only used to hoid the uprights. For strength a 
steel angle is fitted to each side of the car for the length of the body. The sides 
of the angle are steel plate, L-shaped, 6 ins. x 4 ins. and % in. thick, the 4 in. 
side being placed under the sill. In addition to this angle iron, a truss rod is 
placed behind the sills to reinforce the angle, and two maximum traction trucks 
are placed under the body. 

Another method is to splice two small cars together. This has been carried 
out by one company in the following way: The two bodies are set on horses; the 
Dack end is removed from one of these bodies and the front end of the other. The 
corner posts and end sills are ripped in half. Then the two bodies are butted 
together and fastened with.%-in. carriage bolts, placed so as to be out of sight. 
The sills are reinforced by Y»-va. angle iron plates, extending 4 ft. each way from 
the splice. The old panels and water rails are removed, and a piece of Southern 
pine, \y» ins. x 12 ins. x 32 ft. is set into it flush with the bottom of the sill, 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 335 



and bolted through the old sill every 22 ins., using %-in. bolts with cast washers 
on the pine side. On each side of the splice two rods %-in round went clear 
through the body. The 4J^ in. x 12 in. sill was framed to fit the top curvature of 
the post. Fig. 291 shows a section of this car body and the method of trussing 
to support it. 

To give sufficient strength to the roof, two pieces of Southern pine, 2 ins. x 
8 ins., extend the length of the roof and fit into an angle of J^-in. iron at each 
end. Two tie rods, % ins. x 32 ft. x5 ins. pass through these angles with double 
nuts on each end. By using these tie rods it is possible to give the roof any de- 
sired cambre to hold it there. The 2 in. x 8 in. pine pieces are 14 ins. from the 
roof at center of the car. On top of this truss is mounted the trolley stand, 
and a double truck is placed underneath the car. 

TRUCKS. 

Test on Peckham Truck. — All castings except center bearing and side 
poles were malleable iron; side pieces were formed of 4 bars of flat iron, riveted 
to pedestals, placed in pairs, to take compression and tensile stresses. The truck 
was the same as a 14-A, except heavy enough to carry loads of 30,000 lbs., with a 
factor of safety of 6. The test was made by the Robert A. Hunt Co. on a wheel 
press. 



Load, 


Tons. 


Total 


Deflection, 


Ins. 


Permanent Set, Ins 


5 






.00 




.00 


10 






.00 




.00 


15 






.02 




.00 


20 






.03 




.00 


25 






.04 




.00 , 


30 






-07 




.03 


35 






.16 




.10 


40 






.19 




.13 


45 






.26 




.17 



At 50^£ tons, the lower tension members broke through the first rivet hole, 
and the malleable casting at one end. 

Figs. 292-294 shows the No. 14 Peckham truck. The length of the car body, 
upon which the trucks were mounted, was 24 ft. The length over all 33 ft. The 
distance from rail to bottom of car sill, 28 ins. The distance from rail to car steps 
16 ins. The width of car body, 7 ft. 7 ins. The diameter of axle, 4 ins. The 
wheel base on trucks, 5 ft. 7 ins. Diameter of wheels, 30 ins. 

Method of Increasing Traction.— It has been urged against the double 
truck that the weight on the driving wheels was not sufficient to mount grades. 
This has been successfully overcome in one instance, where a 14J^ per cent grade 
had to be mounted, by placing double trucks under the car, but both motors under 
the rear truck. It must also be borne in mind that the hanging of the motor for- 
ward of the front axle of the car increases the weight on the driving wheels, on 
account of the additional weight of the motor; in this way greater tractive effect 
can be given for maximum traction or double truck cars. 

In descending grades there is twice the coefficient of adhesion between the 
eight wheels that there is with the single truck four wheels. As a result of care- 
ful tests between the double and single truck, it is found that the double truck 
requires less power, for the same car body, than the single truck, especially where 
the single truck allows considerable teetering of the car. In one case a car body, 
weighing 3 tons more with a double truck and the same motors, showed 1.21 kw 



336 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 




ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 33*7 



per car mile, whereas a single truck, with the same motors, showed 1.37 kw per 
car mile over the same track. The only change was made in the truck. 

In looking for the difference in efficiency of these two types of trucks, a 
cyclometer was put upon each driven axle, and it was found that the actual slip- 
page ranged between 10 per cent and 18 per cent between the front and lear 
wheels when the car was on a level and when climbing a 5}^ per cent grade, 
the front wheel having the slippage. It must be remembered that, in case of 
wheels slipping, ihe heating of the track and wheel is lost energy, and produces 
no useful result. 

SELECTION OF TRUCKS. 

It is probable that, even with the cantilever extension truck, a 22-ft. closed 
car body (being about 30 ft. over all), is approximating the limit of a size of 
body which can be successfully carried on a 7 ft. wheel base. Fig. 294 shows the 
cantilever extension truck, which is the size used under a 22-ft. car body success- 
fully. 

The spring support to the body is generally differential, that is, an elliptical 
double or single takes the weight of the car body light. The best method sets the 
car body over an elastic support, which will not be too light at low loads, allowing 
the car body to oscillate or pitch, and not coming down too hard under heavy loads. 
The springs should be so arrauged among themselves as not to repeat the move- 
ment over bad joints, but their interaction should tend to damp out any oscillat- 
ing effect. 

As the load comes on the car body, the elliptical springs are depressed. "When 
they are compressed to a point where they lose their resilience the weight is taken 
up by spiral springs. The arrangement of springs under the truck to support the 
weight varies with different truck manufacturers. The points, however, which 
should be obtained in truck construction are : rigidity of frame to withstand the 
stress tending to throw the axles out of alignment on rounding curves; the power 
to resist the iongitudinal strains thrown on the truck frame by sudden changes in 
track contour, and reduction of uncushioned weight on the wheels. The truck 
must be so constructed as to allow easy access to motors, wheels and journal 
boxes. The attachment to the car body should be made so as to be readily remov- 
able. The method of constructing the truck frame can be either riveted bridge 
construction or solid side frame. 



CAR AXLES. 

Cold rolled steel and wrought iron are both used for axles, wrought iron 
having the preference. The diameter varies from "6% ins. to 4 ins. ; 3J4 ins. is 
the most common diameter for the journals. The gear keyway is generally made 
for a key % in. wide and cut y^ in. deep in the axle. Axles are found to break 
where square coiners are present for the fracture to start. All corners should, 
therefore, be turned with fillets. If the keyway is cut with a milling machine so 
that it has sloping sides, the axle will be less liable to break at this point than if 
the keyway is drilled at each end and slotted out. 

The size that the axle should be turned before forcing on the wheels can 
only be determined by experience and depends upon the density of the wheel 
hub and the axle. The length of the axle for standard gage varies with the dif- 
ferent trucks. The Taylor takes an axle G ft. 3 ins. long; Peckham, 6 ft. 4% ins. 
and also 6 ft. 6% ins.; Brill, ft. 5 ins.; McGuire, G ft. 5 ins. and 6 ft. 6 ins.; 
Bemis and Baltimore, 6 ft. 5M iu s.; Diamond, 6 ft. 5]4 ins. 



333 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOR". 




ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK 



339 



APPROXIMATE WEIGHT OF MOTOR TRUCKS. 

Gage, 4 ft. 8^ in. 



MAKE OF TRUCK. 


Weight 

of 

Wheel. 

Lbs. 


Diameter 

of 

Wheel. 

Ins. 


Weight 

of Truck. 

(Bare) 

« Lbs. 


Weight of truck 

equipped with G. E. 

800 motors. 




1 Motor. 

Lbs. 


2 Motors. 
Lbs. 




250 

300 

300 

280 

300 

j 300 

|200 

280 

(300 

(200 

300 

300 


30 

30 

30 

30 

30 

30) 

22) 

30 

30) 

24 f 

30 

30 


3.123 

3,500 
3,000 
3.600 
6,240 

5,400 

6,400 

5,000 

4,000 


5,000 
5,300 
4,800 
5.400 
4,900 

4,500 

5,000 

6,800 

6,200 


6 800 




7.100 




6,600 




6,900 






Brill, (maximum traction) . . . 
Tripp, eight-wheel 






8,600 
8,000 


Peckham, four-wheel 

" eight-wheel 



STANDARD DIMENSIONS FOR BRILE NO. 21-E. TRUCKS. 

<See Figs. 295, 296, 297.) 





Width 


Centres 


Width 










GAGE. 


over top 


of top 


over jour- 


Length of 


Wheel 


Total 


Spring 




plates. 


plates. 


nal boxes. 


axle. 


base. 


length. 


base. 




A 


B 


D 


E 


E 


F 


G 


Ft. Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


4 


5 10% 


5 8% 


6 10% 


6 3% 


6 


14 3 


13 2 


4 8¥ 2 


6 


5 m 


7 


6 5 


6 6 


14 9 


13 8 


5 


6 2% 


5 11% 


7 2% 


6 7H 


7 


15 3 


14 2 


5 2¥ 2 


6 5% 


6 2% 


7 5% 


6 IO14 


7 6 


15 9 


14 8 


5 3 


6 5% 


6 2% 


7 5% 


6 10J4 


8 

8 6 

9 


16 3 

16 9 

17 3 


15 2 

15 8 

16 2 





Height of 
















Diameter 


truck, with 
















of wheel. 


weight of 
body. 


M 


N 


O 


P 


R 


S 


T 


H 


I 
















Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


Ins. 


30 


25H 


16 


16% 


18% 


10 


15 


28 


% 


33 


2%% 

















340 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



CAR WHEELS. 

The following table gives the composition of car wheels which showed a lon< 
life and stood thermal and blow tests. 



Graphite 

Combined carbon 

Silicon 

Manganese 

Sulphur 

Phosphorus 



ANALYSIS OF CAR WHEELS 



Which Stood 


Which Stood 40 


Which Gave 5 or 


Thermal Test for 


or More Blows 


More Years of 


60 Mins. 


Drop Test. 


Service. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


Max. 


Min. 


3.28 


2.65 


3.31 


2.65 


3.18 


2.23 


.95 


.32 


.90 


.55 


1.24 


.56 


.75 


.50 


.70 


.50 


.94 


.58 


.53 


.20 


.46 


.24 


.34 


.13 


.088 


.055 


.086 


.040 


.085 


.047 


.48 


.35 


.52 


.36 


.49 


.25 



It will be seen that these limits are rather wide, but below are given what are 
considered to be the desirable limits for the chemical constituents of wheels: 

Desirable Wheel Analysis. 

Graphite 2.75 per cent to 3.00 per cent. 

Combined carbon 50 " " .75 " 

Silicon 50 " " .70 " 

Manganese 30 '* " .50 " 

Sulphur 05 " " .07 '* 

Phosphorus ' 35 " " .45 " 

The proper amount of manganese is an important element, for upon it de- 
pends the capability of the wheel to stand the preliminary test and take a good 
deep chill. 

There are a great variety of methods and variation of mixtures used by the 
different wheel manufacturers, on which they base their mileage guarantees, but 
the following are the elements of general specifications for car wheels : 

They must all be cast in true metallic chills of the same internal diameter and 
uniform cross-section. The body of the wheel to be of clean, soft, grey iron 
smooth and free from blow holes, The hubs to be solid and free from drawing. 
The tread and throat of the wheel must be smooth and free from deep and irreg- 
ular wrinkles, slag or sand wash, and practically free from chill cracks and 
sweat. The depth of clean white iron should not exceed % in. at throat and 1 in. 
at middle of tread, nor be less than %in. at the throat or y% in. at middle of tread; 
nor should there be more than y± in. in variation of the depth of chill throughout 
the same wheel. The blending of the grey with the white iron must be without 
distinct line of demarcation. See Fig. 298-300. 

In each wheel, when a true metallic ring is placed so as to bear on the cone 
no part of its circumference will stand more than Jg in. from the tread of the 
wheel. No-wheel made in a solid chill will be passed whose circumference differs 
from l^i in. or less than % in. from the circumference of the chill in which it is 
made. Wheels cast in contracting chills should not differ more than 2 ins. from 
the circumference of the chill. All wheels during inspection must stand three 
heavy blows of a 6-lb. sledge under the flange and between the brackets, and 
must withstand a pressure of 50 tons when being forced on the axle. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK 



34i 



With each pouring of 100 wheels two additional ones must be furnished for 
the following tests. One wheel is placed, flange downward, on an anvil block 
weighing not less than 1700 lbs., set on 2 ft. of rubble masonry and having three 
supports for the wheel to rest on, not less than 5 ins. wide. The wheel is then 
struck centrally upon the hub with a weight of 140 lbs. falling from a height 
of 12 ft. The wheel should stand 15 blows without breaking. If it breaks in only 
two places and the depth of chill is uniform, the wheels may be accepted provid- 
ing they stand boring and mounting with 50 tons pressure. 

The thermal test is carried out as follows : The test wheel is laid, flange 
down, in the sand, and a channel way \y% ins. wide and 4 ins. deep, must be 
molded with green sand around the wheel, the clean tread forming one side of 
the channel way. This is then filled with molton cast iron, which must be hot 
enough when poured to form a ring when the metal is cold that shall be solid and 
free from wrinkles or layers. The time of pouring is to be noted, and two min- 
utes after pouring the wheel is to beexamined. 




Fig. 298.— chill for car wheel and method op testing. 



The weight of car wheels has gradually increased from 250-260 lbs. to 325-350 
lbs. for 30-in. wheel, and to 370-380 lbs. for 33-in. wheel. For interurban high- 
speed service the 38-in., 400-lb. wheel is now coming into favor. 

Sections of car wheels are shown in Figs. 299-300. 

The mounting of the wheels on the axle is done as follows: The axles are 
pressed in J4 in. less than the gage line between the center of the fillet between 
the flange and the tread, where the road is not in good alignment and where 
GO-lb. rails are used. This is to allow of lateral play and avoid cramping the 
flanges and wearing them unduly. The surface of the flange presented to the 
special work at frogs and switches is becoming more of a flat surface than form- 
erly to avoid wearing and cutting these parts of the track. With a grooved rail 
the flange end should present as much of a cutting surface as possible, in order to 
clear the groove of dirt and not pack in at the bottom of the groove and increase 
the power necessary for operating the car. The outside flange should have a 
slight slope to prevent cutting into guard rails, and the tread should not over- 
hang the head of the rail so as to come in contact with paving blocks or similar 
obstructions. 



342 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK 



Flat Wheels.— Flat wheels are primarily caused by sliding and grinding 
a flat on the wheel. There are a number of causes assigned for this trouble. One 
is that the wheels which become flat were not perfectly true with respect to 
the axle so that as the brake shoe was drawn up to the wheel it locked the whee 




SECTION AT A-B 
7 /MM* 

Fig. 299.— section of new toek car wheel, 30 inches. 

when the largest diameter rolled against the shoe and tended to stop the wheel 
always at one point, thus focusing the wear at one place and producing flats. In 
new arid old wheels, where the chill first wears through, a soft metal will be pre- 
sented to the attrition between the wheel and rail in braking the car. The retard- 
ation is caused by the difference between the length over which the car passes, 
and the distance through which the wheel rolls. The maximum retardation is 



L 33' 




Fig. 300.— section op new tork car wheel, 33 inches 



approximately when this difference is 22 per cent, and falls when the difference 
passes this point until the car slides. 

The thermal test on car wheels is an important one, for the foot tons in the 
moving equipment appear as energy dissipated in the rim of the wheel, at the 
brake and under the brake shoe. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK, 



343 



BRAKES. 

The leverage in hand brakes varies between 40:1 and 72:1, depending upon 
the weight on wheels, grades and conditions of track. The amount of power a 
motorman can exert on a brake wheel is given in the following table. 

POWER OBTAINED BY DIFFERENT MOTORMEN ON BRAKE 

WHEEL. 



Weight of 


Gradual pull with 


Jerk with both 


Emergency jerk 


motorman. 


one hand. 


hands on hand 


with both hands 






wheel. 


on hand wheel. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


140 


112 


135 


275 


200 


135 


275 


385 


287 


145 


235 


312 


175 


125 


212 


285 


153 


125 


245 


310 


185 


150 


200 


300 


170 


150 


275 


350 


155 


135 


210 


325 


135 


110 


175 


325 


135 


125 


250 


350 


160 


125 


250 


405 


176 


100 


200 


400 


185 


276 


250 


375 




Av. 131.7 


Av. 224 


Av. 338.23 



The pressure on the brake shoe should not exceed the pressure between the 
wheel and rail. The effect of speed, brake pressure and traction coefficient is 
given in the following table for hand brakes. 

TABLE SHOWING RELATIONS OF SPEED, BRAKE PRESSURE 
AND TRACTION COEFFICIENT. 



Speed revolutions 


Brake pressure. 


Traction Coefficient. 


per minute 






33-in. wheel. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. Per Cent. 


Varying, 150 


900 


87.4 


9.7 


125 


900 


91.7 


10.2 


100 


900 


. 99.8 


11.1 


78 


900 


118. 


13.2 


56 


900 


133. 


14.8 


38 


900 


150.4 


16.6 


20 


900 


154. 


17.1 


4 


900 


174.6 


19.4 


Constant, 105 


300 


29.4 


9.8 




500 


50.5 


10.1 




750 


91. 


12. 


100 


1,150 


125. 


11.2 




1,500 


178. 


12. 




2,200 


305. 


14.4 


94 


3,780 


488. 


13.2 



The brake rigging takes a number of forms, the inital effort being given by 
the motorman through a brake handle on the wheel, which wraps a chain around 
the brake staff. In some cases the brake staff has a pinion which engages in a 



344 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



RECORD OF CAR 



Materials. 



No. 


"Weight of 
Cars. 


Mileage of 
Wheels. 


Mileage of 
Shoes. 


Stops per 
mile. 


Gradients 


1-7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 

18 

10 


No. Kecords at all 
12 to 22000 


Abt. 225000 


Abt. 75000 




As high as 10% 
&plentyofthem 






















6% heaviest 




















About 12000 

15000 
4 to 6)4 tons 

12000 

Cab. 7500 
E. 14500 

6 to 8000 

4 to 5 tons 

About 6% tons 


25000 to 30000 

35000 
20000 to 60000 

55244 

40000 
Abt. 40000 








3000 

4 to 7000 

4864 

7000 

Abt. 12000 




Not over 7% 

2Yq to 5}4% 

3 to 6% 

Level 

to 12% 
Highest 2% 


Abt. 10 
per m. 
5 per m. 

8 per m. 


20 




21 


30000 to 32000 






22 




Very f re- 


One of 10% 

8 to 9% in places 

6% 

About level 

0to9% 

to Q%% 

Abt. 2^% 


23 








24 
25 

26 
27 


7 to 8 tons 
12 to 15000 

5 tons 

4 to 6000 

Cab. 7000 
E. 16000 

11000 

20000 

5^ tons 

10000 

Mo. 16000 
Trail 6000 

8 to 9 tons 

8 tons 


One year 

30000 to 40000 
Not worn out 
but flat in 5 

One year 

33000 
27000 

45389 

30000 

20000 to 24000 

Abt. 36000 


9000 
5 to 7000 

6000 
2 to 8000 


Very f re- 

Not fre- 
quent 
5 to mile 

Every 300' 

As usual 
in cities 


28 




29 




5% heaviest 


30 


4500 

10 to 14000 

1500 




31 
32 

33 


Every 500' 
20 per m. 


Not over 2% 
4 to 11% 

3 to 7% 


34 
35 


4000 to 30000 
35000 


Comp. 20000 C. 
1.8 to 10000 

45000 


Usual in 
cities 

7 to m. 


Max. 3% 
7% 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



345 



WHEELS AND BRAKE SHOES. 



No. of 

Truck 

Patterns. 


Shoe 

Patterns. 

No. 
Hangers. 


Shoe 
Patterns 
Separate 
Hangers. 


Stand 

Shoe 

Wanted 


Stand Shoe 
Hanger 
Wanted. 


Remarks. 


4 Brill 




1 




Yes 

Present 
practice 


Shoes wear down to J4 in. 








giving out. 


1 








ard hanger. 
Shoes fromBemis Co. only. 


1 










5 or 6 








Yes 
Yes 


Use shoe as made by truck 

manufacturers. 
W% chilled iron, 20£ soft 

Lappin. 
Chilled iron in shoes. 


3 
3 


6 




Not 

possible 

Yes 


2 






Hard iron shoe to brake on 


2 
1 




3 

1 

1 


Not 

possible 


Yes 


tread only. 
G0% soft I; C. I. with wood, 

also with steel plugs. 
Medium C. I. 


1 
2 Brill 






Yes 

Yes 
Yes 


Congdon shoe (cast steel 
plugs in C. I.) 


2 








ting hangers. 
Ordinary C. I. shoe. 


2 








Chilled 1. shoes, 2 patterns. 


2 
2 
4 


1 

2 
3 


2 

1 
3 




Yes 
Yes 
Yes 

Yes 

Most em- 
phatically 
Yes 

Durable but 

hard to keep 

good fit 

Yes 

Yes 
Yes 

Yes 
Yes 

Yes 


Soft L with wood plugs. 

Soft iron shoe. 

Have used soft I. & hard I. 


6 

4 




and iron and wood plugs. 
Have used soft I. & hard I. 

with wrot. plugs & wood. 
Same as 25 above. 


4 


2 


2 

Loop 
hanger 

brake bar 

1 

1 




Prefers hard I. Thinks soft 
I. wears wheels faster than 


railway 
2 






hard I. Impossible for one 
shoe to suit all Ry. men. 
Congdon shoes. 


4 






C. I. with wrought I. plugs. 


1 




McGuire type shoe, chilled 


1 


1 
1 




I. wheels. 
Hard C. I., 4 steel segments 
3 ins. apart. 

Soft C. I. and same with 


1 


All 
1 

2 




2 




wrought I. plugs. 
Soft C. I. and conip. shoe. 

Soft C. I.; hard C. I., CI. 


3 


Yes 






with wood plugs. Wood. 



346 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



347 




348 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK:, 



gear, to which is attached a sprocket through which the chain is wound; this 
pulls the brake rod attached to the end of a brake lever which is connected to the 
brake beam by which the shoes are forced against the wheel. There are a number 
of adjustments for the stretching of the brake rod and the wear of shojes. The 
brake rigging has to be so aligned that there will be no cramping of the brakes 
when the equipment passes around curves. 

In the Price Momentum Brake, instead of the brake staff directly transmit- 
ting the power necessary to draw the brake shoe against the wheel, the brake staff 
is connected to a clutch. This clutch actuates a dram which winds the brake chain 
around the car axle and pulls the brake shoe against the wheels. Fig. 301 shows 
the general construction of this arrangement, the end of the brake chain being 




Fig. 304. — standard air brake for double truck cars. 



attached to the drum sleeve on one of the axles. This drum is not keyed to the 
axle and does not turn with it except when a stop is to be made. By a series of 
levers the edge of the drum, which is in the form of a disc, is then pressed against 
a corresponding disc on the inside of the car wheel. Between the two discs is a 
leather washer to take up the wear. The friction' caused by pressing the drum 
against the car wheel causes the former to revolve, winding up the chain and 
setting the brake. 

Auxiliary power brakes may be actuated by compressed air, or the current 
generated by the motors. In air brakes the compressed air may be stored or pro- 
duced by an axle drum or motor driven compressor. The Magann storage system 
is shown in Fig. 302. The compressed air is produced by one or more steam or 
electric air compressor plants located at the power stations or car houses, where 
there are large storage tanks and drip tanks connected therewith to eliminate 
moisture. The pressure carried is generally 300 lbs. per square inch. From the 
storage tank the supply pipe is taken to some locality convenient to charge 
the reservoirs carried on the cars, which have an aggregate capacity of 20 to 
35 cu. ft. The air is first reduced to a pressure of 20 to 50 lbs. per square inch, 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAA'D BOOK. 



349 



by a reducing valve according to tonnage and operating conditions, before it 
reaches the auxiliary reservoir, from which the brake cylinder is supplied through 
the controlling valve under the hands of the niotorman. From 400 to 600 stops 
can be made without recharging. 

The axle driven compressor has the compressor pump geared to one of the 
car axles, and an automatically controlled valve, by which it keeps the reservoirs 
charged. The electrically driven compressor has an independent motor with an 
automatic switch, actuated by the initial air pressure so as to throw the motor in 
and out as the pressure rises and falls between fixed limits. The general arrange- 




Fig. 305.— method of applying standard air brakes to maximum 
traction trucks. 

ments on the car of the Christensen electrically-driven compressor and brake 
are shown in Fig. 303. 

Fig. 304 shows the Standard Company's method of applying the air cylinder 
to double truck cars. Fig. 305 shows methods of applying the air cylinder to 
maximum traction trucks. 



THE MOTOR EQUIPMENT, 

As long as the insulation is maintained the current through the motor follows 
the proper paths and the motor can be operated. Temperature, oil, moisture, as 
well as time, all tend to depreciate the insulations on these conductors. A prac- 
tical limit to heating is the ability of the various materials used for insulation to 
endure the high temperature without perishing or losing their insulating quali- 
ties, and in order to obtain a long life from a motor its temperature should not 
rise 40 degs. Cent, or 70 degs. Fahr. above the air. This brings approximately the 



35o ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



ultimate temperature of the motor to 62 deg. Cent, or 143 degs. Fahr. in summer, 
and to 54 degs. Cent, or 129 degs. Fahr. in the winter, under working conditions. 
A motor raised above these temperatures will gradually carbonize the insulating 
material between the coils on the armature and the body of the armature, as well 
as between the field coils and their cores. 

The cotton insulation and covering on the windings will become charred, and 
the stress to which these windings are submitted on opening the motor circuit 
by the controller, will tend eventually to pierce them and break down the insul- 
ation. With the exception of the mechanical wear on the commutator and the 
bearings, the whole problem of motor repairs is one of successful insulation. 

CARE AND REPAIR OF MOTORS. 

The Fields. — The fields of all railway motors are wound with double cotton 
covered wire. There is a new wire insulated first with asbestos and then cotton 
over this; the advantage of this double insulation is that if the cotton becomes 
charred the asbestos will still offer sufficient resistance to prevent adjacent layers 
of wire from short circuiting out the turns around the field. The field windings 
for each of the railway motors generally used will be found under data for eaeh 
motor. The general precautions to be used in winding are common to all of them. 
Some motors require the field to be wound on forms, and other methods of design 
have a field spool on which the wire is wound directly. In both cases it is advisable 
to varnish each layer of wire. Shellac has been advised for this purpose, but it is 
nearly impossible to dry out a coil thoroughly which is filled with shellac, and the 
oxidizing of the alcohol tends to carbonize the cellulose in a cotton winding, and 
in this way it neutralizes the good effect that might result from the lacquer. 
Never use wood alcohol for this purpose, it is deliquesent, whereas grain alcohol 
will maintain the insulation resistance. 

In some cases it is advisable to wind the field coils dry and dip into an 
insulating varnish and hang up to drain and dry out. If the field coil is warmed 
before it is dipped into the varnish, the varnish will soak completely in and 
fill all interstices with a good insulator which will prevent the entrance of 
moisture into the coil. After this treatment the coil is insulated and different 
manufacturers advise different methods, but to cover the coil first with mica or 
micanite and overlap this medium so that there are no seams left, and then tape 
this over with two layers of adhesive tape, and over this cover with canvas, and 
finally paint with some good air-drying asphaltic insulating varnish, is one of the 
approved methods of insulation. This treatment requires that the field coils be 
baked before they are used, so as to thoroughly dry out all the solvents used in 
the insulation. 

Where the field coil is wound directly upon a core it should be thoroughly 
insulated with mica, canvas and duck, and the edges of this insulation should 
project beyond the field coil so that they can be lapped over after the field coil is 
completed, and over the overlapped insulation should be wound adhesive tape in 
the same direction as the winding of the wire. This should then be painted over 
with asphaltic varnish. The field terminals or lugs which project from the surface 
of the core should be specially insulated, since this is the point where moisture 
enters the field coil. The tape should be brought up close to these lugs and the 
wire leading from them should be well taped before the insulation is put on the 
field coil. This point should be well treated with varnish and paint. In a few 
types of motors the field coils are further protected by being encased in sheet 
copper. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 351 



A well insulated field coil should stand the following test: 

It should lie in an inch of water for ten hours without its insulation falling 
helow 400,000 ohms. If placed on the pole piece, a difference of 2,000 volts between 
the field winding and the pole piece, or the field winding and its spool, should not 
break down this insulation. The field spool should be maintained at 140 degs. 
Fahr. for 10 hours without the insulation resistance of the coil falling when again 
cooled. It is well to apply these tests, when using any new material for insula- 
tion, on several field coils before it is adopted, as there are many proposed insu- 
lating compounds which are seriously impaired in their usefulness when main- 
tained for a length of time at an elevated temperature. This condition of 
temperature arises in practice when the motor is subjected to an overload or an 
improperly handled controller. 

The Armature.— The break-downs of a street railway armature are caused 
by heating, flashing: at the brushes, and rubbing of the armature body on the field. 
Oil and water form the principle external troubles, and crosses, grounds, open 
coils, short circuits and grounding of commutator are the principal internal 
troubles. As the heating of an armature tends to carbonize and destroy the 
vitality of the insulation, as soon as this insulation has fallen, a treatment should 
be given the armature which will again restore the insulating qualities, and the 
following methods can be used in order to accomplish this result. The armature 
should be first put in a bake oven, the temperature not being over 120 degs. Fahr. 
Passing a current through the armature in order to dry it out does not give good 
results in practice. If there are any leaks or moisture in the armature, it tends 
to set up internal electrolysis, which again impairs the vitality of the insulation. 
After the armature has dried in the oven for two or more hours, and while still 
warm, paint with thin air-drying asphalt compound, P. & B. paint. M. I. C. paint, 
Sterling varnish or shellac. Trials have to be made on these different compounds 
to find out which gives the best results with the special insulation used for insu- 
lating the armature body and coils. Where there is much paper or cellulose insu- 
lation, an asphaltic varnish generally gives the best results; with mica and cloth, 
varnish or shellac gives the best results. Never use anything but alcohol to mix 
the shellac; wood naptha or wood alcohol gives very poor results. When using 
shellac do not have the armature above 90 degs. Fahr. and treat several times. 
After the final treatment bake the armature for 4 hours at 150 degs. Fahr., bring- 
ing the temperature gradually up to this point. The armature should be turned 
several times during this baking, in order to allow any free solvent to run and 
dry out. The heads or any covering over the winding should be taken off for 
this treatment. Of course splines should not be removed. 

The above treatment is useless unless the armature is first heated, since, if 
cold, the treatment will only be superficial, whereas if the armature is hot and then 
allowed to cool, the insulating compounds will be drawn in and impregnate the 
whole insulation. A carbonized insulator if impregnated with insulating com- 
pounds will break up as a partial conductor. 

Flashing at the brushes, due to short, broken or weak brush springs, or short- 
circuited rheostats, will cause sufficient arcing to burn through the heading of 
the armature. These heads as a rule do not afford sufficient protection from 
this source of trouble. A layer of asbestos paper between two layers of canvass 
on the head will greatly strengthen this weak point. This flashing across from 
the brush to the winding, causes a bucking of the motor, which, if not cut out 
immediately, means considerable damage to the armature. Fields are often 
broken down from this same cause, and a rigorous brush inspection results in 
reduced motor repairs where the breakdowns are caused by flashing. 



352 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK 



The striking of the armature against the field in a toothed armature bends 
the teeth over and they pierce the insulation on the armature coil. Several types 
of motors have been designed in which the armature bearing has been too small 
and improperly proportioned, and it is ouly by very close inspection that the arm- 
ature can be kept in proper alignment. The position of the armature should be 
midway between pole pieces, for if there is any looseness in the bearing, the 
stronger magnet will pull it towards that pole piece and the direction of the 
movement of the car will tend to throw it against the rotation of the pinion. 

The internal troubles of an armature are generally evident upon external 
examination, after they have crippled the armature. Flashing at the commutator 
may be caused by carbon dust on the commutator bead ring or carbonized oil on 
the commutator surface. There is also a commutator bead ring used which is 
carbonized when an arc passes over its surface; it has a low resistance and forms 
a partial conductor. This material should not be used directly in contact or 
slipped directly over the commutator bars. Several strips of mica should be 
bound around the commutator bars, and the ring then slipped over these. 

Where an armature tests low to ground, this bead ring or commutator ring 
should be first wiped clean of all carbon dust and oil, and the ground, if caused by 
leaking over this surface, will sometimes be removed in this way. 

In cases of emergency where an equipment has to run and still there is a 
ground on the armature which cannot be removed, and the coils are burnt out, a 
motor can be made to operate (where there are not more than three coils affected), 
by cutting these coils out entirely and plugging these commutator bars together. 
This is best done by soldering the ears together or putting in a jumper; sometimes 
a hole is drilled between the bars and a brass plug driven in. It should always 
be remembered that where one end of a coil is cut out from a commutator bar, 
the other end of the coil should also be cut where it connects to the symmetrically 
located commutator bar. The distance apart of these two commutator bars will 
depend upon the number of armature coils and the method of winding the arma- 
ture. The armature should not be allowed to run in this way any longer than is 
absolutely necessary, since this armature will take more than its share of the load, 
if worked in parallel with another motor on the equipment, and will lead to exces- 
sive heating which will surely destroy the insulation after a short service. 

Machine wound coils are largely used, and they aie furnished already insu- 
lated with two layers of cotton on the wire, and taped with a double layer of oil 
silk and from 1% to 2 layers of insulating tape, so that their insulation is amply 
reinforced at the weak points in windings. The weakest point in an armature 
body is where the turns leave the slot; if there is any movement at all in'the coil, 
it will wear through or abrade at this point and break down. A combination of 
mica and fibre paper formed into a strip at least as wide as the band or heading, 
should be forced in at this point and project outside of the slot at least % in; the 
coils should be driven down into the slot and protected from the iron tooth at 
these points by this strip of insulation. Complete troughs of micanite are some- 
times used with good results. Paraffin can be used where these coils slip in 
hard. After the first layer of winding is on the armature, the insulation between 
the first and second layers on the commutator end should be several thicknesses 
of canvas and mica. 

DATA ON WESTINGHOUSE MOTORS. 

Westinghouse Motor No. 3.— Speed at full load, 300-350 rev. Eated 
horse-power, 20-25-30. Reduction ratio, 3.45. Gear, 18 teeth on pinion, 62 teeth 
on gear; 4 poles; 4 field coils; 732.4 turnjj, total of 4 coils. Size wire 150 x 1,"0 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



353 



mils square. Armature has 95 slots, 8. conductors per slot; number of bands, 22. 
Commutator bars, 95. Armature bearings : commutator bearing, \% ins. x 4^tins.; 
pinion bearing, 2^£ ins, x 5^3 ins. Weight, 471 lbs. Diameter, 11% ins.; length, 
13^ ins- See Figs. 306 to 308. 

Westing-house Motor No. 13A.— Speed at full load, 505 to 700 rev. 
Rated horse-power, 25 to 30. Reduction ratio, 4.86. Gear, 14 teeth on pinion, 
68 teeth on gear; 4 poles, 4 field coils; 636.4 turns, total of 4 coils. Armature 
has 47 slots, 20 conductors per slot; number of bauds, 14. Commutator bars, 93. 





Figs. 306, 307, 308.— methods of laying on coils on westinghouse no. 3 

aejiatuke. 

Armature bearing, 2^ ins. x 6 ins. Weight, 360 lbs. Diameter, 11% ins. ; length, 
ty 2 ins. See Figs. 309 to 311 for armature windings. For dimensions of this 
motor see Figs. 312, 313. 

. Westinghouse Motor No. 38B.— Speed at full load, 500-525 rev. Rated 
horse-power. 50. Reduction ratio, 4.86. Gear, 14-24 teeth on pinion, 68-58 
teeth on gear; 4 poles; 4 field coils; 380 turns, total of 4 coils. Armature has 
45 slots, 12 conductors per slot; number of bands, 8. Commutator bars, 135. 
Armature bearing, 2% ins. x 6 ins. Weight, 525 lbs. Diameter, 13%ins; length, 





Figs. 



310, 311. — ARMATURE WINDINGS OF WESTINGHOUSE NO. 12A MOTOR. 



8 ins. Armature coils are slung 11 slots. To connect draw a line through arma- 
ture core slot over bottom end of coil and note point on commutator. Including 
this bar count 21 bars to the right and call that bar No. 1. Bottom lead goes in 
No. 1. Top leads goes 69 bars to the left facing commutator from No. 1 counting 
No. 1 the first bar. Bottom leads are connected as winding progresses. 



354 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




/fhofo 



£nd V/£w 
Afose suspension.' 




/IT hot* 



f/v0 View 

fbra//e/ 6ar suspens/o/t 

Figs. 312.— dimensions of westinghouse no. 12a motob. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



355 



Top V/£rt 

Para/tef bar suspension, 




fOff NoS£ 5(/$P£/VS/0/V 
Cross channel bar to support £500 
/bs at each point marked "B." 



ForParalui Bag Svsps/vs/oa 

Cross channef bar to support /500 /to. 
of each point mor treat 'C. " 



Fig. 313.— dimensions of westinghouse no. 12a motor. 



356 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY BAND BOOK'. 







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£s//fr//**G>u*> 


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4-3f 


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4^/af 


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Figs. 314, 315, 316.— dimensions OF westinghouse no. 49 motor. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V ELAND BOOK. 



357 





Dimensions of Key 
l'*r*S"long. 
If for jfto S'shaftt. 



NOT£S 
All ports shown in dot 

and dashf )are to 

be furnished by • truck 
builders. 

The motor is adopted to 
receive an axle of any 
d/ameter from Jg" to 5"; the 
sizes most frequently used 
ore 4" and 4j° and therefore 
gears ond arte bearings for 
these diameters ore con" 
Sidered as stock sizes 



Figs. 317, 318, 319.— dimensions of westinghouse no. 56 



MOTOR. 



358 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Westinghoiise Motor No. 49. — Reduction ratio, 4.86. Gear, 14 'teeth on 
pinion, 68 teeth on gear; 4 poles; 4 field coils. Armature bearings: commutator 
bearing, 2% ins. x 6 ins.; pinion bearing, 2% ins. x 7% ins. Weight, 438 lbs. 
Diameter, 13% ins. ; length, 6^ ins. See Figs. 314 to 316 for sizes of this motor. 

Westinghouse Motor No. 56. — Reduction ratio, 4.86 to 3.56. Gear, 14-18 
teeth on pinion, 68-64 teeth on gear; 4 poles; 4 field coils. Armature bearings ; 
commutator bearing, 3 ins. x 7V 2 ins.; pinion bearing, 3*4 ins. x 8% ins. Weight 
720 lbs. Diameter, 14 ins.; length, 12 ins. See Figs. 317 to 319 for sizes of this 
motor. 

DATA ON GENERAL ELECTRIC MOTORS. 

G. E. 800 Motor.— Rated horse-power, 27. Speed at full load, 530 rev. 
Reduction ratio, 4.78. Gear, 14 teeth on pinion, 67 teeth on gear; 4 poles; 2 field 
coils; 203 turns, total of 2 coils. Armature has 105 slots, 8 conductors per slot; 
number of bands, 5. Commutator bars, 105. Armature bearings : commutator 
bearing, 2\i ins. x4^ ins.; pinion bearing, 2)4 ins. x6 ins. Weight, 635 lbs. 
Diameter of armature, 16 ins.; length, 8 ins. Field wire No. 6 B. & S.; armature 
wire, No. 10 B. & S. 

Armature coils are slung 27 slots. Long leads go to the right 27 bars. *To 
determine bar draw a line through armature core (slot) over top end of coil and 
note point where it strikes commutator. Including this bar count 27 to the right 
and call that bar No. 1. The short lead goes into the commutator 53 bars from 
No. 1 counting to the left facing commutator and counting No. 1 as the first bar. 

G. E. 1000 Motor — Rated horse-power 35. Speed at full load, 500 rev. 
Reduction ratio, 3.94. Gear, 17 teeth on pinion, 67 teeth on gear; 4 poles; 4 field 
coils; 143.5 turns, total of 4 coils. Armature has 93 slots, 8 conductors per slot; ' 
number of bands, 3. Commutator bars, 93. Armature bearings : commutator bear- 
ing, 2% ins. x <o% ins; pinion bearing 3 ins. x 8 ins. Weight 578 lbs. Diameter, 
1A)4 ins.; length, 8% ins. Field wire or conductor, No. 4 B. & S.; armature wire 
or conductor, No. 9 B. & S. 

Armature coils ars slung 24 slots. To connect draw a line through armature 
core (slot) over the top end of coil, and note where the line strikes commutator. 
Including this bar count 12 bars to the right and designate that bar as No. 1. 
Connect short lead to No. 1 bar. Long leads go 47 bar to the left facing commu 
tator counting from No. 1 to the left and counting No. 1 bar as the first bar. 

G. E. 1200 Motor.— Speed at full load, 260 rev. Reduction ratio, 3.53. 
Gear, 17 teeth on pinion, 60 teeth on gear; 4 poles; 2 field coils; 198 turns, total 
of 2 coils. Armature has 105 slots, 8 conductors per slot. Commutator bars, 105. 
Armature bearings; commutator bearing, 3J4 ins. x6 ins.; pinion bearing 3J4 ins. 
x 8 ins. Weight, 963 lbs. Diameter of armature, 16 ins.; length, 13 ins. Field 
wire, flat .045 ins. x .816 ins; armature wire, No. 8 B. & S. Armature winding 
same as G. E. 800. 

G. E. 2000 Motor.— Rated horse-power, 80. Speed at full load, 706 rev. 
Reduction ratio, 3.18. Gear, 17 teeth on pinion, 54 teeth on gear; 4 poles; 2 field 
coils; 84 turns, total of 2 coils. Armature has 141 slots, 2 conductors per slot; 
number of bands, 9. Commutator bars 141. Armature bearings: commutator 
bearing, 334 ins. x 6 ins.; pinion bearing, 3% ins. x 8 ins. Weight, 1450 lbs. 
Diameter of armature, 18J^ ins. ; length, 13J4 ins. Field wire, flat 2 ins. x .060 ins. ; 
armature wire, flat .075 ins. x % in. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



359 



G. E. 51 Motor.— Rated horse-power, 27. Speed at full load, 640 rev. Re- 
duction ratio, 1.74. Gear, 31 teeth on pinion, 54 teeth on gear; 4 poles; 4 field 
coils; 56 turns, total of 4 coils. Armature has 37 slots, 12 conductors per slot; 
number of bands 6. Commutator bars, 111. Armature bearings: commutator 
bearing, 3 ins. x 5% ins.; pinion bearing, 3% ins. x 8^4 ins. Weight, 953 lbs. 
Diameter of armature, 16 ins. ; length, 10.5 ins. Field wire, flat 1J4 ins. x .080 ins. ; 
armature wire, No. 7 B. & S. 




~\ \e£ K-7-g;"— ♦- 14^ H--94" — J 

4Q' BeCweeri [Punished l-iubs-| 

Figs. 320, 321.— dimensions of general electric no. 57a motok. 

G. E. 52 Motor.— Rated horse-power, 52. Speed at full load, 640 rev. Reduc- 
tion ratio, 4.78. Gear, 14 teeth on pinion, 67 teeth on gear; 4 poles; 4 field coils; 
155.5 turns, total of 4 coils, Armature has 29 slots, 24 conductors per slot; number 
of bands, 5. Commutator bars, 87. Armature bearings: commutator bearing, 
2)4 ins. x 6 ins; pinion bearing, 2% ins. x7% ins. Weight, 357 lbs. Diameter,' 
11 ins. ; length, 9 ins, Field wiie, No, g B, & &. 5 armature wife, No. 10 B. & §. 



360 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



G. E. 57 Motor.— Rated horse-power, 20-25. Speed at full load, 470 rev. 
Reduction ratio, 3.72. Gear, 18 teeth on pinion, 67 teeth on gear; 4 poles; 4 field 
coils; 110 turns, total of 4 coils. Armature has 33 slots, 18 conductors per slot; 
number of bands, 6. Commutator bars, 99. Armature bearings : commutator 
bearing, 2% ins. x.6% ins; pinion bearing, 3J4 in s. x 8% ms - Weight 704 lbs. 
Diameter of armature, 14 ins.; length, 12 ins. Field wire, flat .035 ins. x lj 5 6 ins. 
armature wire. No. 9 B. & S; 3 sets of 3 turns each. 

Armature coils are slung 9 slots. Bottom leads, which are put in as the 
winding progresses, are carried 13 bars to the right of core slot that holds bottom 




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Dimensions or unfinished panCs ar*a 

subjecC Co a small var-iaCion. 
* WeignCs of pinion and gear change 
wiCn raCio of gearing. 



We'gnc of TTioCor compieCe wiCnouC axle gear- and case... 2632 UOS 

- XlrmaCur-e and Pinion (16 -CeeCh) 704 - 

- /Ixie Sear(e9CeeCh) j. _„ 200 «• 

- -.Gear Case _«.____«.__._.«;.... «ih«y ,140 * 

Fig. 322.— dimensions op general electric no. 57 motor. 



end of coil. To determine the 13th bar draw a line through armature core (slot) 
close to the left hand side of slot and determine where it strikes the commutator. 
Including this bar count 13 bars to the right and cal. 1 that bar No. 1. Top leads 
go in the commutator 50 bars from No. 1 bar counting to the left facing commu- 
tator and counting No' 1 as the first bar. For sizes of this motor see Figs. 320 
to 322. 

THE CONTROIXER, 

The controller used with a single motor gradually places resistances in 
series with the motor until the latter is directly connected to the trolley wire, 
when the equipment is up to speed. To change the direction of rotation of the 
armature a reversing switch is used, which reverses the connections of either the 
■field or the armature, but not of both. To blow out the arc formed on breaking 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK 



361 



the circuit at the controller, a magnetic field is used with such polarity that it 
tends to deflect away from the- two points on the circuit the arcs thus formed, 
thus sniffing them out. This apparatus is known as a magnetic blow-out. 

With two motors the controller has a more extended combination. Some 
of these are shown in Fig. 323 and 324. It first places the motors and resist- 
ances in series and gradually cuts out the resistance. The next few steps on the 
controller are known as transition steps, during which the motors are placed in 
multiple with the resistances again in series with them. The last steps of the con- 
troller cut the resistances out leaving the two motors in multiple across the line. 
In some forms of controller a further connection is made when the motors are in 
series and multiple only which consists of looping around their fields a resistance, 
thus reducing the current flow through the field coils, weakening the field in 
which the armature rotates and in this way increaseing the speed of the equipment. 

Figs. 323 and 324 show the motor combinations made by some well-known 
K and L controllers. The sizes and dimensions of the G. E. railway controllers 
are given on page 364 and 365. The nomenclature for the different parts of the 
controller is given on page 363. 

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-14998^5 
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— 14993- 

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— 14700- 

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14697 - T464T 
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— 14695? U 14636- ,(4939 - t 

Fig. 325,— series parallel controller. 
The figures refer to parts shown on accompanying cut. 

14,642, cap for top of controller; 14.977, star wheel, with pin, for controlling 
cylinder (must be fitted); 14,682, contact finger; 14.683, single connection clip; 
14.684, double connection clip : 14,983,woodbar f or controlling contact board: 14,922, 
contact tip for controlling cylinder; 14.681, contact base; 14,972, frame, fitted with 
bearing caps and cap screws for controlling and reversing cylinder shafts; 14,974, 
insulation disc for controlling cylinder; 14.701, wood base; 14,630, double switch 
contact; 14.646, hinge bolt, with pin and nut fastening cover to frame; 14,633, 
fulcrum pillar, with pivot, for two wire connection; 14,629. single switch contact; 
14.641, triple switch handle; 14.638, outer switch blade; 14,632, fulcrum pillar, 
with pivot, for one-wire connection; 14,961, water cap and pointer for controlling 
cylinder shaft, with set screw ; 14,648, lock bolt with pin (used in connection with 
check lever for reversing cylinder) ; 14,978, check lever, with roller for controlling 
cylinder; 14,623. check lever, with roller for reversing cylinder; 14,678. water cap 
fbr reversing cylinder shaft, with set screw; 14.635, fulcrum for 14,634; 14,639, 
inner switch blade; 14,695, single switch contact and binding post; 14.921, 
safety stop nut, with pin, for controlling cylinder; 14.698, binding post, 
marked ( ki T"); 14,697, binding post (except that marked "T"); 14,640. double 
switch handle; 14,696, single switch contact and Ions: binding post; 14,636, bent 
cam lever for 14,634; 14.981, safety stop pin for controlling cylinder; 14,963, bracket 
fastening controller to dasher; 14,647, wire guard; 14,939, cap screw, with wrench 
attached, fastening pole piece to magnet core; 14.998, star wheel, with pin, for 
reversing cylinder ; 14,692, short contact for reversing cylinder; 14,693, long con- 
tact for reversing cylinder; 14,687, contact base; 14,688, contact linger; 14,686, 
wood bar for reversing contact board; 13.804, double washer for 13,369; 14,690, 
wood body for reversing cylinder; 14,992, wide strip for arc deflector; 14.993, nar- 
row strip for arc deflectoi ; 14.994, division plate for arc deflector; 14,990, hinge 
pole piece: 14,938, binge joint t'oi pole piece; 14,700, magnet spool, with terminal 
and flexible lead (Form 2); 14,644. hinge joint for cover, with pin and rivets; 14.645, 
slotted lug for cover, with rivets; 14,699, sheet iron cover (Form 2), complete; 
16,922, reversing handle; 16,921, controlling handle, 





364 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK, 





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366 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



CAR WIRING. 

The roof wiring includes the running of the main circuit wire from the trolley 
through both main motor switches, and through a concealed groove in the corner 
post of the car. The size of this wire is given by the different companies for their 
motors. The wire is run to a suitable location for connection to the lightning ar- 
rester and fuse box, also a lamp circuit of No. 16 B. & S. stranded is tapped to wire 
the trolley connection on the roof and carried to the fixture outlets and the end left 
to attach to the ground. Where the wires lie on top of the roof, they should be 
covered by molding which is well painted to exclude any moisture, especially so 
where the wires pass through the roof. Additional protection of a piece of canvas 
under the molding, which has been thoroughly painted with white lead, is neces- 
sary at this point. The molding should be firmly screwed down to the roof and 
well painted. The above wiring should be done, if possible, while the cars are 
being built. 

The floor wiring may be done after the car is completed without injuring the 
finish when the body and truck dimensions of the car are given. The different 
motor companies will furnish a made-up cable having the proper number of wires 
taped together or covered with hose, and of proper length to reach from the con- 
trollers to the motors. A hole should be made in the platform under the controllers 
for the cable to pass through, and in the case of closed cars the cable should pass 
up again underneath the car seats. In the case of open cars all the wiring is done 
under the car body. The cables that pass under the platforms should be supported 
by leather straps attached to the floor or sills. The ground wiring should run 
under the car floor rather than under the seats. 

After the cable is in position the motor taps should project through the sills 
for attachment to the flexible motor leads just far enough to permit an easy con- 
nection, and with as little chance for vibration as possible. The cables should 
never be bent at a sharp angle. The joints should be well soldered, and in the 
case of connecting stranded wires together, the strands should be interwoven 
before soldering; first tape with insulating tape and then put a rubber tape over it 
to secure the first tape in position. Wherever the wires of the car cross each 
other a piece of wood should be secured between the wires, and special protection 
and additional covering should be given the wires where they pass over iron work 
or are exposed to mud and water. 

Wires entering fuse boxes or lightning arresters should be looped down before 
entering, in order to prevent water running along the wire and into the box. All 
wires subject to vibration, sucn as those between car bodies and motors, should be 
of flexible cable, and sufficient slack should be left so that under no condition will 
any strain be thrown on these wires. In the case of swiveling trucks, more slack 
will be necessary. As slack gives great opportunity for abrasion, care should be 
taken to leave only what is absolutely necessary. 

THE MOTORMAN. 

The old saying, that ' k Trifles make perfection, but perfection is no trifle," 
applies to the street railway service as to every other undertaking. It is only by 
giving the best attention possible to every detail in the complicated system that 
perfect resiilts are obtainable, both in economy and efficiency of operation. From 
the general manager to the switchboard tender and the man who fires the boilers, 
each employee has an important part to play, and it is only by a thorough under- 
standing of his duties that he can render effective service. It is for the purpose of 
giving a few practical suggestions to the motormen that this section has been 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 367 



compiled, in which no technical terms have been used but such as any person of 
average intelligence can easily grasp. 

The object of chief concern to the motorman is the controller, for, if he can 
perfectly manage that, he may be said to understand a large part of his work. 
When the car is standing still, the controlling handle should be at " off " position. 
If the car is to be taken out of the car house, where it has been standing with the 
trolley off. put on the trolley wheel and place the handles on the controlling stand. 

To start the car, see that the brakes are off, the canopy switches closed ; then 
move the controller handle to the first notch. After the car is well started, move to 
the second notch, and after a short time to the third, and so on to the last. Don't 
stop the handle between notches, and don't move it too slowly. On the other 
hand, do not move too rapidly from the first notch to the second. Always wait for 
the car to get up to the speed corresponding to the notch the controller handle is 
on before going to the next notch, otherwise more current will be used than is 
necessary. 

In shutting off the current the handle may be moved around as rapidly as de- 
sired to -'off" from whatever position it may happen to be on. When stopping at 
Any point, the reverse lever is sometimes used to make the car go backwards. 
Never reverse while the car is running, unless to avoid an accident. But if it is 
absolutely necessary to stop the car quickly, pull the brake on with the right 
hand and shut off the current with the left at the same time; then, with the right 
hand free, throw the reverse lever and turn on a very little current. If too much 
current is turned on, the wheels will lose their adhesion to the rails and spin back- 
wards, which will increase the minmum distance in which the car may be possibly 
stopped. 

Sometimes a very violent stop must be made, when the brakes fail, possibly, 
or the trolley comes off, in which case reverse and put the controller handle on the 
highest point of the controller. This causes an interaction between the motors 
which brings them to a standstill. It may damage the apparatus, however, and 
should only be used in rare emergencies ; this method is only available when two 
motors are on the car. 

When approaching curves or turnouts the power should be turned off, apply- 
ing such power upon reaching the curves as may be necessary to carry the car 
easily around. The conductor should be on the rear platform with the trolley rope 
in his hand, ready to give the signal in case the trolley jumps the wire, in which 
case the motorman should move the controller handle to " off" until he is notified 
to go ahead. The motorman should never stop on curves unless absolutely 
necessary. 

In running down grades, always have the trolley on the wire, the controller 
handle at "off ", and the brake arranged so that it can be applied instantly. Be- 
fore going down a steep grade slow up the car, and set the brakes gradually. If 
the wheels slide, loosen the brakes to allow them to get hold of the track; then 
apply the brakes again. If the brakes then fail, reverse the motors. If, in the 
meantime, the trolley has left the wire, so that there is no power, reverse and 
throw the controller handle to the last notch, which will make the car come to a 
standstill. 

In running up heavy grades, get the car up to speed, if possible, before reach- 
ing the grade so that it will not require so much current to climb up. If the car is 
started while on a heavy grade, it will require a very large amount of current. 
Whether to climb these grades in series or parallel positions is a question on 
which instructions are given in each individual case. If the wheels slip on the 
rails, the sand bos can often be used to advantage; but always be sure, especially 



368 ELECTRIC FA TL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



in wet weather, that the sand is dry. Do not nse the sand too freely, as you may 
run short just when it is needed most. 

If the power gives out, notice if the other cars experience the same trouble, as 
it may be due to an open circuit on the line; if so, throw the controller handle to 
"off,'" close the lamp circuit and wait until the lamps light up. 

If, when the lamps light up, the equipment will not move with the controller 
handle on the first point, the motorman should first look to see whether his fuse 
has blown or burnt out; if so, open the head switch, or, better yet, tie down the 
trolley pole and replace the fuse. 

If the fuse has not blown, the rails may be dirty and the car insulated from 
the rails. In this case have the conductor jam the switch-bar between the wheel 
and rail, while the motorman starts the car. 

In rare instances there is a case of dead rail. A length of wire should be 
kept in the car where possible, and one end placed on the rail back of the car 
towards the power station, and one on any exposed part of the iron truck. 
Always place the end on the rail first, otherwise a shock will be received. 

In case, as the car goes along, a peculiar jumping action occurs, known as the 
bucking of motors, the motor affected should be cut out by means of the motor 
switches in the controller. Instructions are given the motorman how the motors 
are, cut out on each different type of controller. For remedies for more trouble- 
some accidents see " The Inspector " below. 

After bringing the car into the car house have the controller at " off," take off 
the controller handles, pull down the trolley and tie it a few inches below the 
trolley wire. 

THE INSPECTOR. 

Sparking at Commutator.— Natural sparking will be caused by overload- 
ing of motor, or by burnt-out fields ; by the shifting of brush-holder in street 
railway motors, by not having the brush-holder yoke so as to be at equal distance 
from the commutator on the two sides, or where there are several brushes on one 
arm or holder by their not being in alignment. The most prevalent causes 
of sparking in street railway motors are weak brush springs, or a brush worn too 
short to receive pressure from the spring. Since bmshes vary in size they some- 
times fit tightly in the holder and will produce sparking or flashing when worn 
away from contact with the commutator. The number of bars apart brushes 
should be set on any commutator is the total number of commutator bars divided 
by the number of poles. Subtract from this the number of bars covered by one 
brush which' gives the commutator's bars between brushes. A commutator in 
proper order should have a dark bronze color, without any biting away of copper 
at the mica insulation. Where two brushes are used, both should wear down uni- 
formly. No two brushes should be used in the same brush-holder without being 
separated by a solid dividing piece between them, and with separate springs to 
each brush, or they will wear a hollow in the center of the commutator surface. 

In street car motors with a roughened commutator the brushes are taken out 
in some cases, and with a two motor equipment this motor is cut out at the con- 
troller. A piece of wood provided with a handle (see Fig. 326), and having a 
curved surface, forms a useful device for smoothing. It is as wide as the 
commutator, and across the top a clamp to hold sand-paper is screwed down 
by a screw in the handle. The ends are turned over and securely held. No. 1 or 00 
is used as required. While holding this in contact with the commutator the 
car is run up and down the track until the commutator shows a polish. If the 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAA T D BOOK. 369 



commutator polishing block is made shorter, the commutator can be polished with 
the motor operating the car. Some companies use a hollow stone made from a 
medium hard grindstone, hollowed out to fit the commutator surface, instead of 
saud paper. Emery is objected to for polishing commutators for the reason that it 
is so sharp that it buries into the copper as a matrix, and in turn grinds the brushes. 
Commutators that are out of line, or have high or low bars or bad flats, are best 
repaired by turning in a lathe on centers, taking as light a cut as possible in order 
to bring the commutator concentric again. Use a diamond pointed tool, and 
where the cut is rough lubricate the tool with a thick solution of soap and water. 




Fig. 326.— commutator polisher. 



It is the practice where the brush wear does not come to the end of the commuta- 
tor, to leave a small ridge around the commutator at the end next the bearing to 
further prevent flashing to commutator by oil and carbon dust adhering to the 
insulating ring at the end of the commutator. A bluish oxide on a commutator 
shows excessive heating, and the cause should be located. 

The commutator will show a bar burnt lower than the adjacent commutator 
bars when there is a short circuit between adjacent windings connected to that 
bar, the biting into the commutator will continue back in the direction of rota- 
tion. Where this condition is allowed to continue the commutator will come in 
hot, and the contact surfaces of the brushes will be black and scarred when they 
should have a bright plumbago appearance. For locating trouble see armature 
tests. 

Commutators, with every other bar blackened, are found in certain types of 
winding used on railway motors where there are practically two separate windings 
side by side connecting to alternate commutator bars, and the blackening of every 
alternate bar is caused generally by a greater difference of potential between ad- 
jacent bars under commutation. An open lead to a commutator bar causes 
flashing: when that bar passes under the brushes. An open coil on an armature 
will show a bad bar even where this coil is connected in around the armature. 
The equipment continues to operate until the flashing becomes so bad as to 
break the commutator to ground, or burn through the head of the armature. For 
this reason armatures are now headed with several layers of asbestos paper under 
the canvas cover to prevent flashing to ground before the inspector discovers the 
trouble. The grounding of the armature turns produces a short circuit be- 
tween the trolley wire and rail, which, under this condition, has a sudden 
braking action, commonly known as " bucking." When this happens the motor 
is cut out at the controller and the equipment operated on one motor until it 
gets to the repair shop. 

The efficiency of the inspector can be readily determined by an examination of 
the commutators on the equipments he has in charge, allowance being made for 
some motors which require great care to keep the commutators iu good shape, 



370 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Poor potential delivery and dirty tracks also increase the current flow through the 
motors, heating and burning the commutator surface, which should be glazed. 
There is a class of dull, steady sparking which leaves dirty black commutators, 
Which is generally attributed to too soft or poor brushes. In new equipments 
where the mica segments of the commutator have been built up with too much 
shellac, the heating of the commutator works it out, also causing it to carbonize 
on the surfaces of the commutator. This will continue until all surplus shellac 
has worked out. Commutators afflicted with this trouble will show ridges of 
shellac forced out over the mica insulation between bars. In the morning when 
the commutator has cooled down, only two or three bars will occasionally show 
it, especially where the commutator has been repaired and shellac used too liber- 
ally in the mica insulation between the new bars. (For proper construction see 
repair shop practices). Too soft a brush will produce the same effect on the 
commutator surface but on feeling the surface with the thumb nail slight ridges. 
of mica will be felt between the bars. Try the brush with a knifeblade ; a brush 
should not be shaved nor penetrated, if the brush is of the proper hardness and 
the carbon should come off in small granular pieces. This is also true of a brush 
that is too hard. A hard brush will give with regular brush tension a bright 



^22 



Fig. 327.— examples of commutator wear. 



metal and splintered torn surface to the commutator ; and if the brush is uni- 
formly too hard, signs of copper dust will be seen around the interior of the 
motor case. If rings of bright copper show around the commutator the brush 
may have hard spots ; in this case take out the brushes and see if the contact sur- 
face shows a corresponding bright spot ; if this spot is found to be harder than 
the adjacent carbon by penetrating with point of a knife, the trouble is located. A 
commutator without lubrication will show the same surface as that produced by 
too hard a brush. Use the best quality of vaselene on a small rag, and use spar- 
ingly. Oil is used, and, income cases, axle grease, for labor saving reasons but 
not to the best interests of the commutator. A brush that is too hard but of uni- 
form density, as well as brushes that squeak, can be improved by dropping them 
in hot paraffin; but be sure and heat the brush just before dipping, otherwise the 
treatment will be superficial. Hot, heavy lubricating mineral oil is also used 
instead of the paraffin. 

It is the custom on some roads for the inspector to change brushes every night 
on all motors, which insures the inspection of every motor. Brush inspection will 
show a number of things. A brush that shows pitting on its side (see Fig. 327) 
indicates bad contact with a weak brush spring, requiring the brush to receive cur- 
rent from the sides of the holder and chattering and arcing between the holder sides 
and the brush ; a place broken out of the brush where the brush spring rests 
shows a weakness and a variation here, causing arcing and wearing away of the 
brush. The commutator contact surfaces of the brush which show a ridge down 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 371 



their length, on both sides of which is a commutator surface, indicates a brush too 
narrow for the brush holder, as the commutator has worn it to one surface in 
going in one direction and made another surface in going in the opposite direc- 
tion due to the change in position of the brush with the movement of the commu- 
tator. A brush with burnt corners indicates sparking at the commutator ; 
a brush tapering toward the contact surface, as shown, indicates exces- 
sive heating of the commutator or brush due to poor contacts. Brush springs may- 
give good results until they become heated from some cause, when they lose their 
elasticity. Phosphor bronze springs show the least effect from this cause; 



SECTION IX -THE OPERATION 



Schedule and Speeds.— It is usual to lay out schedules on crOss-sectiort 
paper, taking the longitudinal ordinates for the distances, and the verticals for the 
time, as shown in Fig. 328. In this way the routes for cars can be obtained, and 
their crossing points determined. This method is also used for locating the posi- 
tion of switches in single track construction. 

In the matter of speeds, the grades and the time consumed on grades is an im- 
portant element in laying out switching points, or intersecting points, for the 
cars. Data regarding this can be found under -'Line Construction, 1 ' or the grades 



Number of Revolutions Per 


Mile for Driving Wheels 


of Different 








Diameters. 






Diameter of 




Revolutions Diameter of 


Revolutions 


Wheel. 




per Mile 


Wheel 




per Mile. 


18 ins 




1,116 


36 ins 




558 


20 " 




1,005 

914 


38 " 




529 


22 " 




40 " 




502 


23 " 




874 


42 " 




480 


24 " 




837 


44 lt 




457 


26 " 




773 


46 " 




437 


28 " 




718 


48 " 
50 " 
60 ' : 




420 


30 " 




672 




402 

336 


32 " 




628 


33 " 




609 

Speed 


72 " 
of Electric Cars. 




279 


1 mile per 


hour. 


88 feet per minute. 


1.466 feet 


per second. 


2 " 


" 


176 


.t 


' " 


2.933 " 


it ii 


3 *« 


" 


264 


" 


t ii 


4.4 


ti tt 


4 » 


" 


352 


tt t 


i u 


5.866 " 


it it 


5 " 


(( 


440 


" ' 


t tl 


7.333 " 


it tt 


6 " 


" 


528 


tl I 


i ti 


8.8 » 


«t tt 


n it tt 


" 


616 


It < 


t l( 


10.266 " 


tt it 


8 " 


11 


704 


" " " 


11.733 " 


.t 8 , 


9 " 


" 


792 


" " 


13.2 


ti M 


10 " 


" 


880 


11 (( 


14.666 " 


It It 


11 " 


It 


968 


(( ll 


16.133 " 


11 tl 


12 " 


" 


1056 


" " 


17.6 


ti it 


13 " " 


(( 


1144 


ll t (I 


19.066 " 


l< tt 


14 " 


" 


1232 


'I t 


20.533 " 


it It 


15 " 


" 


1320 




22. " 


tt II 


20 " 


" 


1760 


" « 




29.333 " 


It tl 


25 " 


" 


2200 


" ' 




36.666 " 


tl tt 


30 " 


»• 


2640 


" ' 




43.998 " 


tl ll 


35 " 


" 


3080 


" ' 




51.331 " 


ll ll 


40 " 


" 


3520 


tt i 




58.666 ll 


u ll 


45 " 


" 


3960 


" ' 




65.997 " 


" " 


50 " 


" 


4400 


" ' 




73.332 " 


it it 


55 " 


•• 


4840 


(( i 




80.663 " 


tl Ii 


GO " 




5280 




87.996 " 


CI tl 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



373 



(AVERAGE SPEED 10 MILES PER HOUR) 
DISTANCE IN MILES 
2 3 



5 

~ 50'CL0Cfc 




Fig. 328.— schedule diagkam. 



i74 ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



and speeds maintained by equipments ; or tests can be made on equivalent equip- 
ments in order to find the grade constants. It will be found by testing a car on 
several different grades that a relation can be established between the speed 
obtained and. the square of rise in feet per second of the car body which will be 
approximately a constant and can be applied to determine speeds on any other 
grades. The switching points will not be altered by increasing or decreasing the 
speed of all equipments, if their grade constants are the same. 

Signal Systems.- -In signaling on single track roads, it is important, in 
order not to delay the schedule, that a car arriving at a turn-out can maintain the 
block ahead clear, and clear the block behind it. A number of methods have been 
used for this purpose, both manual and mechanical. The principal manual 
method is known as the Ramsey System. This consists of a signal box at each 
turn-out, and a single line wire between the turn-outs, with two lamps in one box 
and three lamps in the other. Each signal box is provided with two handles, one 
for the block ahead and one for the block behind, which throws the lamps either 
to ground or to line. It can be readily seen that a motorman, on arriving at the 
turn-out, can cut the lamps out behind it by throwing the switch to ground, or to 
the same polarity as the switch at the turn-out back of it, and block the line ahead 
by throwing the switch so as to light the lamps in the signa/ box. If the lamps 
are already lighted in the signal box, it shows that the section ahead is already 
blocked. 

To introduce a signal system of this character on a railroad is a safeguard in 
operation, and also has great legal weight in case of accident, as it shows an inten- 
tion on the part of the operator to maintain a system of safety devices for the pre- 
vention of collisions. Several law suits for damages occurring where this S3-stem 
has been in vogue have been decided against the plaintiff, since it was shown that 
the motorman ran against his signals and took chances, the plaintiff being the 
employee in these cases. 

The merit of a manual system is that its operation is always inspected. The 
rules for operating the road with a manual system should include a clause requir- 
ing the reporting of any inoperative signal on the road, so that they will be main- 
tained by a rigid system of inspection. 

There are a number of automatic signals which are operated by the trolley 
throwing the switch, or auxiliary contacts operated by the trolley wheel, to block 
the road ahead and unblock the road behind the car. These are now being tried 
extensively on several roads, but in steam railroad practice it is found that in 
order to ensure reliable results signal systems should be under manual control. 
Steam railroad experience does not point out the possibility of an automatic 
device being always reliable, and it is subject to the criticism of all automatic 
devices that their failure to operate is not observed until after an accident. 

Telephone systems have been used in connection with the single track road. 
The telephone system can be installed, with telephone boxes along the route, gen- 
erally at the point of turn-out, and the selective system used. Another method is 
to ran two parallel telephone wires along the road connecting the telephone 
to these wires by means of double hooks, either one hook above the other or a 
double-pronged hook introduced between the two telephone wires. In these sys- 
tems the double return should always be used in order to cut out induction ; and 
where there is any trouble from this cause, the wire should be transposed every 
thousand feet. Hard-drawn copper wire makes the best wire for this construe- 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 375 



Examination of the Motoruieii.-In examining the motormen for pro- 
ficiency, special questions should be asked, to draw out the emergency methods in 
use on the road, especially the use of the motors as brakes and when to reverse 
them. Questions should be asked bearing on points of the road where special 
attention is required at crossings or where there are special grades to be 
descended. The following list of questions give those generally used for exam- 
ination of the motormen : 

Having been assigned a car by the foreman of your division, what should be 
your first duty before taking the same out of the shed? 

Who is supposed to have charge of the car? 

What are your duties as motorman from the time you take charge of the car 
until the time you turn the same in, or deliver the car to your relief man? 

What are your duties with reference to running over railroad crossings, frogs 
and switches? 

How would you cross railroad crossings, cross-overs, frogs and switches (with 
the brake set or released) ? 

What are your duties with reference to handling your car on a down grade? 

In running through water what would be the most advantageous method in 
which to operate the motors ? 

What are your duties in case your car gets beyond your control in going down 
a grade? 

In case your car wheels slip in making a grade, what method should you 
apply to obviate same? 

What are your duties respecting starting up in case power is shut off ? 

Under what circumstances are you permitted to reverse your motors? 

In case it becomes necessary to reverse the motors, what is your first duty? 

In what manner would you replace a fuse ? 

In case a second fuse blows on being put in, what is your duty? 

If a controller acts badly, or other electrical troubles present themselves and 
either motor becomes uncontrollable, what means would you take to ascertain 
or locate same? 

What are your duties in respect to occupation of your time while the car is 
on the stand? 

What would you do in case your controller becomes unmanageable with the 
current on and set, and you are not able to turn cylinder to a backward or for- 
ward position ? 

Where are the contact switches located for the purpose of cutting out motors 
on various types of controllers ? 

To what extent is the motorman responsible for the operation of the car? 

Under what circumstances are you permitted to pass persons desiring to 
board your car. 

In passing persons desiring to board your car, what is your duty? 

When approaching a car on opposite track that has been brought to a stop, . 
what is your duty? 

Why should you reduce the speed of car on approaching a switch point? 

Why should the car clear the cross street before bringing the same to a stop? 

Should your car be derailed or from any cause blockade the crossing of a 
steam railroad, what would be your first duty ? 

Why should you ring the gong when a vehicle is ahead of your car and along 
side of the track? 

What do you consider the most economical method of operating the controller 
handle ? 



376 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Explain the path of the current from the time of leaving the generator at the 
power house to its return thereto. 

Why should the trolley never be pulled down whilst the current is applied? 

Under what circumstances would you operate your car faster than time points 
named on time table ? 

In what condition must your car be left in the car shed? 

What is your duty should you find the trolley wire down? 

Do you consider it more important to get away as quickly as possible in the 
event of accidents in order to maintain your car on time, or to remain and render 
all assistance possible? 

Before bringing the car to a stop on an up grade with a slippery rail, when 
would you begin dropping sand? 

Before making a stop on slippery rail, how should sand be used to prevent 
flat wheels? 

Should sand be used on a dry rail? 

Should sand be used on a clean, wet rail ? 

Can a car be brought to a stop in the same distance undei all conditions of the 
rail? 

In what distance would you bring your car to a stop on a level, or slightly 
down grade, car being operated at a rate of 10 miles per hour, condition of track 
dry, and rail clean ? 

What is your duty with respect to the rail ah£ad of your car ? 

In case a car does not start after stopping on a dirty rail, what means would 
you take in overcoming same ? 

In what position should your controller handle be with respect to the motors, 
running down grade ? 

If any electrical trouble presents itself with the motors and then cannot be 
controlled by the controller, what effort would you put forth in checking same ? 

In what manner should you handle your controller in building up the motors 
to full speed ? 

What are your duties with reference to brakes before bringing up the motors 
to full speed ? 

What is your duty to avoid further destruction when a ring of fire passing 
around a commutator presents itself ? 

Name the two chief requirements of motormen ? 

Why should a sharp lookout be maintained at all times on the rail when the 
car is in motion ? 

What tools and appliances should motormen have on the car at all times ? 

What are the bell signals ? 

Why are motormen and conductors not allowed to enter a car in the car shed 
other than the car assigned to them ? 

The Handling of the Controller.— The question of the proper handling 
of the controller is one in which grades, the weight of equipment, motors and 
controller, all enter. It is the usual practice to instruct motormen to handle their 
controller, so as to get the equipment up to full speed in a certain time ; but they 
should be fully instructed to realize the difference between the time when they 
are operating near the power station, or at the end of the line, where the voltage 
drop is greater. In this case the acceleration is slower, and to turn the controller 
on too fast will increase the drop on the line and decrease the acceleration of the 
motor. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



311 



In climbing grades the question arises whether the motor should be in multi- 
ple or in series. This depends largely on the location of the car with respect to 
the potential delivery to the trolley at this point. If the voltage drop is consider- 
able, with the motors in multiple, the series position will be found more economi- 
cal, and the available energy for the equipment greater. It has been proven 
beyond a doubt that the proper handling of the controller will save as much as 20 
per cent, in the coal bill. The curves (Fig. 329) herewith show some data obtained 




-t s » i» a- 

FlG. 329.— CURVES SHOWING ADVANTAGE OP USING CONTROLLER CORRECTLY. 



from the Chicago Street Railway, showing the difference in power consumption 
between a rapid start and a slow start. 

Repair Shop Operation.— On many roads the labor in the repair shop has 
been put on a piece-work basis, and improvements in the cost of maintenance 
have been obtained by this method of working, The following division has been 
used by a large repair shop, a price being fixed for each operation. These prices 
are, for obvious reasons, omitted. 

Piece Work Price List for Motor Shop, 

Controllers. 
General overhauling includes 
Taking out and replacing drum. 
Taking out and replacing wipers (II). 
Taking out and replacing springs (II). 
Taking out and replacing caps. 
Straightening bent cover. 
Replacing worn out handles. 



378 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



Blowing out and inspection of connections in controller, canopy-switch, fuse 
box and cut-out box. 

Exchange drum. 

Exchange reverse. 

Exchange top (cast iron). 

Exchange pawl (in addition to price of exchange drum). 

Exchange foot (in addition to price of exchange back). 

Exchange back. 

Exchange blow magnet coil. 

Exchange and fitting broken cover. 

Replacing and adjusting wiper. 
- Replacing and adjusting back-spring. 
Armatures and Fields. 

Replacing armature. 

Replacing field coils (each). 

Replacing and adjusting brush holder and brushes (included in replacing and 
inspecting armature clearance). 

Replacing and adjusting brush holder yoke. 

Replacing brush spring. 

Replacing connecting board. 

Replacing dust pan or cover. 
Inspection. 

Inspecting wheels (each). 

Inspecting trolley. 

Inspection of armature clearance, blowing out and painting. 
Bearings. 

Replacing armature bearings. 

Fitting bearings on exchanged armature (each). 

Fitting axle bearings (new, each). 

Axle bearing wick. 

Trolley. 

Replacing worn out wheel and spindle. 

Replacing worn out rope. 

Replacing pole. 

Straightening pole. 

Replacing base. 

Replacing canopy switch. 

Replacing canopy switch handle. 

Replacing fuse box. 

Replacing fuse box plug. 

Replacing cut-out box. 

Replacing cut-out box plug. 

Replacing three light cluster and lamps. 

Replacing single socket and lamp. 

Replacing lamp switch and plug. 

Replacing pinion (arm in place). 

Replacing gear (under car). 

One-half gear case taken down and replaced (included in inspecting armature 
clearance.) 

Replacing gear pan (whole). 

Putting gear on axle when removing from car. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 379 



Miscellaneous Electric. 

Replacing motor. 

Replacing motor frame. 

Making screw connection. 

Making soldered connection. 

Replacing diverter. 

Replacing diverter spool. 

Cables (under car). 

Stripping frame. 

Assembling frame. 

Cleaning and painting. 

Replacing motor with motor lift (as distinguished from same operation, re- 
placing motor, performed with crane). 

Equipment Records.— There are a number of methods of keeping equip- 
ment records. Some roads have a card catalogue, each card representing a car 
between certain dates, on which are printed the different car parts, with blanks 
left for remarks for the date and character of repairs. From these dates can be 
computed the life of the car wheels, trolley wheels, controllers and motors. This 
card can be made as large as 6 ins. x 8 ins., and on the bottom of if are remarks 
with room for dates when the car came into the repair shop. The mileage of the 
car is also entered. In this way a complete record of the equipment is obtained, 
from which can be computed the cost per year for repairs on the car. From these 
records the cost of maintenance for the different types of equipments, including 
trucks, motors, trolley stands and wheels, and controllers, can also be determined. 

Power Station Records.— If careful data is kept on the power station oper- 
ation, which includes the item of coal burnt per day aud (if it is found economical 
to divide this to shifts) of coal burnt on each shift, the watts produced for each 
shift and the water evaporated can be determined. For the purpose of finding the 
water evaporated, it is well to have an individual water meter for each set of 
boilers as well as the main meter, to be read for each shift. From this data of 
the individual meters, and from the effective heating surface the equivalent 
evaporative efficiency of the boilers can be found. If their cleaning has been 
neglected it can be ascertained from these individual water meter records. 

In regard to the generators it has been customary in large units to have a 
wattmeter for each machine, in order that the output for each unit per day can be 
determined. Where there is any difference in the character of the units, by com- 
paring tests (covering a period of a number of days) the efficiency of these differ- 
ent units can be discovered, with respect to the pounds of water and watts output. 
By carefully noting these records and laying them out carefully in curve 
diagrams, very often leaky valves or undue frictions can be discovered. A more 
extensive record form is given on page 84, under " Boiler Room Tests." 

Cost of Power.— In the purchase of power by a railway, there are two 
methods employed: one, by the car mile, aud one by the kilowatt hour. The 
car mile basis is generally figured on an equivalent of 1.2 to 1.8 kilowatt hours to 
a car mile. The cost of power production for small roads is generally estimated 
on the basis of a car day, as the rate per car mile to cover the fixed charges against 
a small power production of this kind would be too high. 

f In heating, the beating current is taken from 15 per cent to 20 per cent in 
excess of the operating current. The car basis is fixed on a single truck, standard 
car body of the type used for the road. It is found that a double truck car does. 



380 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK 



not increase the watts per car mile, within a car-hody weight not exceeding three 
tons, over the single-truck car-body weight. 

Lighting is generally included under the car mile basis. On the car mile 
basis the line losses and ground return losses are against the power producer. 
On the kilowatt hour basis the line losses, or drops external to the equipment, 
increase the kilowatts per car mile in two ways; one, by the actual line losses 
and the other by the inefficiency of the equipment, due to low potentials in equip- 
ment operation. On the kilowatt hour basis more copper and better bonding 
will often show a lucrative investment, but on the car mile basis it does not affect 
the cost of operation. 

Electric and air brakes, both increase the consumption per car mile, the 
electric brake from using the motor at high temperatures, which tends to increase 
the C 2 R losses, and the axle driven and electric air brake, on account of the 
consumption of power for the compression of air. 

Charges for power can only be fixed when the conditions are known, which 
involve the number of equipments operated, the character of track, line drops, 
and power station investment necessary to maintain the potential on the line. 



Appendix I — Storage Batteries and Boosters, 



THE STORAGE BATTERY. 

The storage battery in railway work has several important functions. Among 
the advantages obtained from its use are the relief of overloads, a greater econ- 
omy of steam in the engine and the saving of copper by the installation of storage 
battery substations. 

It is often desirable for the relief of overloads to install a storage battery on 
roads having short heavy grades, especially where a number of equipments 
mount the grade at the same time. This happens when the situation of the 
center of population is in a valley and the surrounding suburbs are on the hills. 
Among the first storage battery installations of this class of work was one made 
in Easton, Pa., where this condition was very marked, the town of Easton lying 
at the bottom of hills and all the railways having to mount a grade. As the cars 
met in the town square near the lowest part they all had to mount the grade 
simultaneously, biinging the average load of 500 amps, up to 1200 amps, for five 
minutes. A storage battery was installed, which reduced the overload on the 
engine, and made it possible to shut down several of the units which were oper- 
ating only for this five-minute demand; and the steam economy, operation and 
regulation of the station were all improved. 

The losses in an engine only partly loaded are large and to run an engine 
nearer its maximum load increases rapidly the efficiency of the units, for the 
battery can charge and discharge by means of the regulating booster and main- 
tain the line potential, the battery making up the deficiency of the generator and 
charging when the generator is below its normal output. The economy of steam 
in the engine naturally follows the averaging of the load on the dynamos. The 
cost of a storage battery investment should be figured as follows: Ascertain the 
coal saved on account of increased economy and the interest on the investment 
on the engine to do equivalent work, the oil and depreciation on the engine 
plant being also included. These items collectively should equal the interest on 
the cost of the storage battery; its depreciation should betaken at about 10 per 
cent for railway work, especially where heavy demands are to be encountered, 
and maintenance should also be charged against the battery. It is fair to assume 
that the storage battery is profitable when its cost is equal to the cost of an engine 
plant, for the advantages it offers of regulation and the ability to shut down the 
steam plant, and the lighting of the car houses, when no cars are in operation, 
are in its favor. 

Where the storage battery is used for the saving of copper, the terms entering 
into the calculation of the economy are cost of copper and the interest charged 
against this investment against which should be placed the cost of battery in- 
stallation and its depreciation. A battery installed for copper economy will only 
show a profit when the battery is located in a substation at a distant point from 
the station. The economy in transmission would be the cost of the watts lost for 



382 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



the load delivered per annum over a copper distributing system sufficient to give 
proper potential delivery to the equipment, less the cost of watts lost for charging 
through the transmission line. The difference between these two transmission 



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.—SWITCHBOARD CONNECTIONS OF STORAGE 
WITHOUT BOOSTER. 



BATTERY TO RAILWAY 



efficiencies should make a profitable showing in favor of the storage battery 
installation. 

The battery should be connected together by „ead terminals burnt to leaded 
bus bars, and all copper bus bar work should be lead-coated. Where copper bus 
bars are clamped together it is advisable to amalgamate the surfaces in contact 
and draw up by bolts also lead coated. 




Off/YEAf 



Fig. 331. — diagram showing connections of differential booster and 
storage battery, 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOR'. 



383 



In regard to the switchboard connections Fig. 330 shows the method of con- 
necting the storage battery across the railway generator. In order to regulate 
properly for the variations of ioad that occur on the railway generator a booster 
is connected as shown in Fig. 331. Here the booster is so adjusted that it 
charges when the generator is above a fixed potential, and discharges when the 
potential falls below it. The booster has a series field through which the main 
battery current flows; opposed to this field is a shunt field which works differ- 
entially against the series field, so that this booster compensates for the high 
potential required in charging and the low potential of discharge. 

















































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Fig. 332.— effect on railway loads of storage battery. 



3S4 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




Fig. 333.— switchboard connections eor storage battery, booster and 
generator. 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK'. 385 



The curve, Fig. 332, shows the effect on the generator operating in multiple 
with a booster and storage battery, the compensation for the fluctuation of 
current demand and also the fluctuations on the engine and generator alone. 

Fig. 333 shows the switchboard connections and arrangement of instruments 
and circuit breakers; it has cell regulation which is not now used in street rail- 
way work, the differential booster automatically regulating the charging and 
discharging of the battery. The booster is preferably driven by a 500-volt motor 
coupled direct, but may be belted or direct-connected to an engine. 

TYPES OF BATTERIES, 

There are several different methods employed in the construction of a storage 
battery. One is the paste method, which is used by the Chloride Accumulator 
Company. Here a sheet of lead has on its surface small rectangular cells into 
which is forced the active material. This battery by charging and discharging is 
readily ' s formed " for use. 

Another type of storage battery which is used in railway work is manufac 
tured by the Gould Storage 'Battery Company. In it a plain sheet of lead is 
grooved by rotary knives so that the lead is forced up between the knives and 
form ribs and corresponding grooves. These ribs vary in width from .008 to .024 
of an inch. There are about 450 sq. ins. active surface per pound of plate, and 
186 sq. ins. per cubic inch, while the ratio of the contact -surfaces to superficial 
area is as great as Yiy» to 1. 

The active material is formed in the interstices of these ribs by electrolytic 
processes. From tests on these plates it is shown that they are capable of main- 
taining a high electro-motive force with discharges at high rates, which is an 
advantage to be considered in railway work. The plates for railway work are 
15J^ ins. x 15^ ins. divided into 16 ribbed plates which are formed out of a 
homogeneous sheet of lead. 

DATA ON STORAGE BATTERY INSTALLATIONS. 

The Buffalo Railway Company, Buffalo, N. Y.: Capacity of battery, 1200 
hp-hours, 250 amps.; consists of 270 cells all in series, with 41 plates to each cell, 
the size of the plates being 15^ ins. x 15^ ins. The positive plate weighs 24 
lbs., the negative, 16 lbs. each. Outside dimension of tank, 59% ins. x 21^ x 
24% ins., with room in tanks to increase the capacity two-thirds. 

The Lansing Street Railway Company, Lansing, Mich. : 240 cells of 9 plates 
each, logins, x logins., and room in jars for 13 plates. Capacity, 320 amp.- 
hours at 8 hour discharge rate. This battery was used at the end of the line, and 
will run from about 25 to 50 amps, on average charge, and maximum discharge of 
200 amps, with a machine variation of about 25 amps, maximum. The battery is 
located in a power house about a mile and a half from the generating station. 

Battery Installation and Attendance. 

The acid when put into the cells should have a specific gravity of 1180 degs. 
to 1190 degs. 

The charge should then at once be commenced at about half the normal rate. 
After charging at this rate for a short time and it is determined that all connec- 
tions are well made, the rate should be raised to the normal and continuted for 
about 20 consecutive hours or until the potential of each cell reaches 2.5 volts and 
all the cells are gassing freely from both positive and negative plates. The 
specific gravity of the electrolyte which fell shortly after the cells were filled, 
should now have reached at least 1200 degs. At this point the charging rate should 



386 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



be reduced to one-half the normal and continued until the electromotive force of 
each cell has again reached 2.5 volts. 

The regular service of the battery may now be commenced. On the subse- 
quent charges to the number of five, the cells should be brought up to 2.6 volts 
per cell at the normal rate or preferably 2.5 at half that. 

When the battery is in use as a regulator enough generator capacity must be 
carried to meet a little more than the average demand of the load, and the bus 
voltage must be kept up to the average. That is, the battery must charge a little 
more than it discharges. 

The battery will regulate best when about 75 per cent full. The individual 
cell voltage will then be about 2.08 volts. The specific gravity should be be- 
tween 1190 degs. and 1200 degs. 

In its work as a regulator the battery should not discharge at a higher rate 
than specified by the maun facturers, nor should any individual cell at any time read 
lower than 1.8 volts when discharging at the normal rate. The battery must never 
stand discharged, but must be thoroughly charged on reaching the above point. 

A full charge should be given the battery once a week, when all the cells 
should be individually tested with low reading voltmeter and hydrometer. No 
cell at the end of this charge should read less than 2.5 volts when charging at 
the normal rate. At the end of this charge the specific gravity should not be 
below 1200 clegs. 

Pure water, distilled if necessary, must be added to make up for electrolyte 
lost by evaporation. This water should not be added in large enough quantities 
to reduce the specific gravity to any considerable extent. It should be added at 
the bottom of the cell through a rubber hose or glass tube to insure its thoroughly 
mixing with the electrolyte. The plates should always be covered by the 
electrolyte. 

The positive plates should have a dark brown velvety appearance. Any 
lightness in color indicates insufficient charging. No attention need be paid to 
a whitish precipitate that sometimes appears on the plates. The negatives 
should have a clear bluish lead or light slate color. 

If there occurs a time during which it is not convenient or possible to carry 
on the generators the entire average load on the plant the discharges of the bat- 
tery may be allowed to exceed the charges up to the capacity of the battery. 

About the only form of trouble that is likely to occur in a cell is a short cir- 
cuit complete or partial between the positive and negative plates. This will be 
indicated by low voitage and low specific gravity and should be at once removed. 
Its most probable cause is the lodging between the plates of some foreign article 
or a loosened part of the plates themselves. It may also be due to the depth of 
the sediment in the bottom of the cells reaching the bottom of the plates. If the 
short circuit is due to a foreign body, it should be removed; if to a loosened por- 
tion of the plates, it may be forced to the bottom of the cell; if to sediment, the 
cell should be cleaned out. 

When Chloride Accumulators, are in use. it will be found that there is a 
constant slight loss of solution. This is principallv due to the evaporation of the 
water from the mixture of water and sulphuric acid, of which the solution is com- 
posed. Use pure water to replace that lost by evaporation. The water should 
be absolutely free from chlorine (common salt), and contain not more than a 
trace of iron and other metals. Always use distilled water when it can be ob- 
tained; fresh rain water is also suitable. The solution should always entirely 
cover the plates in every cell. The proper density for the solution in a charged 
cell is 1200 degs. The specific gravity of the solution should be tested with a 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



387 



hydrometer at least once a week. The test should be made just after the cell 
has been fully charged. A decrease in the density of the solution in a fully 
charged cell is not due to evaporation, as the acid does not evaporate. Some of 
the acid in the solution may be lost, however, by the spraying which occurs dur- 
ing the latter part of the charge. By the violent evolution of gases at that time 
small particles of dilute acid are thrown upward and prevented by air currents in 
the room, from falling back into the cells. As this is replaced by water in the 
regular filling up of the cells, the specific gravity may be lowered from this cause. 
For this reason, it is not safe to always replace evaporation only with clear water 
on the assumption that no acid has been lost. 

Loss of water tends to increase the strength of the solution. When hydro- 
meter readings, taken at the end of charge, indicate that the density of the 
solution is low, a mixture of pure sulphuric acid and water of a specific gravity 
of 1400 degs. (one part sulphuric acid and one part water, by volume— not by 
weight) should be prepared and when cool, a sufficient quantity of the dilute acid 
should be thoroughly mixed with the solution in the jar to raise the specific 
gravity to 1200 degs. as shown by hydrometer readings. 

The density of the solution will vary with the condition of the cell, the 
density in a discharged cell being lower than in a charged cell. During the dis- 
charge, the acid is drawn from the solution into the plates; and during charge, 
this acid is again released. A low density of the solution, when the cell is ap- 
parently charged, does not, therefore, necessarily mean a lack of acid, as the low 
density may be caused by insufficient charging, that is, the acid may be in the 
plates instead of in the solution. 

Before adding the mixture of acid and water to the solution in the jar, it 
shouid be known that the cell is fully charged. A eel., may be considered fully 
charged when with the normal charging current flowing, voltmeter readings 
show the cell to have ane. m. f. of 2.5 volts. If the cell be charged at three- 
quarters of the normal charging rate, the charge should be continued until the 
cell shows an e. m. f. of 2.45 volts; if the cell be charged at one -half the normal 

THE CHLORIDE ACCUMULATOR.— TYPE " G." 

Sizes of Plates, 15^ Ins. x 15^ Ins. 



Number of Plates 

For 

Discharge in j g hours 

Amperes ) 3 u 

Normal charge rate 

Weight of each element, lbs... . 

^ . ■ * ,r *'( Width.. 
Outside Measurment^ Length . 
of Tank in inches, I Height- 
Weight of acid, lbs 

Weight of cell complete, with ) 

acid in lead-lined tank, lbs. J 

Height of cell over all, inches.. 



15 


21 


■ 27 


35 


41 


49 


61 


71 


93 


105 


140 
196 
280 


200 
280 
400 


260 
364 
520 


340 
476 
680 


400 
560 
800 


480 
672 
960 


600 
840 
1200 


700 
980 
1400 


920 

1288 
1840 


1040 
1456 
2080 


140 


200 


260 


340 


400 


480 


600 


700 


920 


1040 


300 


422 


544 


707 


829 


991 


1235 


1439 


1886 


2131 


18 s 3 
19f 

221 


23| 

19| 

22-1 


29| 
231 


36 

20f 

m 


401 
20! 
231 


47| 
20| 
231 


58i 
2H 
24§ 


664 

2H 
24| 


84! 
21 £ 
24! 


941 

21* 
24! 


197 


255 


312 


388 


444 


520 


635 


729 


938 


1051 


621 


829 


1066 


1351 


1563 


1848 


2277 


2633 


3418 


3845 


26 


26 


28 


28 


28 


28 


29 


29 


29 


29 



1240 
1736 
2480 

1240 

2538 

llli 

21J 
24| 

1242 
4560 



388 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



THE GOULD STORAGE BATTERY.— TYPE "S.' 
Dimensions of Plate, 15^ Ins. x 15^ Ins. 



Element Number 


605 


607 


609 


611 


613 


615 


617 


619 




5 
40 


7 
60 


9 

80 


11 
100 


13 
120 


15 
140 


17 
160 


19 


.Normal Charging Rate 


180 


Discharge in j For 8 hours.... 
Amperes, 1 tl £ \\ ."" 


40 
56 
80 


60 
84 
120 


80 
112 
160 


100 
140 
200 


120 
168 
240 


140 
196 
280 


160 
224 
320 


180 
252 
360 


Capacity in ( At8hrs. discharge 

Ampere, -< " 5 hrs. discharge 

Hours. ( " 3 hrs. discharge 


320 
280 
240 


480 
420 
360 


640 
560 
480 


800 
700 
600 


960 

840 
720 


1120 

980 
840 


1280 
1120 
960 


1440 
1310 
1080 


Weight of element, lbs 


160 


180 


200 


220 


260 


300 


340 


380 


Outside dimensions ( Width., 
of heavily glazed •< Length, 
earthen tank in ins. ( Height.. 


11 
21 
24 


12| 

21 

24 


13| 
21 

24 


15£ 

21 

24 


17 
21 
24 


18J 

21 

24 


20 
21 
24 


22 
21 
24 


Outside dimensions (Width.. 
of lead-lined tank -< Length, 
in inches (Height.. 


11 
20 
23 


20 
23 


13| 

20 

23 


15 

20 
23 


17 
20 
23 


18* 
20 
23 


20 
20 
23 


22 
20 
23 


Height of cell over all in ins.. . 

Weight of acid in tank, lbs 

Weight of cell, complete, lbs. . . 


26 
100 
275 


26 
120 
345 


26 
140 
415 


26 
160 

485 


26 
180 
555 


26 
197 
625 


26 
216 
692 


26 
235 

768 



rate, the cell should have an e. m. f. of 2.4 volts, and if the charge be at one- 
quarter of the normal rate, the cell should have an e, m. f . of 2.35 volts. If a 
voltmeter is not available, a cell, generally speaking, may be considered fully 
charged, when both the positive and negative plates have b^en gassing freely for 
fifteen minutes. 

To prepare dilute sulphuric acid, always pour the acid into the water, never 
the water into the acid. It is advisable to prepare the solution at least twelve 
hours before using, in order that it may thoroughly cool. Solution of specific 
gravity of 1200 degs. is composed of one part sulphuric acid having a density of 
66 degs. Beaume, and three parts of water. 



THE BOOSTER. 

The function of the booster in a railway plant is to assist the long feeders to 
maintain their potential at the ends of the line. Usually a series wound booster 
is used, whose function is to increase the line potential as the current flow 
through the booster increases. The rise in potential in the booster can be made 
equivalent to the drop in potential on the feeder. This may be obtained from a 
booster either by having its series winding compensate for the line drop or by 
shunting part of the series turns by a shunt winding whose magnetic effect can 
be opposed to or in the same direction as the series winding. It is usually 
the custom to group the distant feeders together on one booster. This booster 
may be operated by a motor or by an engine, but it is preferable to use the latter. 

In a number of stations there will be found the older type generators, kept 
for reserve capacity, and these can be changed into boosters by making the con- 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA V HAND BOOK. 



389 



nections shown in Fig. 334. The machines can still be used as generators when 
required. 

The feeders to be boosted are grouped- together on a bus-bar, which is con- 
nected to the main bus bar by switch, A. Feeding this bus is a generator 
having a double-throw double-pole switch. When switch A is open and switches 
/;, 77. from the generator are thrown in the lower position, the current then 
passes through generator F from the bus to the boosted feeders in a direction to 
increase the potential of this current. 

When the switches on generator F are thrown in the position C C, the gene- 
rator is used simply as a generator and A can be closed, and the feeders will not 
be boosted. This condition is especially useful for parks and special outlying 



STRA/GHT F£ED£fi>S 



BOOSTED £££D£*$ 



IF f 



a p 




^^ 



c 

\ — HD 



t/t§)f 

HI F [1 *- 



Fig. 334.— diagram of connections for changing generator to booster. 



attractions, where the traffic is large for a short time; and it saves the invest- 
ment for a booster. The capacity of generator F should be equal to the maxi- 
mum demand on the feeders, or a number of generators can be supplied with 
double-throw switches and connected as shown for the single generator, and used 
as multiple boosters. 

The shunt field can be excited or not if the copper is light for the maximum 
demand, and in this way cars can be moved more economically for short periods 
than by the investment in copper or boosters, and gives a double use for the same 
generator. The amount of boosting will depend upon the series turns on the 
generator, but if too much, it can be shunted and if too little, can be increased by 
the shunt winding on the generator. 



Appendix II — Underground Conduits. 



CABLE CONDUITS- 

Where railway feeders have to be carried underground it is necessary to lay a 
multiple duct with man-holes along the streets through which the railway 
passes. The material used for these ducts was ' originally wood, jvhich was 
treated with dead coal tar and asphalt compounds to make it impervious to 
moisture. One method was to use grooved planking, two halves of which formed 
the duct, and a number of these were built up together- to form a rectangular 
ductway with holes from 3 ins. to 3}4 ins - m diameter. This ductway was made 
impervious by the application of asphaltum compound. The other method was 
the pump log construction, where a rectangular beam 4 ins. to 5 ms. square was 
used, through the center of which .a 3 to 3^ in. hole was bored. These logs were 
provided with a turned end which projected into a recess turned into the adjacent 
section for alignment and were driven together, nailed and served with a moist- 
ure resisting compound, and sometimes laid on, as well as covered with, concrete. 






-1-5V- 

i 


-4— , 

Qi 
of" 

■ J- 



*4*- 



Figs. 335, 336, 337, 338.— forms op conduit. 



A cement duct was also largely used for this purpose, and was made by 
covering a thin sheet iron pipe with cement to a depth of about J^> in. These 
were laid together, the ends being provided with cast-iron nozzles. The cement 
conduits Were laid up in concrete forming a solid mass. A section of these 
cement ducts as laid is shown in Fig. 335. Fig. 338 shows a wrought-iron pipe 
laid iii cement and concrete. This form of duct has great flexibility and is often 
used where a number of obstructions are to be avoided. 

The Camp terra cotta duct is shown in Fig. 337. ft is made of sections of 
vitrified terra cotta laid together in cement mortar and surrounded with con- 
crete, the joints being staggered so as to increase the strength of the whole 
structure. 

McRoy ducts, Fig. 330, are molded in one piece, the alignment being ob- 
tained by the use of dowel pins inserted in the holes of abutting surfaces of the 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 391 



ducts. These ducts vary from 3 ft. 6 ins. to 18 ins. from the top of the cement 
over the conduit to the street surface depending upon the frost conditions and 
other obstructions and the facility for drainage. 

Foundations, Etc.— The foundations on which any conduit system is laid 
should be at least 3 ins. to 6 ins. of concrete well tamped down on firm ground, 
on which flat surface should be laid the duct, and on each side of them tamped 
concrete in order to make the duct structure a continuous whole. Old conduit 
work shows the importance of a good foundation, as it will crack and fail out 
of alignment unless great care is taken in providing with a proper bed. 
The mortar used in concrete bedding and filling is generally 1 part cement to 3 
parts clean sharp sand. It is generally included in specifications that all trenches 
shall be sheeted and braced, and such bridges and crossings as may be required 
shall be keptin place, so as to interfere with traffic as little as possible. In refill- 
ing trenches only the best part of the material excavated should be used; this 
must be thoroughly tamped and rammed, roiled or flushed as may seem necessary 
in order that the pavement on top of the conduit does not settle after completion. 

It is the general practice so to lay the ducts as to make the conduit as 
nearly square as possible, and the alignment of the ducts is tested by drawing a 
2}§ in. mandrel at least 18 ins. long from man-hole to man-hole. This test is 
generally required before the acceptance of the work. The layers of ducts should 
be separated with concrete in order to obtain a diameter of 5 ins. between centers 
of any two ducts, but this varies with the character of conductor to be drawn in. 
It is also required of the contractor to leave iron wires extending from man-hole 
to man-hole in each duct sufficiently long to be turned down to prevent slipping 
back into the duct. 

Terra cotta or earthenware pipes should be impervious to moisture, and can 
be tested by being plugged at one end and filled with water, or the conduit can 
be broken and tested for vitrification by the method given for porcelain on 
pages 75 and 76. - -~ 

Man-Holes vary in number from 20 to 25 per mile, and are regulated by the 
size of the cables, the size of the ducts, and the strains to which the cable can be 
submitted for drawing through. The glazed ducts allow, of drawing longer dis- 
tances with less tension on the cable than the wooden or iron ducts. 'The con- 
struction of a standard form of man-hole is shown in Fig. 339. These are laid in 
hard burnt sewer brick in mortor cement, and the brick should be thoroughly wet 
before being laid. Where the man-hole is subjected to surface moisture or placed in 
soft ground it is usual to grout heavily on the outside of the brickwork to prevent 
the seepage of moisture through the walls. The ducts entering the man-holes can 
be staggered and in some cases bricks are left projecting into the man-hole for 
the purpose of sustaining the cables in passing around a man-hole. The floor 
should be laid at least 1 in. deep in cement, 1 part sand to 1 part cement, in order 
to avoid moisture creeping into the man-hole. The man-hole has a bed from 
6 ins. to 8 ins. deep of concrete, made of 1 part cement -to- 3 parts sand and 5 parts 
broken stone passing through a 1^-in. ring. The iron work can be ordinary 
I-beams laid as shown in the cut, and the dimensions of the man-hole can be 
varied according to the number of cables entering. Where the ducts slope 
toward the man-hole it should be trapped to the sewer, the trap being introduced 
underneath. In this case the floor should be sloped slightly so that; drainage 
runs into the sewer. Gases accumulate in city streets in these man-holes and 
ductways where not filled with wire, and explosions have occured from this 
cause. To avoid accidents of this kind several methods have been used, the sim- 



39 2 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



plest one being to run standpipes up from the man-hole to the curb; and in some 
cases the tubular iron poles for the span wires have been used for ventilating the 
ducts, being provided on top with a ventilating cap. 





FlC. 339.— MAN-HOLE CONSTRUCTION. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK'. 



393 



Where the feeding to the trolley .wire is between man-holes the top dnct is 
selected and connection made from the cable through tap wire in a pipe curved 
to a 3-ft. radius which enters the bottom of the iron trolley pole or is secured to 
the outside of a wooden one. It is less expensive, if possible, to tap from the 
man-hole and here the drawing in and out of the tap can be readily accomplished 
without opening the street to connect the cable to the span wire. Fig. 340 shows 
the method largely in vogue for this purpose, the one shown being that used by 
the Union Traction Company, of Philadelphia. Here the cable is ended in a 
conical brass terminal which enters the lug connected to the feeding wire. 

Where gas has accumulated in the duct special ventilating methods of forced 
air are employed to either clear the man-holes of gas or maintain the pressure at 
about 6 oz., so as to prevent the introduction of gas into the man-holes and ducts. 




Fig. 340.— method of connecting underground cable to overhead line 

construction. 



Blower methods have been used by which the man-holes have been exhausted of 
the gas accumulating. The special points to be guarded are the top of the man- 
holes where the cover rests on the concrete and where the ducts enter the man- 
hole. Backing carefully with concrete or mortar leads to better air in the 
man -holes. 

The Conductors.— The cables used for railway work are made of stranded 
wire, so the cable can be bent to a radius of 3 ft. with no fracture of the lead 
covering. Where rough or imperfect ducts are to be drawn through, the cable 
is sometimes covered with a braiding of jute, and where the tension required is 
great the cable is slicked with tallow. 

The usual method of pulling in rope for drawing the cable is by rodding 
which consists of using a number of rods having screw connections, each long 



394 ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 



enough to go into the man-hole and enter the duct. The first rod is passed in 
and^crewed to the next and so on until a continuous rod has been shoved through 
to the other end. The rope is attached to the last rod and the rods are then taken 
out at the distant man-hole drawing the rope through the duct. 

The thickness of the insulation is stated in 64ths of an inch and should be 
such a material as to be capable at all times to stand a current density on the 
conductor of not less than 1 amp. for 1000 circ. mils, and at a pressure at least 
twice that specified as the working pressure of the cable. Where paper is used 
as the di-electric or insulator it should be pure manila fibre spirally wound in 
overlapping strips and treated with such compounds as shall not in any way 
deteriorate its insulating qualities. If the insulator is rubber all the conductors 
should be thoroughly tinned and the rubber compound contain not less than 35 
per cent pure para rubber. 

The sheathing should be composed of pure desilverized lead with such alloy 
of tin as may be considered proper, and should be of sufficient thickness to with- 
stand mechanical injury. It is usual to allow 3 per cent tin to improve the 
lead's resisting qualities against the gas and moisture to wiiich it is submitted 
in the ducts. The conductor should be of soft-drawn copper with a conductivity 
of not less than 98 per cent that of pure copper; each strand shall be such that 
the sum of the areas of their cross-sections when all strands are laid out straight 
and cut at right angles to their axis is equal to the total circular mils of the 
cables specified. 

The following table gives the approximate current densities usually allowed 
in subways. The insulation resistance in megohms per mile ranges between 
200 megohms and 250 megohms for a voltage ranging from 300 to 1000. 

MAXIMUM CARRYING CAPACITY OF UNDERGROUND 
CONDUCTORS. 

SIZE OF CONDUCTOR. MAX. SAFE CARRYING CAPACITY. 

B. & S. Gage. Amperes. 

1 129 

Vol 

00 175 

000 213 

0000 247 
Circular Mils. 

250,000 280 

300,000 320 

350,000 357 

400.000 394 

450,000 429 

500,000 463 

550,000 497 

600,000 530 

650,000 562 

700,000 593 

750,000 624 

800,000 654 

850,000 683 

900.000 712 

950,000 741 

1,000,000 769 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



395 



CONDUIT ROADS. 

The construction for a subsurface trolley road presents the following engi- 
neering problems : the insulating of two conductors within 6 ins. of each other, 
the insulation to be subjected to moisture, and the proper drainage of the conduit. 
The Metropolitan Street Railway system in New York may be taken as standard 
and a description of its construction follows : The yokes are each 425 lbs. in weight, 




Fig. 341.— construction op plow for underground conduit. 



and are illustrated in Fig. 842, which shows the complete cross-section of a 
double track road. The yokes are spaced 5 ft. apart. The excavation is made 
thiomjh the street, 18 ft. 9 ins. wide and S0}4 *bs, deep for the conduit and 15 ins. 



396 



ELECTRIC RAIL WA Y HAND BOOK. 




' SOfiSooof 

^zszroooj 

|<-5% 16- ^^ 

Fig. 342. — cross sections of underground conduit construction, new tork. 



*» tt= 



-n— 



T*T 



°U 












Fig. 343.— side elevation and section of insulator for underground 

CONDUIT. 



ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



397 



between tracks. The track and slot rails of the conduit are then laid on the 
yokes, and tie rods then inserted and the whole structure blocked up surfaced 
and lined. The concrete is made of 7 parts %-in. broken stone, 4 parts sand and 
1 part Portland cement, and placed under and around the conduit opening. 
An iron hand-hole coyer is located above each insulator, which are 15 ft. 
apart. The man-holes average about 150 ft. apart and there entrance is generally 
between the tracks. At these points the conduits drain into the sewers. 

The bottom of the conduit is pitched at a minimum of 2 ins. to the 100 ft. in 
case of a level track to give drainage. Fig. 343 shows the construction of an 




TOP OF TRAM RAIL 



Fig. 344.— method of attaching plow to car. 

insulator and the method of fastening the T-iron conductor to it, against which 
the contact shoe rubs and from which the current is collected for the operation 
of the car. Fig. 341 shows the method of construction of the contact shoe or plow 
and Fig. 344 shows how it is supported by two angle irons underneath the truck. 



THIRD-RAIL SYSTEMS. 

For third-rail work the ordinary section of rail is usually used. The Manhattan 
Elevated Railway Company has used soft iron rail to improve the conductivity. 
The insulation of the third-rail, where it is the positive side of the circuit, has been 
f^und by Boynton to be such that when insulated on blocks 1^ ins. thick at- 



398 ELECTRIC RAILWAY HAND BOOK. 



tached to ties not creosoted but dipped in insulating compound, no leakage was 
noticeable. In another test on one-half mile of track one-half ampere leakage 
occurred when dry and one and one-quarter ampere when wet. 

It was found both in conduit rails and exposed rails that the positive rail 
retains its insulation when current leaks over the surfaces, whereas it is much 
harder to hold the insulation with the negative rail on acccount of the tendency 
of moisture to increase the negative leakage. 

On the third-rail the current is collected by a shoe on a projecting arm be- 
yond the car sliding over the rail and flexibly connected to the arm by two laced 
joints, but the electrical connection is made directly from the shoe to the car 
wiring circuit. 

Both the third rail and the underground conduit rail have been successfully 
operated when under water, especially where the water was pure. Slush is the 
most difficult thing to contend with in exposed conductors. 



INDEX. 



Abendroth & Root boiler. 182 

Air, properties of at one atmosphere, 21 

Air brakes, 348, 349 

Aggregate bond test for section of 

track, 41 
Alloys 

Physical properties of, 16 

Weight of, 16 
American Stoker Co's. stoker, 184 
Ammeters. 261 

Methods of calibrating, 2S 
Ammeter and voltmeter methods, 31 
Amperes, 28 

Determination of, 22 

Silver deposited by, 22 
Angles of roofs commonly used, 154 
Area and circumference of circle, 6 
Area and equivalents in copper con- 
ductivity of rails, 106 

Of irregular figures, 6 

Of circles, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 
Armatures 

Generator, 242 

Testing in equipment, method of, 57 

Testing in motor, 67 

Winding stands for, 321 

Winding, Westinghouse, No* 3, 
252, 253 
Arresters for lightning, 264 
Artificial cements, 150 
Atlas rail joint, 115 
Automatic signal systems, 374 
Axlea for cars, 337 



Babcock & Wilcox boilers, 175, 176 
Bake oven. 322 
Bearing power of piles, 149 
Bearing surface of different ties, 110 
Bearings for generator, 243 
Belts, 252, 253, 254, 255 

Cling Surface dressing for, 254 
Driving center distances, 255 
Board and timber measure, 3 
Board feet, in different size ties, 110 
Boilers 

Abendroth & Root, 182 
Babcock & Wilcox, 175, 176 
Capacity, Determining, 166 



Boilers 

Care of boilers, 186, 187, 188 

Climax, 181 

Economy in rate of driving, 171 

Feeding methods, 191, 192 

Grate surface for different types, 171 

Horizontal tubular 
Sizes of, 174 
Tests on, 172, 173 

Proportions. General, 168 

Scale, 188. 189 

Setting and operation, 182 

Stirling, 178 

Tests on hand-fired and mechanical 
stokers, 184 

Types of, 172 

Water 

Determination of character,188, 
189 

Relative efficiency of various me- 
thods of supplying water, 192 
Bonds and Bonding. 306. 307. 808,309,310 

Different types of. 307. 308 

Methods of installing, 309, 310 

Testing of by auxiliary current, 40 

Tests on, 309 
Boosters, 388, 389 

Brackets and center construction, 296 
Brakes, 343. 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349 
Breeching and flues, 197 
Bridge, Wheatstone, 33 
Brushes for generator. 243 
Brush-holders for generator, 243 
Building materials, Tensile strength of, 

13, 14 
Built-up guard rails, 120 
Burnt-out fields, methods of locating, 56 
Bus-bar data, 258 



Cables for underground conduits, 393, 

394 
Calibration, methods of, 26, 27, 28, 29,30 
Capacity of steam pumps, 193 
Car axles, 337 
Car bodies 

Framing, 325, 326 

Nomenclature of parts, 330, 331, 332, 
333 

Painting, 330 

Roof, 326 



4O0 



INDEX. 



Car Bodies 

Specification, 323, 325, 326, 327, 328, 
329, 330 

Splicing body, 334, 335 

Timber for body, 323, 325, 326 
Car house, 314. 315, 316, 317 

Construction, 315 

General details, 314, 315, 316 

Lighting. 315 

Tracks, 136 
Cars 

Care of, 317 

Currents required uuder different 
conditions, 200 

Lubricating methods, 317 

Sand supply, 317 

Washing. 317 

Wiring, 366 
Care of cars, 317 

Of commutators. 368, 369, 370 

Of boilers, 186, 187, 188 
Carrying capacity for underground 

conductors, 394 
Cast weld ioint, 116 
Cell, Clark, 26, 28 
Cement 

Artificial. 150 

Testing, 74 
Charts 

Figuring railway feeders, 275 

Locating curves, 123 
Chimneys 

Brick, construction of, 196 

Dimensions of, 197 

Drafts. 196, 197 
Churchill rail joint, 115 
Circle, area and circumference of, 6 

Areas of, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 

Circumferences of. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 

Tables of areas and circumferences 
of, 7 
Circuk breakers. 261, 262 
Circumference and area of circle, 6 
Circumferences of circles, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 
Clark cell, 20, 28 

Clearance lines, obtaining from dia- 
gram, 214 
Climax boiler, 181 

Dimensions of, 182 
Coal 

Heating values of various. 170 

Methods of determining heat 
values. 169 

Sizes anrl character, 169 

Steaming value, 168 

Weights of, 11. 12 
Coefficient of expansion of rails, 108 
Columns, iron, safe load for in tons, 155 
Combinations made by controllers, 361 
Combining indicator diagrams, 214 
Commutator, sparking at, 242, 243 
Comparison of different olims, 23 
Comparison of metric and English 

system of surface measure, 2 
Composition of rails, 104 
Compression of steam in cylinders. 217 
Compressive strength of masonry, 14 
Computing board measure, 3 
Concrete, data on, 152 



Condensation, Cost of 

In steam pipes, 230 

On bare pipes, 230 
Condensers 

Construction of, 235, 236 

Jet. 234, 235 

Self-cooling, 236. 237 

Steam, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239 
Conductivity of wire, methods of de- 
termining, 32 
Conduits 

Railway. 395, 396, 397 

Underground, 391, 392, 393, 394 
Connections 

Controllers. 361, 362 

Ground return to rail, 301, 302, 303, 
304, 305, 306 

Transformers, 250, 251, 252 
Continuous rail joint, 114 
Controllers, 360 

Dimensions of type K, 364, 365 

Dimensions of type L, 364, 365 

Economical use of, 377 

Handling of, 376 

K2, connections made by, 362 

K10, connections made by, 362 

Kll. connections made by, 362 

K12, connections made by, 362 

K21, connections made by, 362 

L2, 361 

Nomenclature, 363 

Test, 72 
Converters, rotary. 249, 250, 251, 252 
Copper bar data, 258 
Cost of 

Paving, 145 

Power, 379, 380 

Track and paving. 137, 138, 139, 
140, 111, 142. 143, 144, 145 
Coverings for steam pipes, 333 
Cross arms, 290 
Cross bonding, location of, 41 
Crossings. 120, 121 
Cubic contents of timbers, 4 
Cubic feet in different size ties, 110 
Cubical contents, measure for, 2 
Cubic measure, 2 
Current 

Indication of, 22 

Per car under different conditions, 
200 

Required by equipment, 270, 271 
Curves 

Graphic method of laying out, 124 

Methods of laying out, 122 

Precautions to be taken in laying 
out, 122 

Trolley wire construction, 300 



Dampers, 198 

Data for figuring sizes and bents on 
trestle work. 134 

On bus-bars. 258 

On concrete, 152 

On G. E. 52 motor, 357 

On G. E. 57 motor, 358 



INDEX. 



401 



Data 

On G. E. 800 motor, 356 
On G. E. 1000 motor, 356 
On G. E. 1200 motor, 356 
On G. E. 2000 motor, 356 
On insulator resistance, 76 
On No. 3 Westinghouse, 352 
On rope drives, 256, 257 
On soils, 148 

On steam engines for central sta- 
tion operation, 218, 219 
On Weston instruments, 36, 37 
On Westinghouse motor, No. 38 B, 
353 
Design for small station, 163 
Determination of 
Ampere, 22 
Boiler capacity, 166 
Ohm, 23 

Water for boilers, 188, 189 
Diameters of suction, and delivery 

pipes, 195 
Differential methods of testing equip- 
ments, 55 
Different parts of equipment, tests for, 

51 
Different types of bonds, 307, 308 
Dimensions of 

Boiler, Climax, 182 
Controllers 

Type 12, 364, 365 
Type K, 364, 365 
Type L, 3G4, 365 
Engine parts, 205, 206, 207, 208 
Motors 

G. E. 51 motor, 359 
G. E. 57 motor, 360 
Westinghouse No. 12-A, 354, 355 
Westinghouse No. 49, 356 
Westinghouse No. 56, 357, 358 
Polygons, 5 



E 



Earth 

Resistance of earth, 313 

Resistance between rail and pipe, 
test on, 44 

Weights per cu. ft. of, 11, 12, 13 
Economizer?, 190 

Construction of, 190, 191 

Tests on, 191 
Effects of grades on engines, 199, 200,201 
Economy in 

Boiler driving, 171 

Controller, Use of. 377 

Economizers and mechanical draft 
plants, 191 

Feed- water heating, 190 
Efficiency of 

Boiler feeding, 192 

Induced and forced drafts, 198 

Railway engines, 201, 202. 203 

Thermal efficiency of standard en- 
gines, 220 
Electrical connections of water pipe, 

304, 305 
Electrical resistance of rails, 106 



Electrolysis, 310 

Potential differences, 311 

Resistance of earth, 313 

Tests, 42 
Electromotive force, 27 
Engines 

Clearance of, 205 

Clearance, obtaining from diagram, 
214 

Compression of steam in cylinders, 
217 

Cylinder data, 205 

Diagrams, combination of, 214 

Different types of cards of, 213 

Efficiency, 201, 202 

Friction losses in, 209 

Gas, 239 

Horse-power of, 215 

Indicators for, 209, 210, 211, 212, 

213, 214 
• Indication, 209, 210, 211, 212 

Mechanical strains on, for railway 
work, 204, 205 

Parts, dimensions of, 205, 206, 207, 
208 

Piston speed of, 205 

Proportions of piston rods, 206 

Proportion of shafts for, 206 

Ratio of expansion of steam in, 216 

Rotary speed of, 205 

Selection of, for railway work, 199 

Size of, for given out puts, 204 

Steam consumption in different 
types, 217 

Testing, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214 

Thermal efficiency of, 220 
Equipments 

Differential methods of testing, 55 

Methods of determining speeds, 372, 
374 

Methods of keeping records, 379 

Number of and effect of equip- 
ments, 203 

Resistance, total tests for, 52 

Tests on, 50 
Equivalents for length, table of, 1 
Estimating power of streams, 240, 241 
Examinations of motormen, 375, 376 
Exhaust heads, types of, 234 
Exhaust piping 233, 234 



Feeders, diagram for figuring, 275 

Ground return, 301, 302, 303, 304, 

305, 306 
Insulator, 278, 279, 280 
Joining aud splicing, 276, 277 
Method for figuring, 268, 269, 270, 

271 
Size of and weight of, 274 

Feeding methods for boilers, 191 

Feed-water, percentage of saving ef- 
fected by heating, 190 
Purifying, 183, 189 

Feed pumps and injectors, 192 

Fields 

Generators, 241 



402 



INDEX. 



Fields 

Resistance, methods of measuring, 
31 

Testing, 50, 72 

Winding for motors, 321 
Fire insurance, 164 
Fire rules for power stations, 164 
Firemen, duties of, 185 
Fire-proof construction 

Flooring, 160 

Roofing, 158 
Fitting, steam-piping, 225 
Flooring 

Fire-proof, 160 

Station flooring, 158 

Weights on station, 158 
Flow of steam in pipes, 221 
Flues 

Breeching and flues, 197 

Reduction of chimney drafts, 197 
Force, electromotive, 27 
Formula for weight of rails, 108 
Foundations 

Courses, Methods of making, 149 

Determining character, 147 

Internal, 165 

Materials for, 150 

Power station, 146 

Testing methods, 148 
Friction 

Engine losses, 209 

Water in pipes, 194 
Frogs, 120, 121 



Galvanometer, 26 

Thomson's, 27 
G. E. 51 motor, 359 

52 motor, 359 

57 motor, 360 

2000 motor, 358 
Generators, 247, 248 

Armature for, 242 

Bearings for, 243 

Booster, Generator as, 389 

Brush-holders, 243 

Brushes, 243 

Commutator of, 242, 243 

Compound-wound, tests for equali- 
zation of, 48 

Field of, 241 

Railway generators, 241, 242, 243, 
244, '245, 246, 247, 248, 249 

Size of 244, 245, 246, 247, 248 
Grades, selection of engines for, 199 
Graphic method of laying out curves, 124 

Of solving Ohm's law, 24, 25 
Grates, 183 

Construction, 183 

Surface, per hp-hour for different 
types of boiler, 171 

Traveling, 183 
Grounds and leaks on the line, tests 
for locating, 46 

On equipment, tests for, 50 

Return drop, tests for, 42 
Ground return feeders, 301, 302, 303, 

304, 305, 306 
Guard rails, 120 



Handling of controller, 376 

Heads, exhaust, 234 

Heaters and purifiers, 189, 190 

Heating feed water, economy of, 190 

High tension insulator testing, 75 

Holly loop, 229 

Horse-power 

Required to raise water, 195 
Table per pound, mean effective 

pressure, 215 
Transmitted by belts, 254 
Horse-power, chimney, dimensions for, 
197 



I-beams, methods of connecting, 160 
Methods of spacing over flooring, 
159 
Impurities in water, for boiler use, 188, 

189 
Inch, miner's, 3 
Indication, current, 22 
Indicator, Engine, 209,210, 211, 212, 213, 

214 
Indicator cards 

Analysis of, 210,211,212 
Nomenclature, 211 
Individual bond test, 39 
Induced draft, 198 
Induction, testing armature, 71 
Injectors, 192, 193 
Inspector, instructions for, 368, 369, 

370, 371 
Instructions 

Boiler care, 186, 187 
Inspectors, 368, 369, 370, 371 
Motormen, 366, 367, 368 
Instruments, method of connecting up, 
37 
Switchboaid, methods of calibrat- 
ing, 30 
Insulation resistance, measuring, 34 
Resistance, method of measuring 

by galvanometer, 34 
Resistance test by voltmeter me- 
thod, 34 
Insulators for feeders, 278, 279 280 

Resistance, data on, 76 
Insurance, fire, 164 
Integrating wattmeter, 38 
Internal foundations, 165 
Irregular figure, area of, 6 . 



Jack-shafts, dimensions for, 256 
Joint, cast-weld, 116 
Steam pipe, 225, 226 



Key-ways for shafts, 255 






IND£X. 



403 



Lamp hank, method of connection 
for, 54 
Testing, 54 
Laying out center line for tangent, 

methods of, 126 
Length, measures of, 1 
Life of ties, 108 
Lightning arresters, 264 

Protection, 264 
Line resistance, tests for, 47 
Liquid measure, 3 
Weights of, 18 
Locating grounds by voltmeter method, 

35 
Location of cross-bonding, 41 

Of power station, 146 
Loop for steam pipe drainage, 228, 229 
Lubrication for car boxes, 317 



Motors 

G. E. 57, 360 
G. E. 800, 358 
G. E. 1000, 358 
G. E. 1200, 358 
Testing methods, 64, 65 
Tests for equalization of, 49 
Westiughouse No. 3, 352 
Westinghouse No. 12A, 353 
Westinghouse No. 38B, 353 
"Westinghouse No. 49, 356 



N 

Nomenclature of 

Car body parts, 330, 331, 332, 
Kails, 100 ' 

Special work, 118, 119 



M 

Machine tools for repair shop, 320 321 
Magann air brake, 348 
Management of boilers, 186, 187, 188 
Man-holes, 391, 392 
Manual signals, 374 
Masonry, compressive strength of, 14 
Materials for foundations, 150 
Mean effective pressure table, 215 

Method of calculation, 212 
Measures 

Board and timber, 3 
Cubic, 2 

Cubical contents, 2 
Length, 1 
Liquid, 3 
Solid, 2 
Square, 2 
Surface, 1 
Surveyor's, 1 
Volume, 2 
Measurement of areas of plane sur- 
faces, 5 
Power, 37 
Resistance, 31 
Measuring insulation resistance, 34 

Resistances, Thomson method of. 32 
Mechanical draft, 198 

Stokers, 183 
Metals, physical properties of, 15 

Weights of, 15 
Metric and English systems of surface 
™-j measure, comparison of, 2 
Middle ordinates on 10 ft. cord for de- 
termining radius of curves, 131 
Miner's inch, 3 • 

Mortars, 151 
Motormen 

Characteristics, apparatus for ob- 

taining, 60 
Examination of, 375, 376 
Instructions to, 366, 367, 368 
Motors 

Commutator, care of, 368, 369, 370 
G. E. 51, 359 
G. E. 52, 359 



Ohm 

Comparison of different 23 

Definition of, 23 

Determination of, 23 
Ohm's Law, 26 

Graphic method of solving 24 25 
Operating equipments, 366, 367, 368 
Ores, weights per cu. ft. of, 11 12 13 
Outer rail, super elevation of, 132 ' 
Overhead construction, of car houses 
314 ' 

Overhead insulation, tests for 74 



Painting car bodies, 330 

Parabolic curves, methods of Iavinz 

out, 125 
Paving and track, cost of, 137 138 13Q 
_. .140, 141, 142, 143, 144; 145 
Physical properties of alloys, 16 
Of metal, 15 

Of wires of different metals, 16 
Piece work, 377, 378, 379 
Piles, bearing power of, 149 
Pipe 

Brass and copper, dimensions 231 
r nction of water in, 194 
Joints for steam pipe, 225, 226 
bize of, for steam velocity, 223 
Steam pipe, 221 

Suction and delivery, forpumps,195 
Wrought iron, dimensions, 231 
Piping for 

Exhaust steam, 233, 234 
Live steam, 222 
Plane surfaces, measurement of areas 

of, 5 
Platforms and vestibules, 326, 327 
Plenum method of drafts, 198 
Poles 

Dimensions, 283, 284 
Iron, 283, 284 
Setting, 286, 287, 288 



4<M 



INDEX, 



Poles 

Specifications, 284, 286 

Strains, 289 

Testing, 73 

Wood 

Size of, 283, 284, 285 
Tests on, 284 
Polygons, dimensions of, 5 
Potentiometer method, methods of 

reading volts by, 28 
Polyphase sub-stations, 265, 266 
Power consumption for equipment, test 

on, 57 
Power measurements, 37 
Power stations, 146, 379 

Economy of operation, 218,219 

Fire insurance rules, 164 

Foundations, 146 

Location, 146 

Switchboard, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 
263, 264, 265, 266 

Testing, 77 

Typical design, 162 
Power transmission by rope, 257 
Properties of air at one atmosphere, 21 

Of saturated steam, 19, 20 
Precautions to be taken in laying out 

curves, 122 
Prony brake method of testing output 
by efficiency of motors in shop, 63 
Pulleys, 256 

For rope drive, 257 
Pumps electric driven, 192, 196 

Feed-water, 192 

Steam, 193 
Purifiers and heaters, 189 

For water, 189, 190 



Radius of curves, middle ordinates on 

10 ft. cord for determining of, 131 
Rail and pipe returns, tests on relative 

conductivity of, 46 
Rail chairs, 112, 113 
Rail joint fasteners, 113 
Rail joints 
Atlas, 115 
Churchill, 115 
Continuous, 114 
Weber, 115 
Rails 

Area, and equivalents in copper 

conductors, 106 
Composition of, 104 
Electrical resistance of, 106 
Expansion, coefficient of, 108 
Guard rails, 120 
Manufacture of, 104 
Parallel, tests for relative conduc- 
tivity, 44, 
Tests of, 72, 105 
Weight 

Formula for weight of, 108 
Tables of weights and lengths, 
107 
Railway generator, efficiency of, 241 
Railway motor fields, methods of wind- 
ing, 321 



Railway wofk, special conditions, 166 
Ratio of expansion from cut-off, 216 
Reading volts on galvanometer, me- 
thods of, 27 
Records 

For power station. 379 

Of equipments, 379 
Relation of simple geometrical func- 
tions, 6 
Relative efficiency of various methods 
of supplying water to boilers, 192 
Relative resistance of each track, 42 
Repair shop, 318-322 

Machine tools, 320, 321 

Method of arranging, 318, 319, 320 
Resistance measurements, 31 
Revolutions of different diameter car 
wheels per mile, 372 

Rheostat test, 72 
Roof trusses, 156 

Construction methods, 156 

Figuring strains on, 156 

Type of, 157 
Roofs, 153 

Fire proof construction of, 158 

Strains thrown on, 154 

Weights of different kinds, 154 

Wind pressure on, 153 
Rope drives, 256, 257 
Rotary converters, 249, 250, 251, 252 
Running tests'on motors in equipment, 
methods of making, 62 



Safe loads for 

Iron columns, 155 
Wooden beams, 135 

Sag in wires, 297 

Sand for cars, 317 

Scale, in boilers, 188, 189 

Schedule and speed. 372 

Schedule diagram, 373 

Self-cooling condensers, 236, 237 

Separators for engines, 226, 227, 228, 229 

Shafts, data on, 255 
Dimensions for, 256 

Shunts, methods of using, 29 

Side arms, 290, 291 

Signals 

Automatic, 374 
Manual, 374 

Street railway sys-tems, 374 
Telephonic systems, 374 

Silver deposited by one ampere, 22 

Simple geometrical functions, relatior 
of, 6 

Size of 

Boilers, horizontal tubular, 174 
Coal, size and character, 169 
Engines, for given out-puts, 204 
Pipes, suction and delivery, 195 
Shafts for direct-connected units, 
206 

Small station designs, 163 

Soils, data on, 148 

Solid measure, 2 



INDEX. 



405 



Solids 

Surface of, 6 

Volume of, 6 
Spacing ties per 1000 ft. and per mile, 

Span wire, 292, 293, 294 
Fixtures, 293 
Sizes of, 292 
Special railway work, 117. 160 

Nomenclature, 118. 119 
Speed and schedules, 372 
Spikes, quantity required per 1000 ft. 

and per mile, ill 
Spirals, 127 

Table of, 127, 128 

Union Traction Co's. method of lav- 
ing out, 129 
Union Traction Co's. table of, 130 
Square measure, 2 
Stacks, iron, 197 
Standard sizes of Babcock & Wilcox 

boilers, 176 
Standard switchboard for railway work 

; 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264 
static transformers, connections for 

250, 251, 252 
Station floors, 158 
Standard track bolts, lbs. per 1000 and 

sizes, 116 
Station walls, 152 
Steam 

Compression of, in cylinders, 217 
Flow of, in pipes, 221 
Saturated, Properties of, 19, 20 
Steam condensers, 234, 235, 236, 237. 238 
239 
Jet condensers, 234, 235 
Steam engines, 199, 200 

Efficiency of different, 217 
Steam loop, 228, 229 

Holly system, 229 
Steam pipe coverings, 229, 230 
Steam pipe fittings, 225 
Steam pipe joints, 225, 226 
Steam pipe supports, 226 
S'eam pipe valves, 225 
Steam pipes, Condensation in, 229, 230 
Steam piping, 220-231 
Data on, 224, 225 
Material for, 224 
Method of calculating, 220-231 
Steam pumps, 193, 194 
Capacity of, 193 

Theoretical capacity of, 193, 194 
Steaming value of coal, 168 
Steel ties, 110 
Stirling boiler, 178 

Table of weights and dimensions 

of, 179 
Tests on, 180 
Stokers, mechanical, 1 3 
Stones, weights of, 11, 12, 13 
Storage batteries, 381-388' 
Care of, 385, 386, 387 
Connecting for railway work, 382, 

383, 384 
Chloride accumulator, tvpe G, 387 
Data on installations, 385 
Effect on engine loads, 383 



Storage batteries 

Gould type S, dimensions of, 388 
Installations of, 385, 386, 387 
Types of, 385 

Strain thrown on roofs, 154 

Street railway generator, 241-249 

Street work, figuring capacityof boilers, 
167 

Super-elevation of outer rail, 132 

Supports of steam pipes. 226 

Surface, Measure of 1 ' 

Surface of solids. 6 

Surveyor's measure, 1 

Switches, 117 

Switchboard connections, 262 

Sv«iP^ 8t ^- Ct i° n '., 258 ' 259 « 260 ' 261 > 2 62 
Sj stems, third rail, 397, 398 



Tables of areas and circumferences 
of circles, 7 
Of equivalents for length, 1 

079 eed per foot ' m miles per hour, 
Of spirals, 127, 128 
Of Union Traction Co's. spirals,130 
Of weights, 4 

Of weights and dimensions of Stir- 
ling boiler, 179 
Of weights and lengths of rails, 107 
Telephone system for street railway, 

3/4 
Temperature of fields, method of find- 

ing by resistance, 56 
Tensile strength of building materials 

13, 14 
Tests of 

Armatures 

Induction, tests by, 71 
Motor armatures, 67 
Voltmeter method, 68 
Boiler water, 188, 189 
Boilers 

Hand fired and mechanical 

stoker, 184 
Horizontal tubular, 172 
Stirling, 180 
Bonds 

By auxiliary current, 40 
Individual bonds, 39 
Cement, 74 
Conductivity, relative of parallel 

rails, 44 
Conductivity, relative of rail and 

pipe returns, 46 
Controller, tests on different steps 
for different kinds of equipment,' 

Earth resistance between rail and 

pipe, 44 
Economizers, 191 . 

Electrolysis, 42 

Engines, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214 
Equipment, 50. 51, 52. 57 
Equipment resistance, 52 
Fields, 72 

Motor fields, 50 



406 



INDEX. 



Tests of 

Generators, equalization of com- 
pound-wound, 48 
Ground return drop, 43 
Grounds and leaks on the line, 

Locating, 46 
Grounds on equipment, 50 
Insulation, overhead, 74 
Insulator, High tension, 75 
Lamp bank, 54 
Line resistance, 47 
Motors 

Efficiency of motors in shop, 

Prony brake method, 63 

Equalization of motors, 49 

Motor-dynamo method, 65 

Pipes, current flow in, 42 

Poles, 73 

Power consumption for equipment, 

57 
Rails, 72 

Rig for motors, 64 
Track, section of, aggregate bond, 

41 
Tui bines, 240 
Theoretical capacity for steam pumps, 

193, 194 
Theoretical hp. required to raise water, 

195 
Theoretical weight of steam per hp.- 

hour, 220 
Thermal efficiency of standard engines, 

220 
Third rail systems, 397, 398 
Thomson's galvanometer, 27 

Method of measuring resistances,32 
Tie, plates, 112 
Tie rods, 112 
Ties 

Bearing surface on different, 110 
Board feet in different sizes, 110 
Cubic feet in different sizes, 110 
Life of, 108, 109 
Spacing per 1000 ft,, 110 
Spacing per mile, 110 
Steel, 110 
Timbers, cubic contents of, 4 
Track 

Car house track, 136 
Cost of track and paving, 137-145 
Relative resistance of each track, 42 
Transfer table, 314 

Transformers, connections for 250, 251, 
252 
Static, connections for, 250, 251, 252 
Traveling grates, 183 
Treating ties to prolong life, methods 

of, 109 
Trestle work 

Construction and designs of, 133 
Data for figuring sizes and bents 
134 
Trolley board, 326 
Trolley wire fittings, 295 
Trolley wire insulator, 295 
Trolley wires 

Curve construction, 298, 299, 300 
Size and dimensions, 300 
Special form, 301 



Trucks, 330, 335, 336, 337, 338 

Brill, 338 

Method of construction, 335 

Methods of increasing traction, 
335, 337 

Peckham cantilever, 336 

Selection of, 337 
Turbines, 240, 241 
Turnouts, 117 
Types of 

Boilers, 172 

Cards for different types of en- 
gines, 213 

Roof trusses, 157 
Typical power station design, 162 



U 



Underground conduits, 391, 392,393, 394 
Union Traction Co.'s methods of laying 

out spirals, 129 
Units, division of, 204 



Valves, for steam pipes, 225 
Variations in resistance of earth con- 
tacts, 312 
Varying efficiency of engines with 

load, 201, 202 
Velocity and pressure of winds, 154 
Of steam in pipes, 223 
Of steam, weight of steam per 
hour, 224 
Volt and amperemeter methods, 31 
Voltmeters, 261 

Method of testing armatures, 68 
Method of testing insulation re- 
sistance, 34 
Method of locating grounds, 35 
Method of insulation test, 36 
Methods of calibrating, 27 
Volume, measure of, 2 
Of solids, 6 



W 



Walls, station, 152 
Washing cars, 317 
Water 

Boiler water, 188, 189 

Feed pumps, 192 

Friction in pipes, 194 

Power required to raise to different 
heights, 195 

Weight for condensation, 234, 235 
Water pipe connections, 304 
Water pipes, tests for current flow in, 42 
Water power, 239, 240, 241 
Water tube boilers, 175 
Water wheels, Pelton, 241 
Wattmeters, 261 

Integrating, 38 

Methods of connecting, 38 
Weatherproof insulated wire, weights 
of, 274 



INDEX. 



407 



Weber rail joint, 115 
Weights and strengths of 

Alloys, 16 

Coal, 11, 12 

Earths, per cu. ft., 11, 12, 13 

Feeders, 274 

Floors, station, 158 

Liquids, 18 

Metals, 15 

Ores, per cu. ft., 11, 12, 13 

Roof, different kinds of, 154 

Stones, 11, 12, 13 

Tables of weights, 4 

Wires 

Copper wire, Insulated, 274 
Different metals. 16 

Woods, 17 
Westinghouse, generators, 244, 245, 246 



Wcstinghouse motors 

Number 3, 352 

Number 12 A, 353, 354, 355 

Number 38 B, 353 

Number 56, 357, 358 
Weston instruments, 36, 37 
Wheatstone bridge, 33 
Wind pressure on roofs, 153 
Wires 

Physical properties of different 
metals; 16 

Sag in wires, 297 

Weights of different metals, 16 
Wiring cars, 366 

Wooden beams, safe loads for, 134 
Woods, strengths and weights of, 17 

Barschall treatment, 109 

Preservation of, 109 
Wrought iron pipe, dimensions of, 231 



3 -Ply Veneer Headlinings 

CAR CEILINGS 

Veneer Outside Car Roofs 

VENEER CAR SEATS AND BACKS 

VENEER SIDE PANELS 

Frost Veneer Seating Co. 

NEW YORK CITY. SHEBOYGAN, WIS. NEWPORT, YT. 



THE FRANKLIN MODEL SHOP 

PARSELL & WEED, 

129-131 U/est 31st St., New York City. 

We have a shop equipped with up-to-date machinery 
particularly adapted to 

MODEL, EXPERIHENTAL AND FINE 
INSTRUMENT WORK. 



OUR SPECIALTIES S 
Electrical Testing and Designing. 

Models and Instruments for Colleges* 

Advertising and Manufacturers' Models. 
Sample Articles for Introduction. 
Novelty and Duplicate Work. Special Tools. 

MODELS OF TRACKS, SWITCHES AND EQUIP- 
MENT MADE TO ORDER 

WRITE FOR "SPECIAL MODEL CIRCULAR." 

27 



m «l .. Kl u ^l . 



THE 

MANUFACTURING C9 



-s^ 



"T" Rail 
Girder Rail 
Compromise 
Insulated 



-»>- 



(JOINTS 

Empire Building, 71 Broadway, 
New York. 



Branch Offices : 

BOSTON, Mason Building. 
CHICAGO, Old Colony Building. 
BALTIMORE, Equitable Building. 
ST. PAUL, 109 Endicott Arcade. 
SAN FRANCISCO, 13 Front Street. 
MONTREAL, 151 St. James Street. 

o-r miiio i WAYCOTT-ANDREWS 

bT. LOUIS, -J supply Co. 







TELEPHONE CALL, 
1515 CORTLANDT. 




_ Buffajobffice t £^J£cz~$) 






[MAGH^hffSm^imei 



r«&z& 



Headquarters for Hair Felt. Mineral Wool. 
Asbestos Papers. Brine Pipe Coverings. etc. 
Estimates Furnished and 



Contracts Executed. 



VarR^ 



pear, 



28 




1 Special Work 



GIRDER RAILS 

and other Rails for 

STREET RAILWAYS 

COMPLETE WITH FITTINGS. 



Castings, BRAKE SHOES, Etc., for all 
kinds of Railway Service. 

WM. WHARTON, Jr. & CO. inc. 

PHILADELPHIA. 

BRONZE OR BRASS CASTINGS, 

MOTOR BEARINGS, TROLLEY WHEELS 

OR BABITT METAL. 

ASK FOR PRICES. 

BRADY BRASS CO., 

202-208 Tenth Street, Jersey City, N, J. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS CYPRUS METAL. 

Second = Hand Trolley Cars 

Relaying Rails 
A " Classes Electrical Equipment 

JUSTICE COX, Jr. & CO. Ltd. 

write tor List. 552-554 Bullitt Bldg, Philadelphia 

29 



HLBEBT & J. PI. 



BOSTON, MASS., U. S. A. 

Branch Salesrooms, 135 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

SWITCHES and SWITCHBOARDS 

For Electric Railway and Lighting Plants. 

LINE MATERIAL and INSULATORS 

For Electric Railways. 

INSULATED THIRD RAIL SUPPORTS 

2 Medals at Chicago, 1893 ; Hors Concours at Brussels, 1897 ; 
Medal at Paris, 1900. 

g^^<S^»® @£@ £©©# 




Continuous Hail joint £o. of America 

General Offices, 142 Market St., Newark, N. J. 




Received the Highest Award in its Class at World's 
Paris Exposition, 1900. 





MILLIONS IN USE ON 145 RAILROADS IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 

30 



t 



New and Valuable Books on 
Electric Railway Practice 

AMERICAN STREET RAILWAY INVEST- 
MENTS 

The " Stkeet Railway Red Book " : being com- 
plete statistical and financial data from official 
reports of street railway properties in the United 
States and Canada, with numerous maps ; pub- 
lished annually; 1901 edition corrected to May 1st; 
size of page 13x9J^ inches ; price $5.00. 

ELECTRIC STREET RAILWAYS 

By E. J. Houston, Ph.D. and A. E. Kennelly,Sc.D.— 
History of the electric railway and description of 
the machinery and equipment employed for the 
generation, transmission and utilization of the 
electric currentfor street transportation; 367 pages; 
158 illustrations; price $1.00. 

MODERN ELECTRIC RAILWAY MOTORS 

By Geo. T. Hanchett. M.E.— (Just issued)— A thor- 

♦ ough study of the subject; each organ of an elec- 
x trie railway motor is described and illustrated by 

Y examples of present and past practice, and its oper- 

x ation carefully explained; 200 pages; 140 illus- 

a trations; price $2.00. x 

♦ POWER DISTRIBUTION FOR ELECTRIC f 
Q RAILROADS 

By Louis Bell, Ph. D. — (New edition, revised and 
enlarged) — Review of the latest practice of the 
leading engineers in America and Europe; invalu- 
able for information on modern methods of power 
transmission for electric railways; 312 pages; 138 
illustrations and diagrams; price $2.50. 

STREET RAILWAY ROADBED 

By M. D. Pratt and C. A. Alden.— Discussion of the 
best methods of to-day in street railway track con- 
struction; with descriptions of track material; of 
great value to street railway superintendents, engi- 
neers and trackmen; 135 pages; 157 illustrations; 
price $2.00. 

PUBLISHED BY 

STREET RAILWAY PUBLISHING CO. 

120 LIBERTY STREET, NEW YORK. 

Catalogue of other electrical and street railway books sent on application. 



31 




The Otis Tubular Feed 
Water Heater and Purifier 

WITH SEAMLESS BRASS TUBES. 



We Guarantee this Heater to heat 
the Feed -Water to the Boiling 
Point (210 or 21 2°) with the ex- 
haust steam without causing any 
back pressure. 

^« 

Also to Extract the Oil from 
the Exhaust so that the exhaust 
steam after being passed through the 
heater can be used for heating pur- 
poses and the water of condens- 
ation from the heating system be 
returned to the boiler without the 
extra expense of an additional oil 
separator or eliminator. 



We Guarantee this Heater will 
not get foul with sediment. 



Try it! If the Heater fails to give 
satisfaction in every respect, we 
will pay freight, cartage and all 
expenses, heater to be returned to 
us at our expense. 



EXHAUSTJlNLET EXHAUST | flDTLBt 




Otis Heater, 



THE STEWART HEATER COflPANY 



BUf^F^ALO, IN. ^. 



32 



V^ ^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^^^^VV^» V'V ^^"»'VV'V%»VV^^^^^^^^ ' ^V * 



Stewart Improved 

Heater, Purifier, Oil Separator 

and Filter Combined. 



KHAUST STEAM 1 INLET 



EXHAUST OUTLET 




This heater is 
guaranteed to heat 
more water and heat 
it hotter with ex- 
haust steam without 
any back pressure 
than any other de- 
vice. 

^» 

As this heater is 
sold at a very low 
price there is no 
reason why steam 
users should not 
have a good Feed 
Water Heater. 

Try one at our 
expense. If it is 
not found as repre- 
sented, we pay all 
the cost. 

Write for circu- 
lar E, with list price 
and best discounts, 
to 



Steia/art Heater Co. 



40 Norfolk Ave., BUFFALO, N. Y. 



33 



MECHANICAL STOKERS. 



Mechanical stokers are divided according to their method 
of operation into two classes — the OVERFEED and the 
UNDERFEED. The Overfeed type is simply a modification 
or an improvement upon the common flat grate method of 
firing, this type including movable grate bars, either rotary 
or oscillating, as well as the traveling grate. Being de- 
pendent entirely upon natural draft, stokers of this kind are 
therefore subject to the same criticisms which apply to ordi- 
nary hand-fired practice. One of the chief faults is, that the 
greatest amount of air is supplied where the fire is thinnest, 
while the least air reaches the heaviest part of the fire bed, 
this being exactly contrary to the theory of combustion. 
Furthermore, it is impossible with this kind of mechanical 
firing to use with economy the cheaper grades of fuel, as a 
large percentage of this cheap fuel passes unconsumed into 
the ash pit. To these disadvantages named above can be 
added a third, namely, the extreme cost of repairs. The 
working parts of these stokers are of necessity subjected 
to the full heat of the furnace and being only protected by 
the natural draft, burn out rapidly, especially where fuel 
inclined to clinker is used. The Underfeed type of stoker, 
of which the American Stoker is the only practical expo- 
nent, feeds the coal from beneath the fire. The coal rising 
slowly toward the surface of the fire becomes heated and 
so releases all the combustible gases, these gases of neces- 
sity passing through the incandescent coal bed above before 
reaching the stack. At the point of ignition, a supply of 
air is introduced under a light pressure, the amount of 
oxygen being equal to that demanded theoretically for per- 
fect combustion. This air reaches the fire at its heaviest 
part, just where the most oxygen is needed. It will be 
S3en, therefore, that the American Stoker follows closely 
the theoretical demands for perfect combustion and in ad- 
dition avoids one of the greatest weaknesses of the Over- 
feed type, as none of the working parts of the stoker are 
subjected to the action of fire. Another great advantage 
lies in the ability to use the cheapest grades of coals and 
without loss of fuel in the ash pit. As all combustible gases 
must pass through the incandescent fire bed before reaching 
the stack, the hydro-carbons are consumed and conse- 
quently the problem of smoke prevention is solved. The 
American Stoker is now considered the standard automatic 
stoker both in the United States and Europe and is fully 
protected by patents in all countries. 



34 



THE AMERICAN STOKER 

[UNDERFEED PRINCIPLE] 




A COMPARISON OF RESULTS. 





Stoker Fired. 


Hand Fired 




9V£ hrs. 
126 lbs. 
80 deg. 
87 deg. 
516 deg. 
73 deg. 
12,000 B.T.U. 
22,017 lbs. 
21,f)76lbs. 
2 per cent 
2.982 lbs. 
13.6 percent 

2,317 lbs. 
183,287 lbs. 

10.1 lbs. 

217.744 lbs. 
631 

500 

24 per cent 

3.7 lbs. 

81 per cent 

1.188 


9 hrs. 
120 lbs. 
43 deg. 
65 deg. 

41 deg! 
11.843 B.T.U. 
22.522 lbs. 
22,071 lbs. 

2 per cent 

2,465 lbs. 
10.94 per cent 
53 per cent 

2,502 lbs. 
136,568 lbs. 

7.57 lbs. 

166,886 lbs. 

483 

500 

5.i'lbs. 

61.7 per cent 

1.222 












Kind of coal, 0. Stark Co. bituminous 










Amount of unburned carbon in ash 




"Water evaporation from and at 313 deg. 


Water evaporation from and at 212 degrees 






Coal consumed per hour per H. P 

Efficiency of boiler and furnace com- 







Economy resultant from use of stokers as shown by above 
increased evaporation by use of stokers, 35 per cent, with 
increase in efficiency of 30 per cent. 

These boilers are part of 3,500 H. P. equipped with 
American Stokers under two separate successive contracts. 

THE AMERICAN STOKER COMPANY 

I I BROADWAY, NEW YORK 

35 






»♦+ A A A A- A A- 




-a. 

p 



^00 
t/> o 

JJ "" 

3 o 

3 ■+-• 

2 o 

O P 



O to' 
o " 



„, * « 
C JS O 






22 •= 

a. £ 



PJ 1) 

< « 



*- 
o 

c 
JS 
a. 
x 

UJ 

C 

*? 

3 

Urn 



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<v 

u. 

3 
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•♦a ^ a ^». a A A A A A A A A ->♦ - A '+- A A A A A A A rt% A A A Aa A A A A* A Aa 

36 



JOjiK 1 IE|I DIFG. CO., 

ii Broadway, N. Y. City. 

Coal panelling machinery 

for Power Stations and goal Pockets. 




McCaslin Overlapping Gravity Bucket Conveyor for 
Handling Coal and Removing Ashes. 

Installed for Metropolitan St. Ry. and Manhattan Ele- 
vated, N. Y. City, and the Street Ry. Co.'s of Chicago, 
Milwaukee, Cincinnati, St. Louis, and many others. 

Write for Catalogue of Cable Railways, Auto- 
matic Buckets, Conveyors and Machinery for 
Discharging Vessels 



37 



4-H-* **** ********** **** ******** **********.* 

* * 

$ Electric Railway Insulators J 

$ floulded flica and rionarch Insulation * 

* * 

t Vulcabeston Insulation f 
Sach's "Noark" Enclosed Indi- 

* eating Fuse J 

$ Electric Heating Devices t 

t * 
* 

i 

* 



. ASBESTOS 

i 

PIPE AND BOILER COVERINGS, 

PISTON ROD AND SHEET PACKINGS, 

X BUILDING PAPERS, CEHENT FELTING. * 

* * 

| Asbestos in all Forms. 

i. * 

Asbestos Roofing! 



* 

I AND 



Insulating Felts. 

No Coal-tar, Wool nor Shoddy. 

Vermin-Proof. 

Will Not Rot or Decay. 

H. W. JOHNS M'PG CO., 

100 William St., New York. 

t i 

J BOSTON, PHILADELPHIA, COLUHBUS, J 

PITTSBURGH, CHICAGO. J 

**** H - I"1 " H " H « *«J~H**** **** ********** -I-*** **** 

38 



* 



KERITE 

WIRES AND GABLES 



M *iD FOR HIGH G R AD 




P ° R fi OTH WIRES ANO G^ 
^orld's Fair, 1893. 



O -I 
g =: 3" 

S. $ - 

J > 
» o 

S. 3 

4 



MAKERS OF GOVERNMENT 

MILITARY CABLES FOR ALASKA 

AND PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

Standard for nearly Forty Years. 
Kerite Tape, Elastic Tape, Rubber Tape 

WD D D I V C" V Manufacturer, 
. It, DrUAtlTj 203 Broadway, N. Y. 

39 



ROEBLING 

ELECTRICAL 
WIRES and CABLES. 



BARE, 
RUBBER COVERED, 
LEAD ENCASED, 
WEATHERPROOF. 



JP. I. HOEBLlf S SONS 60. 



TRENTON, N. J. 



BRANCHES AT 

NEW YORK, CHICAGO, 

117=121 Liberty St. 171 and 173 Lake St. 

CLEVELAND, SAN FRANCISCO, 

32 South Water St. 25 and 27 Fremont St. 



40 



■ ♦—t-f-.f- - t.-f- .±..1. ■!• ■!• JL aSa Jajfl . T. .T..T..T..T..T..T.I*. . t 1. T .. T 1 ( 

Wendell & MacDuffie, 

i* 

$ 26 Cortlandt St., New York, U. S. A. 

I Electric and Steam Railway 
I Equipment and Supplies SSSL 



* 

•a 
* 

* 
* 

i 



Taunton Locomotive flfg.Co. 



TAUNTON, MASS. 



J 5now Plows, Sweepers J 

Sprinklers and Transfer Tables J 

* i* 

T Special attention given to Export Trade. jh 



T Cable Address: Wenmac, New York. 
T Code: Lieber's. 

•sIh-H-M"!"!- . ' * ******** f*- 



Send for Catalogue. 



Better Late Than Never 

GREEN'S ECONOMIZER 



holds good in many cases, but 
the longer you delayinstalling a 





'&jJl 


sp -: •■ "■;" "- 


B««rf --^g^iY 


W. ; "A-<Cu.<^ >^>yj 


: ^ .. 


ii 


3. 

■I 


ill 


rnkS^-^yj \ 




*3 


mz 

P 









3 Ofly 



od cr a 

^ P *=<•-! 

St3 H-'J 
Srg cro 

o ^^ 

o trg 

C O 1 



2500 H. P., Built for Trenton Gas and Electric Plant. 

We are now building the Economizer for the Manhattan 
Railway Co.'s new 150,000 H. P. plant. 

THE GREEN FUEL ECONOMIZER CO., Matteawan, 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

41 



i°S.S- 



N. Y, 



R^ossiter, ^e v^ ^ 
M©lc Govern & Co., 

141 Broa.dway, 
New York City. 

Factories 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Phone, 

Jersey City, N. J. 5773 Cort.— 5774 Cort. 

Dealers in Electrical Machinery 

of every description, both new 
and second hand. 



RauElwaLy Generators 

of all standard makes, GENERAL ELEC- 
TRIC, WESTINGHOUSE, WALKER, 
SIEMENS-HALSKE. 



Electric Ca^rs Complete, 

also motors of all manufactures, con- 
trollers, etc., sold together or separately. 



Lighting Appacractus 

of all kinds, alternating, arc, and direct 
current, all voltages, also motors, trans- 
formers, and arc lamps, for both series 
and direct current work. 

42 . 



R^ossiter, Ng Ng ^ 
MacGovern C§L Co., 

141 Broadway, 
New York City. 

Factories 
Brooklyn. N. Y. Phone. 

Jersey City. N. J. 5773 Cort.— 5774 Cort. 

0\ir R^epair Shop, 

where we repair all kinds of electrical 
apparatus. 



ALSO DEALER.S IN 

Steam Machinery. 

Corliss and automatic engines, simple or 
compound, from 2,000 H. P. down to 
the smallest ; also water tube and return 
tubular boilers, in large batteries or singly. 



WE PURCHASE FOR. CASH, 

complete Electric Power Stations of all 
descriptions, or will exchange apparatus. 



We have a large stock of standard appa- 
ratus on hand and are prepared to fill 
your requirements at very short notice. 



43 



I ELECTRIC | 
FOUNTAINS 

A Continuous Delight, 

DAY AND NIGHT. 




00 

2 V* 






dot 



BROOKLYN'S MAYOR SAT&S: 

"Brooklyn never had an amusement of a public 
or private character that gave such pleasure to such 
a multitude." 

DARLINGTON ELECTRIC 
FOUNTAIN AND SUPPLY CO., 

1120 Real Estate Trust Building;, 
Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A. 

Cable Address, Wildarfred, Phila. 

Western Office, 15 Monad nock Block, Chicago, 111. 



# 



44 



American Car 

Sprinkler Co* incorporated) 



F. W. Wellington, Pres. 
M. J. Whittall, V. Pres. 



Alfred Thomas, Treas. 
Frank D. Perry, Gen. Supt. 



Contracts Solicited for Sprinkling Entire Cities. 







SPRINKLING CARS 

LEASED ON REASONABLE TERMS. 

Local Companies Formed for Carrying on Work of 
Street Sprinkling. 

WORCESTER, MASS. 



This Company controls all patents of the United Tramway- 
Sprinkler Co., Louisville, Ky. 



45 



;******** ft* *-*4**** ************** *******tj» 

| COMPRESSED AIR CO. I 

' Controlling the American Air Power Company of New 5J 
41 York and the Compressed Air Motor Company of Illinois. |J 

COriPRESSED 
AIR MOTORS 

For Street, Suburban and Elevated Railways. 



« 



# 



COMPRESSED AIR MOTORS ARE 

Independent, under quick control, noiseless, of high efficiency, free 
from danger and all objectionable features. The most economical 
system in cost of installation, operation and maintenance ever offered 
to street and other railways. Thoroughly tested, both Winter and 
Summer, and endorsed by prominent engineers. 

Cars, in size and appearance, are the same as electric or cable 
cars, the floor bein-z no higher from rail. No paying space occupied 
by the air storage or mechanism, all being placed under the car floor. 

Eun at Any Speed Desired. 

Overcome Grades and Sharp Curves Easily. 

Equipped with Noiseless Air Brakes. 

Can be recharged with air in less than two minutes, and con- 
structed to run any desired distance. Motors and entire load spring 
supported. Cars can be introduced one at a time on the track of any 
railway, steam, electric, cable or horse. Cars of this type performed a 
daily service of 81^ miles each upon 125th Street, New York City, for 
one complete year, during which time they ran 32,159 miles, and car- 
ried 188,854 cash fares, and are now, and have been since May 30, 1899, 
in operation on North Clark Street. Chicago. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Company, on 28th and 29th 
Streets in New York City, is now operating these cars, and during the 
four months ending December 31st, 1900, have made 29,891 round 
trips, traveling a distance of 164,400 miles and carrying 1,775,667 
passengers. The latest improved car has made 5 round trips (25 miles) 
on this line, with one charge of air. 

COMPRESSED AIR COMPANY 

General Offices Western Offices 3 

\ No. 621 BROADWAY MONADNOCK BLDG. j 

\ New York Chicago J 

46 



to 



to 



J5he BUCKLAND 

PA V I N G 



BLOCK 




PA TENTED **??■<*' ' 

TVTILL transform ordinary tramhead girder rails 
** into a full groove section, at a fraction of the 
cost of new rails* & J> & 

DY stiffening the rail and lapping the rail joints, 
■I— ' will ^ive you the smoothest and most satisfactci ; 
track imaginable. J> J> J> 

CONSISTS of an iron casting, or rolled steel, 
grooved to receive the lip of the rail, and finished 
with ridges on the upper surface to give a foothold 
for horse traffic, 

t&* t&* t&* 

For further information, write to 

AMERICAN STREET RAILWAY PAVING 
AND IMPROVEMENT COMPANY 

317 Main Street, Springfield, Mass. 



47 



•H-H* ^^^^ »!"M»4» •H^-4' -fr-H-H-H-H-i. •I***!'* •!«£••!•»!• W** •%••& 

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THE PROVIDENCE 
CAR FENDER 

SAVES HUMAN LIVES 



More than 7500 Providence Car Fenders are now * 
used on Electric Cars in the United States* * 




MANUFACTURED BY 



$ Cbe Consolidated £ar fender go. 

$ 

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FACTORY : 

Providence, R. I. 



OFFICE 



39 Cortlandt St. 



"H'v '1"t* 

48 



* 
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* 

New York ? 

•H* , H"J' , J ,, H* 



********** 

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HP HE Managers of One Hundred and 
Fifteen Electric Roads, operating 
cars in more than Two Hundred Cities 
and Towns, say the Providence Car 
Fender is the Best. 




No expense is spared, either in labor 
or material, to make the Providence 
Fender the Best Life Saving Device ever 
attached to an Electric Car. 

For full particulars, address 

Cbe Consolidated Car fender Co. f 

39 Cortlandt Street, New York, J 

***** **** 4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4.4. 4.4.4.4. 4.4.4.4* **** **** ****4» 

49 



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51 



CLING - SURFACE 



AND l*V? 

V3 -~J%. 



A Better Belt Service. 



The belts in the photographs opposite are representa- 
tive of the possibilities of Cling-Surface. 

Cling-Surface is not one of the belt dressings. It is a 
carefully made belt filler and preservative, which, applied 
to a belt, penetrates and stays IN the belt. The belt sur- 
face remains clean and is not in the least sticky. 

But the belt will be permanently cured of slipping and 
need no longer be run tight but slack, as in the pictures. 

The belts are relieved of all initial tension strain, must 
carry full load (as slipping has stopped) and in fact do 
carry increased load. Bearings do not have to stand un- 
necessary strain, and remain cool. 

And in addition Cling-Surface is a permanent pre- 
servative for belting, keeping it pliable and doubling its life. 

These results are such as have before been impossible, 
but we guarantee them absolutely and invite a trial order 
of Cling-Surface, to be paid for only if what we say is so. 

Ask more about it, and for copy of the report by Cor- 
nell University. But we want you to make your own test, 
for we know what Cling-Surface will do. 

Write us. 

CLING-SURFACE MFG. CO., 

197-203 VIRGINIA STREET, 

BUFFALO, N. Y. 

■ 
New York, Philadelphia, Boston, 

Chicago, St. Louis, New Orleans. 
52